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text : Le matin, Le trubuchet, by Mechetti,
Vienna ; Le patre breton, full score by Ri-
chault. Jullien, Hector Berlioz (1888), 378.

FLIEGENDE HOLLANDER, DER(The
Flying Dutchman), romantic opera in three
acts, text and music by Richard Wagner,
first represented in Dresden, Jan. 2, 1843.
The subject is from Heinrich Heine's
" Memoiren des Herrn von Schuabelewop-
ski," in which the imaginary hero witnesses
a play about the " Ahasuerus of the Ocean"
in an Amsterdam theatre, though Heine
got the outlines of the story from an Eng-
lish play by Fitzball, which he witnessed in
1827 at the Adelphi Theatre in London.



Fitzball in turn probably derived the ground-
work of his plot from a story in Blackwood's
Magazine of May, 1821, entitled " Vander-
decken's Message Home ; or, The Tenacity
of Natural Affection." The touching denoue-
ment, however, which Wagner adopted, is
Heine's own. In 1840 Wagner submitted
sketches for a libretto ou this theme to
Leon Pillet, director of the Paris Opera,
with the proposal that a French text should
be prepared for him to set to music. Wag-




Max Stagemann, as Der Fliegende Hollander.

ner subsequently sold his rights for 500
francs to Pillet, who had a libretto pre-
pared by Feucher and Revoil, with music by
Pierre Louis Philippe Dietsch, then chorus-
master at the Opera. The result was Le
vaisseau fantome (The Phantom Ship), in
two acts, which was produced at the Aca-
demic Royale de Musique, Nov. 9, 1842. In
the meantime, Wagner made of the story a
German libretto and set it to music. It
was originally intended for one act only,
but was subsequently cut into three. Wag-
ner himself conducted the first perform-
ance, which, though not a failure, was not
very satisfactory. The work was produced



75



FLLNTOFT



at Cassel, June 5, 1843, by Spohr, who rec- ]
ognized its merits, but it failed in Berlin
and in Munich, where it was given in 1865.
It was represented in London at Drury
Lane, 1870, in an Italian version, L' ollan-
dese dannato ; at the Lyceum, 1876, in
English, as the Flying Dutchman ; and at
Covent Garden, 1877, in Italian, as II va-
scello fautasma. It was given in English in
New York in 1886 and again in 1887. The
Flying Dutchman is the commander of a
mysterious vessel doomed to sail the seas
until ho is loved by a maiden who will be
faithful unto death. He puts into a port
at the same time with a Norwegian vessel,
whose captain, Daland, invites him to his
house. There he meets Senta, Daland's
daughter, who, though affianced to Erik, is
fascinated with the stranger and believes
that it is her lot to rescue him from perdi-
tion. He, however, discovers her in an in-
terview with Erik, concludes that she is not
true to him, and decides to leave her. But
as his vessel sails away Senta throws herself
from a cliff into the sea, thus proving eon-
slant even in death. The curse is removed,
the phantom ship sinks, while the sea grows
calm, and the lovers are seen in the distance
rising to happiness together. In the first
act, after the introductory sailors' chorus, the
chief numbers are : The helmsman's song,
" Mit Gewitter und Sturm," and the scena of
the Dutchman, "Die Frist ist urn." The
second act contains the spinning-song of the
girls, "Summ" und brumm', du gutes Rad-
chen," and Senta's ballad, " Johohoe ! traft
ihr das Schiff im Meere an," in which she
tells the story of the Dutchman ; and closes
with a superb duet between Seuta and the
Dutchman, " Wie aus der Feme," and a ter-
zetto with Daland. The third act opens
with a sailors' chorus, "Steuermann, lass'
die Wacht." It contains also a dramatic
duet between Senta and Erik, " "Wass muss
ich horen ? " and closes with chorus and a
trio between Senta, Daland, and the Dutch-
man. Hueffer, Richard Wagner and the
Music of the Future ; Edwards, Lyrical



Drama, i. 189 ; Liszt, Gesamml. Schr., iii. b,
147 ; Wagner, Gesamml. Schr., v. 205, 228.
FLINTOFT, LUKE, born in latter half
of 17th century, died in London (?), Nov.
3, 1727. He was priest-vicar of Lincoln
Cathedral in 1704-14, gentleman of the
Chapel Royal in 1715, and reader in White-
hall Chapel in 1719. His double chant iu
G minor being the earliest known, he Las
the credit of inventing that form of compo-
sition. Grove.

FLITNER (Flittner), JOHANN, born at
Suhla, Henneberg, Nov. 1, 1G1S, died in Stral-
sund, Jan. 7, 1678. He studied theology
and music, became a chorister at Grimmen,
near Greifswald, iu 1644, preacher there in
1646, and deacon in Stralsund. Some of
his chorals are still in use. Works : Himm-
lisches Lustgartlein (Greifswald, 1661), the
sixth part being entitled Suscitabulum rnu-
sicum, and containing, Ach, was soil ich
Slimier machen, and other chorals and
songs. Mendel ; Ft'tis ; Wiuterfeld, Der
evaug. Kirchengesang, ii. 467.

FLOERSHEIM, OTTO, born in Aix-k-
Chapelle, Germany,
March 2, 1853, still liv-
ing, 1889. He stud-
m, * ^ ied the pianoforte at
-5. " 4P' Aix-la-Chapelle under

^ Wungmanu and Laut-

mauu, the organ under
Winkelhaus, harmony
under Breunuug, and
composition at Co-
logne under Ferdi-
nand Hiller. About 1875 he went to Amer-
ica, aud since 1880 has been editor of The
Musical Courier, New York. He visits Eu-
rope frequently to attend important musi-
cal performances, aud to get information as
to the general condition of musical affairs.
Works Orchestral : Prelude and fugue,

1883 ; Alia Marcia, 1884 ; Consolation,

1884 ; Scherzo, 1887 ; Elevation, for or-
chestra and organ, produced at the Milwau-
kee Music Festival, 1886. Pianoforte :
Three Romances ; Fina ; Elegy ; Wedding




76



FLOQUET



March ; German March ; Three Poetic
Thoughts ; Lullaby ; Valse gracieuse, and
other pianoforte music ; Songs.

FLOQUET, ETIENNE JOSEPH, born
at Aix, Provence, Nov. 25, 1750, died in
Paris, May 10, 1785. Dramatic composer,
educated at the maitrise de Saint-Sauveur
of his native town, where he wrote a motet
at the age of eleven ; went to Paris in 1769,
obtained great success with his first dra-
matic work, a ballet, in 1773, and soon after
started for Italy, to study counterpoint un-
der Sala at Naples, and under Padre Mar-
tini at Bologna, where he was made a mem-
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica. After
his return to Paris he was fairly successful
with his operas, until vain enough to attempt
the composition of Alceste, which was re-
jected after one rehearsal, the grief over it
impairing his health. Works : L'union de
1'amour et des arts, ballet, given at the
Academic Royale de Musique, 1773 ; Azolau,
ou le sermeut indiscret, opera-ballet, ib.,
1774 ; Hello, opera, ib., 1779 ; Le seigneur
bieufaisaut, ib., 1780 ; La nouvelle Omphale,
lyrical comedy, Theatre de la Comedie Ita-
lienue, 1782 ; Alceste ; Te Deum for two
choruses and two orchestras. Fetis ; Men-
del ; Schilling.

FLOE, CHRISTIAN, born in 1G26, died
at Neuenkirchen, Holsteiu, in 1C97. Or-
ganist, of great reputation, at the Church of
St. John and St. Lambertus, Liineburg.
Of his compositions have been preserved :
Several wedding-songs, with accompaniment
of two violins and basso continue, and the
choral, Auf meiuen lieben Gott. Fetis ;
Mendel ; do., Erganz., 109.

FLORENTINISCHE-SIXFONIE (Flor-
entine Symphony), for orchestra, by Joseph
Rheinberger, written in 1876.

FLORIDANTE, Italian opera in three
acts, text by Paolo Rolli, music by Handel,
first represented at the King's Theatre,
London, Dec. 9, 1721. It was sung by
Senesiuo, Baldassari, Boschi, and Mrs.
Anastasia Robinson. Characters repre-
sented : Floridaute, Oroute, Tiruante, Co-



ralbo, Rossaue, Elmira. The MS. score, in
the Buckingham Palace collection, wants
the last chorus and the date. The opera
was given in Hamburg in 1723, and revived
in London, March 3, 1733. It was pub-
lished first by Walsh ; full score by Hiin-
delgesellschaft (Leipsic, 1876). Rockstro,
Handel, 137 ; ScLcelcher, 69, 90 ; Chrysan-
der, ii. 73.

FLORDIO, FRANCESCO, born at San
Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct. 12, 1800,
still living, 1889. Church, instrumental, and
vocal composer, and distinguished writer on
music, pupil of Furno in harmony, of Elia
on the pianoforte, and of Ziugarelli and
Tritto in counterpoint and composition, at
the Real Collegio di Musica, Naples, of
which he became librarian in 1826. Works :
Two cantatas ; Two Masses ; Dixit ; Credo ;
Te Deum ; Overtures ; Funeral symphony ;
Several collections of songs (Milan and Na-
ples) ; Vocal method (Metodo di canto, in
use at the Conservatorio, Naples). He is
author also of : Ceuno storico sulla Scuola
musicale di Napoli (Naples, 1869-71) ; and
Riccardo Wagner ed i Wagneristi (ib., 1876).
Futis ; do., Supplement, i. 337 ; Mendel.

FLORINDO UND DAPHNE. See Dafne.

FLORIO, CARYL, born (William James
Robjohn) of English parentage, in Tavis-
tock, Devonshire, England, Nov. 3, 1843,
still living, 1889. Organist and pianist,
self-taught. In 1857 he went to America,
and in 1858-60 (under the name of Rob-
John) was principal boy-soprano in Trinity
Church, New York ; after his voice broke
he remained as assistant organist to Dr.
Henry S. Cutler ; later he became organist
in Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., and then
of a church in Morristown, N. J. At the
close of this engagement he went on the
stage, appearing in the Western States. In
1869 he returned to New York as solo bari-
tone in Zion Church. Since then he has
been organist successively of St. Luke's,
New York ; Mount Calvary, Baltimore ;
Brick Church, New York ; Zion Church,
New York ; then returned to the Brick



77



FLORSCIliTTZ



Church, where he is at present (1889).
He has appeared as pianist quite often in
New York, and has conducted orchestras
and choruses both in New York and in
Havana, Cuba. Works : Inferno, opei'etta,
1871 ; Les Tours deMercure, operetta, 1872 ;
Suzanne, operetta, 187G ; Gulda, opera,
1879 ; Uncle Tom, opera, 1882, produced in
Philadelphia ; 2 symphonies, No. 1 in G,
1887, No. 2 in C minor, 1887 (both per-;
formed by Theodore Thomas in New York,
March 27, 1888) ; 2 overtures, occasional,
187-4, triumphal, 1877 ; 2 string quartets.
No. 1 in C, 1873, No. 2 in F, 1874 ; 4 so-
natas for pianoforte and violin, No. 1 in A,
1871, No. 2 in F minor, 1872, No. 3 in C,
1884, No. 4 in G, 1885 ; Pianoforte concerto
in A-flat, 1875-86 (performed in New York,
March 27,1888) ; 2 quartets for saxophones,
1879 (performed in New York, April, 1880).
Two cantatas : Song of the Elements, 1872
(performed in Brooklyn, 1872) ; Bridal of
Triermaiu, 1886.

FLORSCHUTZ, EUCHARIUS, born at
Lauter, near Coburg, in 1757, died at Ros-
tock, Mecklenburg, 1820. Organist, num-
bered among the most favourite instru-
mental composers of the time, about 1780,
and became organist of St. James's, Rostock,
after 1792. Works : Der Richter uud die
Giirtnerin, operetta, given at Liibeck, 1792 ;
Sonatas for pianoforte (4 hands) ; Fugues
for do. ; Duets and trios for violin and flute ;
Church music. Futis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

FLOTOW, FRIEDRICH, Freiherr VON,
born at Rentendorf, Mecklenburg, April 27,
1812, died at Darmstadt, Jan. 24, 1883.
Dramatic composer, pupil of Reicha at the
Conservatoire, Paris, returned to Mecklen-
burg at the outbreak of the July revolution,
but a few years later went again to Paris,
where his first dramatic efforts were brought
out at some of the smaller theatres in 1836.
His first noteworthy success was Le nau-
frage de la Meduse, in 1839, but his fame
rests chiefly on Alessaudro Stradella and
Martha. The March revolution of 1848
drove him once more from Paris, whither he




returned in 1863, having meanwhile held
the office of iutendant of court music at
Schwerin, to which the
Grand Duke of Meck-
lenburg appointed him
in 1856. In 1868 he
settled on an estate near
Vienna, spending his
winters alternately in
that city, in Paris, and
in Italy. His operas are
distinguished for melo-
dious invention, grace-
ful forms, and pleasing instrumentation :
on the whole, pre-eminently Italian in char-
acter, more effective than deep ; he must
be esteemed the most popular represen-
tative of the lyric and comic opera in Ger-
many since Kreutzer and Lortziug. He
composed also some overtures, chamber
music, and songs. Works : Pierre et Ca-
therine, given at the Theatre de 1'Hotel de
Castellane, 1836 ; Seraphina, Chateau de
Royaumout, 1836 ; Die Bergknappen (The
Miners) ; Rob Roy, given at a chateau near
Paris ; Le naufrage de la Meduse (with
Pilati), Theatre de la Renaissance, 1839 (54
times), and at Hamburg (under the title
Die Matrosen, rewritten entirely by Flo-
tow), 1845 ; La duchesse de Guise, Theatre
Ventadour, 1840, and at Schwerin, 1841 ;
Le forestier, Opera Comique, 1840, Vienna
(under the title Der Forster), 1847, London
(as Leoline), 1848 ; L'esclave de Camoe'ns,
Opera Comique, 1843 ; Lady Harriet, ballet
(with Burgmiiller and Deldevez), Opera,
1843 ; Alessaudro Stradella, Hamburg, Dec.
1 30, ,1844 ; L'<?;<? en peine, Opera, 1846 ;
Martha, Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847 ; Die Gross-
fiirstin, Berlin, 1850 ; Indra, Berlin and
Frankfort, 1853, Riga, 1855; Riibezahl,
Frankfort, 1854 ; Hilda, 1855 ; Albin, Vi-
enna, 1856 ; Veuve Grapin, operetta,
Bouffes Parisiens, 1859 ; Pianella, do.,
Thi'fitre Dejazet, 1860 ; Wintermiirchen,
Vienna, 1862 ; Die Libelle, ballet, ib.,
' 1866 ; Zilda, Paris, Opera Comique, 1866 ;
| TannkOnig, ballet, Darmstadt, 1867 ; Am



78



FLUCHT



Eunenstein (with Geuee), Prague, 18G8 ;
Ij'ombre, Paris, Opera Comique, 1870 ;
Na'ida, Milan, Teatro Manzoni, 1873 ; II fior
iT Harlem, Turin, Teatro Vittorio Eniauuele,
1876; L'Enchaute-
resse (Indra rewrit-
ten), Paris and Lon-
don, 1878, given in
Italian as Rosellana
(posthumous), Alma
1' Incantatrice, and iu
German as Die Hexe ;



JL




&



Der Graf Saint-Mi'grin (posthumous), given
at Cologne, January, 1884 ; Die Musikanten
(discovered at Mannheim, 1887, given at
Magdeburg, 1888). Clement, Mus. celebres,
575 ; Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 338 ; lUustr.
Zeitg. (1883), i. 117 ; Mendel ; Riemann.

FLUCHT DER HEILIGEN FAMILIE,
DEE (The Flight of the Holy Family), can-
tata, for chorus and orchestra, by Max
Bruch, op. 20, 1863.

FLUGEL, ERNST PAUL, bom at Stet-
tin, Aug. 31, 1844, still living, 1889. In-
strumental and vocal composer, son and pu-
pil of Gustav Flii gel, and in 1862-63 pupil
in Berlin at the Royal Institute for Church
Music and at the Academy, then of Billow,
Flodoard Geyer, and Kiel ; lived as music
teacher at Treptow and Greifswald, became
organist and vocal instructor at Preuzlau in

D

1867, and cantor at the Bernhardinkirche in
Breslau in 1879. Works : The 121st psalm,
op. 22 ; Mahomet's Gesang, op. 24 ; Trio
for pianoforte, op. 25 ; Organ and pianoforte
pieces, and songs. Riemann.

FLUGEL, GUSTAV, born at Kloster-
Nieuburg, Anhalt, July 2, 1812, still living,
1889. Organist, pupil of Cantor Thiele at
Altenburg, and of Friedrich Schneider at
Dessau ; from 1830 he taught successively at
Nienburg, COthen, Magdeburg, and Schone-



beck, then at Stettin, 1840-50 ; was called to
Neuwied to teach at the seminary in 1850,
received the title of royal director of music
iu 1856, and returned to Stettin as Cantor

and organist of
the Schloss-
kirche in 1859.
He has contrib-
uted also a
number of ex-
cellent articles
to musical pe-
riodicals. Works : Concert overture for or-
chestra ; String quartet ; Thirty-five books
of compositions for pianoforte ; Six do. for
organ ; Nine do. of songs ; Sacred and sec-
ular songs for mixed, and male choruses ;
Priiludienbuch (112 preludes), etc. Fetis ;
Mendel ; Riemann.

FLYING DUTCHMAN, THE. See
Fliegende Hollander.

FODOR, ANTOON, born at Venloo in
1775, died in Amsterdam, Feb. 22, 1846.
Pianist, studied in Mannheim, whence he
went, about 1792, to Amsterdam. He wrote
Numa Pompilius, the first national opera
given in Holland, and composed a great
deal of pianoforte music. He was a mem-
ber of the Netherland Institute, conductor
at the German Theatre of Amsterdam, 1814,
and director of the Felix Meritis Society.
Futis, iii. 279 ; do., Supplement, i. 339 ;
Grugoir, Mus. Neerlandais, 75 ; Mendel ;
Viotta.

FODOR, JOZEF, born at Venloo, in
1752, died iu St. Petersburg, Oct. 3, 1828.
Violinist, brother of Autoon Fodor, pupil in
Berlin in 1766 of Franz Benda. He trav-
elled in Germany and the Netherlands, was
in Paris iu 1790, and lived in St. Peters-
burg in 1794-1828. Works: Concertos;
Solos ; Duos ; Quartets for strings and
much violin music (Paris, Berlin, Vienna,
Amsterdam). Grove ; Fetis ; Gregoir, Mus.
Ncerlandais, 74 ; Mendel ; Viotta.

FOERSTER, ADOLPH MARTIN, born,
of German parentage, in Pittsburgh, Penn-
sylvania, Feb. 2, 1854, still living, 1889.



79



FOGAA



He studied the pianoforte as a boy under
his mother, and later under Jean Manns.
In 1872 he went to Europe and studied, at
the Leipsic Conservatorium, the pianoforte
under Coccius and Weuzel, singing under
Grill and Schiinon, and theory under E. F.
Richter and Papperitz. Returning iu 1875,
he taught in the Fort Wayne Conservatory
of Music during 1875-76, then settled in
Pittsburgh, where he still resides. He was
conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphonic So-
ciety, 1878-79, and of the Pittsburgh Musi-
cal Union, 1883. Works : Thusuelda, op. 10,
for orchestra, first played iu Baltimore, Feb.
11. 1882 ; Quartet, op. 21, for pianoforte,
violin, viola, and violoncello ; Fautasie, op.
15, for violin and pianoforte ; Romanza, op.
17, for violin and pianoforte ; Andante, op.
3 ; Yalse caprice, op. 5 ; Nocturne, op. 7 ;
Three Sonatinas, op. 14 ; Pianoforte music ;
Songs ; Part-songs, and choruses.

FOGACA, JOAO, born at Lisbon in 1589,
died there about 1658. Church composer,
pupil of Duarte Lobo, entered a monastic
order, and lived afterwards in a convent at
( )ss;i. His works are in the royal library at
Lisbon. Mendel ; YaM-onei-Hos.

FOGGIA, FRANCESCO, born in Rome
iu 1604, died there,
Jan. 8, 1688. Church
composer, pupil of
Cifra. Niiuini, and
Asrostini. He w a s




Kapellmeister to the
Elector of Cologne,
to the Elector of Ba-
varia, and then to the
Archduke Leopold of

Austria. On his return to Italy he became
successively maestro di cappclla at the Ca-
thedrals of Narni and Moutefiascone, and
of the following churches in Rome : S. M. in
Aquiro, S. M. in Trastevere, S. Giovanni in
Laterano (1636-1661), S. Lorenzo in Dama-
so, and S. M. Maggiore (1677), remaining at
the last until his death. He was a prolific
composer of church music. Besides his
published works, a list of which is given in



Fetis, there is an immense amount in MS.
scattered throughout the churches of Italy.
He was one of the first musicians to write
tonal fugues, and the last who remained
faithful to the traditions of Palestrina.
Works : Motets ; Masses ; Psalms ; Lita-
nies, for 2 to 9 voices, published in Rome
from 1640 to 1681. His motets are in the
Spiridione collection. Grove ; Fetis, iii.
284 ; do., Supplement, i. 340 ; Larousse ;
Mendel.

FOGLIANI, LUDOYICO, born in Mod-
eua close of the 15th century, died there
about 1539. Composer, whose songs for
several voices are found in Petrucci's
"Frottole" (Venice, 1504-1508). In one
of his songs each of the four voices, cautus,
altus, tenor, and bassus, sings different
words. He was a learned writer for his
time. He was the author of Musica the-
orica (1529), a treatise on the theory of
sound. Fetis ; Biog. Gen., xviii. 35 ; Bur-
ney, Hist., iii. 157 ; Mendel ; Riemanu, 268 ;
Viotta.

FOIGNET, CHARLES GABRIEL, born
in Lyons in 1750, died in Paris in 1823.
Dramatic composer, studied music from an
earlv age, and in 1779 went to Paris where
he taught singing, the harpsichord, and the
harp. He wrote many operettas for the
small Paris theatres, and became director,
in 1797, of the Theatre des Jeuues Artistes.
He was director also of the Theatre Mou-
tansier until 1802, when he gave it up.
The Jeunes Artistes was closed by the edict
of 1807. For a list of his operas, which
are now forgotten, see the supplement to
Fetis. He published also vocal music with
pianoforte or violin accompaniment. Fe-
tis ; do., Supplement, i. 340 ; Mendel.

FOIGNET, FRANCOIS, born in Paris
about 1780, died in Strasburg, July 22,
1845. Dramatic composer and singer, sou
and pupil of the preceding, made his debut,
when yet a child, at the Theatre des Jeunes
Eleves, and, besides comic operas, wrote
the music for a number of pantomimes and
melodramas. From 1806 he sang in vari-



80



FOLKUNGER



ous provincial theatres, after 1829 in the
South of France, especially at Augouleme,
where he was manager of the theatre. He
died in poverty at the hospital. Works : La
noce de Lucette, Theatre Montansier, 1799 ;
Le gondolier, ou la soiree veuitienne, ib.,
1800 ; Le chat botte, ou les vingt-quatre
heures d'Arlequiu, f eerie, Theatre des Jeuues
Artistes, 1802 ; Le retour inattendu, ou le
ruari reveuaut, ib., 1802 ; Raymond de Tou-
louse, ou le retour de la Terre sainte, grand
opera (with his father), ib., 1802 ; Kiquet
;i la houppe, fairy opera, ib., 1802 ; La
uaissance d'Arlequin, ou Arlequiu dans un
ceuf, do., ib., 1803 ; Arlequiu a Maroc, ou la
pyramide euchantee, do., ib., 180-1 ; L'oi-
seau bleu, do. His brother Gabriel, born
in Paris, 1790, has made a name for himself
as a virtuoso on the harp. Fetis ; do., Sup-
plement, i. 341 ; Mendel.

FOLKUNGER, DIE (The Folkuugs),
grand opera in five acts, text by S. H. Mo-
senthal, music by Edmund Kretschmer, first
represented at the Court Theatre, Dresden,
April, 1874 Scene, in Sweden. Time, end
of thirteenth century. Characters repre-
sented : Magnus, son of King Eric of Swe-
den ; Maria, niece of Eric ; Karin, nurse ;
Lars Olasson, castellan of the Castle of
Borgniis ; Beugt, Duke von Schoonen ; Steii
Petrik, his confidant ; Ansgar, Abbot of
Kloster Nydal. This, Kretschnier's first op-
era, had a fair run, but has now disappeared.

FONTAINE, ANTOINE NICOLAS MA-
RIE, born in Paris in 1785, died at Saint-
Cloud, April, 18GG. Violinist, pupil of his
father, and of Lafout, Kreutzer, and Baillot.
He entered the Conservatoire in 1806, and
won the 1st violin prize in 1809 ; studied
harmony under Catel and Daussoigne and
composition under Reicha. After a profes-
sional tour of ten years, he settled in Paris
in 1825 as teacher of the violin, and was
solo violin to Charles X. until the revolu-
tion of 1830. He published a great deal of
violin music, and some church music. Fe-
tis, iii. 288 ; do., Supplement, i. 342 ; Men-
del ; Viotta.



FONTANA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA,

Italian composer, living in 1060. He pub-
lished a collection of sonatas, for two or
three violins with bass (Venice, 1641). Ac-
cording to Hart, these sonatas furnish the
earliest indication of the removal of the
violin as a solo instrument to a higher
sphere of composition. Fetis ; Hart, The
Violin, 172 ; Mendel, iii. 590 ; do., Ergiiuz.,
xii. 110.

FONTANA, URANIO, born at Iseo, Italy,
November, 1815, still living, 1889. Dra-
matic composer, pupil at the Milan Conser-
vatorio. His opera seria, Isabella di Lara,
given in Rome, 1837, first brought him into
notice. He then produced in Paris, 1840,
another work, Le Zingaro, and soon after
became director of the Italian theatre in
Athens, but returned to Italy in 1841, and
gave in Padua his Giulio d' Este (1842).
His best work is I Baccanti, written for La
Scala, Milan, 1849. He was professor of
singing at the Paris Conservatoire in 1856-
65. Fetis, iii. 289 ; do., Supplement, i. 342 ;
Mendel ; Viotta.

FONTEI, NICOLO, born at Orzinuovi,
Italy, in 1597, died (?). He wrote masses,
psalms, etc., published in Venice (1G34-
1647), and Bizzarrie poetiche for 1, 2, and 3
voices, three books, the two last in Venice
(1636-39). Fetis ; Van der Straeten, i. 61 ;
Mendel ; Viotta.

FONTENELLE, GRANGES DE, born at
Villeneuve d'Agen (Lot-et-Garonue), France,
in 1769, died there in 1819. Dramatic com-
poser, first instructed in his native town,
then in Paris pupil of Rey in harmony and
of Sacchiui in composition. Works : La
moutagne, ou la fondatiou du temple de
la Liberte, opera, given in Paris, Opera,
1793; Hecube, do., ib., 1800; Medee et
Jason, do. (1802), ib., 1813 ; Circe, cantata ;
Priam aux pieds d'Achille, do.; Other can-
tatas ; Quartets for violin. Fetis ; do., Sup-
plement, i. 342 ; Mendel.

FONTMICHEL, HIPPOLYTE HONO-
RK JOSEPH COURT DE, born at Grasse
(Var), May 5, 1799, died (?). Dramatic coin-



FOOTE



poser, pupil of Chelard at the Conservatoire,
Paris, won the second prize for composition
in 1822, and visited Italy. Works : Amadeo



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