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meister and finally Kapellmeister, in which
capacity he removed with the orchestra to
Munich in 1768. From 1784 he travelled
for several years with his son Ferdinand,
and iu 1790 was made director of the the-
atre orchestra at Mannheim. His composi-
tions, numbering about twenty works, con-
sist of concertos, quartets, and trios. Fe-
tis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

FRASI, FELICE, born in Lombardy in
1803, died at Vercelli, Sept. 8, 1879. Dra-
matic composer, pupil at the Conservatorio,
Milan, gained reputation as a pianist and
organist, and at the age of twenty-one



95



FRAUENLIEBE



became maestro di cappella of the cathedral
at Vercelli, Piedmont. His opera La selva
di Hermanstadt was given at La Scala,
Milan, in 1827 ; he also published sonatas
for pianoforte, and pastorals for the organ.
Fetis ; Mendel.

FRAUENLIEBE UND LEBEN (Wom-
an's Love and Life), eight songs by Cha-
misso, for voice and pianoforte, by Robert
Schumann, op. 42, 1840. The music to
this cycle reveals an extraordinary depth of
penetration into a side of human character
which men are generally supposed incapable
of understanding. Schumann treated the
series as a whole, as Beethoven did his Lie-
derkreis, An die feme Geliebte, yet with-
out connecting the separate songs even in
an external way, as did the latter. Only at
the close does the pianoforte give an echo
of the first song as a postlude. Maitland,
68 ; Reissmann, 100.

FRECH, JOHAXN GEORG, born at
Kaltcnthal, near Stuttgart, Jan. 19, 1790,
died at Esslingen in 1864. Organist and
pianist, chiefly self-taught, and since 180G,
when he became assistant teacher at Deger-
loch, pupil at Stuttgart of Kneclit in har-
mony, of Sutor in composition, of Nauz on
the violin, of Kriiger on the flute, and of
Scherzer on the violoncello. In 1811 he
went to Esslingen, where he became or-
ganist and musical director in 1820, and
founded the still existing Liederkranz in
1827. His influence upon musical educa-
tion in Wttrtemberg was great and bene-
ficial. Works : Montezuma, opera ; Abra-
ham auf Moria, oratorio ; Cantatas ; German
mass for mixed chorus ; Organ and piano-
forte pieces; Songs and part-songs. Fetis ;
Mendel ; Schilling.

FREDDI, AMADEO, born in the Vene-
tian States about the close of the 16th cen-
tury. Priest and maestro di cappella succes-
sively at Treviso and of the Cathedral of
Padua. Works : Madrigals (Venice, 1601-
2) ; Motets, psalms, hymns, etc. (ib., 1616-
42). Fetis ; Van der Straeten, i. 30 ; Men-
del : Viotta.




FREDERICK THE GREAT, King of
Prussia, born at Berlin, Jan. 24, 1712,
died at Sans Souci,
Aug. 17, 1786. Flut-
ist, pupil of Quautz,
who composed for
him nearly 300 con-
certos and 200 soli,
besides exercises
which the king prac-
tised regularly every
morning. Works:
II ru pastore, opera ;
Overture to Aci e Galatea ; Marches ; Arias ;
About 100 soli for flute. A complete edi-
tion of his compositions is in preparation
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Leipsic. Fetis ;
Mendel ; Miiller, Friedr. d. Gr. als Kenner
und Dilettaut auf dem Gebiete der Tou-
kuust (Potsdam, 1847).

FREEER (Freyer), AUGUST, born at
Mulda, near Dresden, in 1803, still living,
18S9 (?). Organist, pupil of Cantor Geissler,
whom he often replaced at the organ, from
his tenth year. He afterwards went to
Poland, and settled at Warsaw, where he
studied counterpoint under Elssler. In
ls:S4 he made a concert tour through Ger-
many, and after his return was made organ-
ist of the Lutheran Church at Warsaw. He
has published a large number of composi-
tions for the organ. Fetis, Supplement, i.
350; Mendel; do., Ergiinz, 113.

FREISCHUTZ, DER, German romantic
opera in three acts, text by Friedrich Kind,
music by Weber, first represented in Ber-
lin, June 18, 1821. The score was finished,
May 13, 1820, at Dresden. The opera was
first named " Der Probeschuss," then " Die
Jitgerbraut," but was produced under its
present title. The libretto is founded on a
story in vol. i. of the " Gespeusterbuch,"
edited by Johaun August Apel, and Fried-
rich Lauu (Leipsic, 1810), translated into
English by De Quincey under the title of
" The Fatal Marksman," and which is itself
founded on a still earlier tale in " Unterre-
dungeu vom Reiche der Geister," published



FREISCHUTZ



about the beginning of the seventeenth cen-
tury. In the opera, Max, a marksman, in
love with Agathe, daughter of Kuno, head
ranger to the Prince of Bohemia, is recom-
mended by Kuno, who is old and infirm, as
his successor. The prince agrees to accept
him if he is victorious in the coming shoot-
ing-match. Caspar, also in love with Agathe,
who has sold himself to the demon Samiel,
forms a plan to win the girl and to substi-
tute Max for himself in the fulfilment of his
contract with the Evil One. He shows Max
the power of magic bullets, made with Sa-
miel's aid, and persuades him to meet him
in the Wolf's Glen at midnight to obtain




Therese Malten.

more. Max keeps his appointment, though
terrified by spectres and grotesque forms,
and warned by his mother's spirit, and re-
ceives seven bullets, six of which are to be
used at Max's will in the coming match, and
the seventh is to be directed by the demon
himself. Agathe, warned by a holy hermit
of coming danger, but guarded against it
by a wreath of roses which he has given
her, prepares in the third act for her wed-
ding. Oppressed by melancholy forebod-
ings, she tells Annchen that she dreamed she
was a dove and that Max fired at her. On
the day of the shooting-match her lover wins
with his six magic bullets, and at the com-
mand of the prince fires the seventh one at



a flying dove. As he fires the dove takes in
his eyes the form of Agathe and he fancies
he has slain her ; but she is saved by her
wreath and the bullet pierces Caspar's heart.
Samiel claims his victim, and Max wins his
bride and the ranger's position amid the
general rejoicing. The original cast in Ber-
lin was as follows :

Agathe Frau Caroline Seidler.

Annchen Frl. Johanna Eunicke.

Max He IT Carl Stiimer.

Caspar Herr Heinrich Blume.

Ottokar Herr Rebenstein.

Kuno Herr Wauer.

Samiel Herr Hillebrand.

Kiliau Herr Wiedemann.

Among the best personators of Agathe is
Therese Malten, whose portrait is given.
Der Freischiitz met with an enthusiastic re-
ception, and its popularity is still very great
in Germany. Its 500th representation was
celebrated in Berlin in 1885. It was given
in Dresden, Jan. 26, 1822, and soon after
in other German cities. An English ver-
sion, entitled Der Freischiitz or The Sev-
enth Bullet, was produced in London, at
the English Opera House, July 22, 1824,
with ballads inserted, and it became so
popular that nine different theatres played
it at the same time. The German version
was brought out at the King's Theatre, May
9, 1832, and an Italian version, II franco
arciero, at Covent Garden, March 16, 1850.
A pasticcio was given in Paris, at the Ode-
on, Dec. 7, 1824, with a new libretto, with
changes of names and scene, by Castil-Blaze
and Sauvage, under the title, Robin des Bois.
An accurate French version of the original
by iSmilieu Pacini and Hector Berlioz, with
recitatives by Berlioz, was produced at the
Acadi'mie Royale de Musique, June 7, 1841.
Der Freischiitz was first represented in New
York, at the Park Theatre, March 3, 1825.
Among its most popular numbers are :
" Durch die Wiilder, durch die Auen," aria
of Max, Act i., No. 3 ; " Schelm ! halt fest!,"
duet between Agathe and Annchen, Act ii.,



97



FRELON



No. 6; "Wie nahte inir cler Sclilummer,"
scene and aria of Agathe, Act ii., No. 8 ;
" Ernst traurnte meiner seligen Base," ro-
mance and aria of Anncheu, Act iii., No. 13 ;
" Wir wiuden dir den Juugfemkranz," Yolks-
lied, cliorus of bridesmaids, with sopi'ano
solo, Act iii., No. ii ; " Was gleicht wohl
auf Erdeu dem Jagervergniigeu," chorus of
huntsmen, Act iii., No. 15. Jahns, Weber
in seinen Werken, 297 ; Larousse, viii. 809 ;
Max M. von Weber, Carl M. von W. (Lcip-
sic, 1864), ii. 277, 312 ; Edwards, Lyrical
Drama, i. 33 ; Hanslick, Mod erne Oper,
GO ; Berlioz (Apthorp), 395 ; Wagner, Ges.
Kclir., i. 257 ; Burlingame, Wagner, 92 ;
Ainbros, Buute Blatter, i. 1 ; do., ii. 93.

FRELON, LOUIS FRANCOIS ALEX-
ANDRE, born at Ork'aus, France, in 1825,
still living, 1889. Pianist and organist,
studied music in his native city, where he
founded a gratuitous course of musical in-
struction for workmen in 1847. When the
harmonium came into use, he was one of its
most active propagators in Paris, and pub-
lished an excellent method for this instru-
ment. In 1851 he went to London to rep-
resent the organs constructed by the firm
of Alexandra. He has composed a great
number of morceaux de genre, fantaisies,
etc., for harmonium, and for do. and piano-
forte. lY'tis, Supplement, i. 349.

FREMART, HENRI, French composer
of church music, vicar of Notre Dame de
Paris about the middle of the 17th century,
having been maitre de niusique of the ca-
thedral at Rouen in 1611-25. Works:
Missa 4 voc. ad placitum, Ballard coll.,
1(112 ; Missa 4 voc. ad imit. mod. Confun-
dantur superbi, ib. ; Missa 5 voc. ad iniit.
mod. Verba mea auribus, etc., ib., 1C43 ;
Missa 5 voc. ad imit. mod. Eripe me, Domine,
ib. ; Missa 5 voc. ad imit. mod. Domiue re-
fugium, ib. ; Missa 6 voc. ad imit. mod. Ju-
bilate Deo, ib., 1645 ; Missa 6 voc. ad imit.
mod. Salvum me fac, Deus, ib. Fetis.

FRENCH SUITES (Ger., Franzosische
Suiten), the name generally given the six
smaller clavier suites by Johann Sebastian



Bach : Suite i. D minor ; ii. C minor ; iii. B
minor ; iv. E-flat major ; v. G major ; vi. E
major. Published by the Bach-Gesellschaft.
FRESCHI, GIOVANNI DOMENICO,
born in Vicenza, Italy, in 1040, died there in
1690. A priest, he lived in Venice in 1677-
85, and wrote there many operas. On his
return to Vicenza he became maestro di
cappella of the cathedral. W'orks Operas :
Elena rapita da Paride, Venice, 1677 ; Sar-
dauapale, ib., 1678; Tullia Superba, ib.,
1678 ; Circe, ib., 1679 ; Berenice, ib.,
1680 ; Giulio Cesare trionfante, 1682 ;
Silla, 1683 and 1699 ; L' iucoronazioue di
Dario, 1684 ; Teseo tra le rivali, 1685 ;
Dario, 1685. Giuditta, oratorio. Missa a
cinque, salmi a 3, 4, 5 voci (Venice, 1660) ;
Missa a 6, e salmi a 2, 5, 6 voci (ib., 1673).
Frtis ; Mendel.

FRESCOBALDI, GIROLAMO, born in
Ferrara, 1588, died
after 1640. Little is
known of his life. He
studied under Fran-
cois Milleville (not
under Alessandro
Milleville, his father,
who died, 1589) ; his
first composition, a
book of five-voice
madrigals, was pub-
lished by P. Phalesius in Antwerp, June
10, 1608. During this year, Frescobaldi
visited Milan. In 1615 he succeeded Er-
cole Pasquini as organist at St. Peter's
in Rome, his fame being then so great
that thirty thousand are said to have
flocked to the church to hear his first
performance. The latest record of him
is in a letter of P. della Valle (1640), in
which he is mentioned as still living, and
fifty-two years old. Johann Jacob Fro-
berger was his pupil. Frescobaldi may
be called the father of the great schools
of organ playing and organ music ; not
only was he the first very imposing fig-
ure we meet with in the history of or-
gan writing, but no genius so great as




FREUBEL



his is to be fount! in tins department of
composition until we come to J. Sebastian
Bach. Hawkins's statement that Fresco-
bakli was the first Italian who played in the
fugued style is an error which has found
much favour with subsequent historians.
But he probably was the first organist who
used the tonal (instead of the real) response
in the fugue. Works: 1. Libro primo di
Madrigali a 5 TOO. (Antwerp, Phalesius,
1608) ; 2. Libro secoudo di Madrigali, etc.
(Milan, 1608) ; 3. Eicercari e canzoni frau-
cesi (Rome, Borboui, 1615) ; 4. Toccate
e partite d' intavolatura (1613-27-
37-57) ; 5. Secoudo libro di toccate, etc.
(Rome, 1615) ; G. Primo libro delle canzoui
a 1, 2, 3, 4 voci (Rome, 1628) ; 7. Primo
libro, Arie musiculi, Florence, 1630 ; 8.
Capricci sopra divers! soggetti (Venice, 1626,
Rome, 1627). Separate pieces are found
in the following collections : Three in Can-
zoui per sonare con ogui sorta di stromeuti,
etc. (Venice, Aless. Rauer, 1608) ; One in Se-
lects: Cantiones, etc. (Rome, Bart. Zauetti,




1616) ; One in Scelta di Motetti, etc. (Rome,
Zauetti, 1618) ; Lilia Campi, etc. (Rome, J.
Bapt. Robletto, 1G21). Ambros, iv. 103,
438 ; Clement, Mus. colebres, 16.

FREUBEL, JOHANN LUDWIG PAUL,
born at Narnur in 1763, died at Amster-
dam, May 21, 1828. Organist and -violinist,
and for many years conductor at the Dutch
theatre, Amsterdam. Works : De vrouwe-
lijke recruten, ballet, 1788 ; Several other
ballets ; De triomf der liefde, symphony,
1793 ; Het vredefeest, 1802 ; 14 cantatas ;
3 concertos for violin ; Several overtures ;
Psalms ; Popular songs. Fetis, Supple-
ment, i. 350 ; Viotta.

FRETJDENBERG, KARL GOTTLIEB,
born in a village of Silesia, Jan. 15, 1797,
died at Breslau, April 13, 1869. Organist,
pupil of the Cantor Klein at Schmiedeberg,



then of Beruer and Schuabel in Breslau,
and, finally, at the organists' school in Ber-
lin, of Zelter in harmony and composition
and of Beruhard Klein in counterpoint. In
1826 he visited Italy, and in 1827 became
organist of St. Mary Magdalen's Church at
Breslau. He composed organ and piano-
forte music, psalms, songs, and part-songs.
Fetis; Mendel.

FREUDENBERG, WILHELM, born at
Raubacher-Hiitte, near Neuwied, Prussia,
March 11, 1838, still living, 1889. Dra-
matic composer, studied music at Leipsic
in 1858-61, was then for four years Kapell-
meister at the theatres of different cities,
last at Mainz, and in 1865 went to Wies-
baden as conductor of the Ciicilienverein
and the Syuagogenvereiu. In 1870 he
founded there a school of music and con-
ducted the Siugakademie until 1886, when
he removed to Berlin, and opened a school
of music with Mengewein. Works Op-
eras : Die Pfahlbauer, burlesque, three acts,
given at Mainz, March 24, 1877 ; Die Ne-
benbuhler, romantic, three acts, Wiesbaden,
Feb. 6, 1879 ; Kleopatra, four acts, Magde-
burg, Jan. 12, 1882 ; Die Miihle im Wis-
perthale, three acts, Magdeburg, Jan. 21,
1883 ; Eiu Tag in Floreuz, symphonic
poem ; Durch Duukel zum Licht, overture ;
Music to Romeo and Juliet ; Pianoforte
pieces, and songs. Mendel ; Riemaun ;
Signale (1879), 433.

FREUDENTHAL, JULIUS, born at
Brunswick, April 5, 1805, still living, 1889
(?). Violinist and flutist, pupil of Karl
Miiller, entered the ducal orchestra, of
which he in time became musical director,
retiring in 18GO on account of his health.
He evinced a remarkable talent for the hu-
morous genre of music, and his comic songs
and quartets for male voices, but especially
his operettas, and opera-travesties capital
satires on modern, chiefly Italian, operas
must be mentioned with distinction. Men-
del ; Schilling.

FREUE DICH, ERLOSTE SCHAAR,
church cantata, Festo S. Joannis Bapt., for



99



FREUNDE



solo voices and chorus, with accompaniment
of 3 trumpets, drums, 2 flutes, 2 oboes,
strings complete, and continuo, by Johann
Sebastian Bach (Year V, No. 30, Bach-Ge-
sellschaft ed.) ; published also in full score,
with additional accompaniments by Robert
Franz, and in pianoforte score, by Leuc-
kurt (Leipsic).

FREUNDE VON SALAMANKA, DIE,
operetta in two acts, text by Mayrhofer,
music by Franz Schubert, written in 1815,
never performed. The music, which was
written between Nov. 18 and Dec. 31, is on
a large scale, the first act alone filling 320
pages. The MS. is in the possession of Dr.
Eduard Schneider, Vienna. The libretto is
lost Hellborn (Coleridge), i. 72.

FREUDESAUSEN, JUBELBRAUSEN.
See Stradella.

FREUDIG BEGRUSSEN WIR DIE
EDLE HALLE. See Tannhai< *>',-.

FREYSTADTLER (Freystadler), FRANZ
JACOB, born at Salzburg, Sept. 13, 1760,
died in Vienna in 1841. Organist, pupil of
Georg Lipp, competed successfully against
thirty-two applicants for the organist's
place at the Domstift of St. Peter, which
he held for six years, then taught music for
two years in Munich, whence he went to
Vienna in 1786, and soon secured many pu-
pils through the recommendation of his
countryman and school-mate Mozart. He
published many pianoforte compositions,
mostly didactic, besides characteristic pro-
gramme-pieces, like Die Belagerung von
Belgrad, Mittag und Abend, Der Friihling-
smorgen, etc., and songs, and left in manu-
script over 60 works, consisting of concer-
tos, fantasias, organ preludes, cadenzas, etc.
Allgem. wiener Musikzeitung (1842), No.
1'21; Fetis; Gerber ; Mendel; Schilling;
Wurzbach.

FRD3ERTH, KARL, born at Wullers-
dorf, Nether Austria, June 7, 1736, died in
Vienna, Aug. 6, 1816. Church composer
and tenor singer, first instructed by his
father, then studied in Vienna under the
guidance of the court composers Bono and



Gassmann. In 1759 he joined the chape\
of Prince Eszterhazy at Eisenstadt as tenor,
and in 1776 became Kapellmeister of the
Jesuits' and Minorites' churches at Vienna.
Works ; Nine masses ; Five motets ; Stabat
Mater ; Requiem ; Graduals and offerto-
ries. Fotis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

FRIDOLIN, or the Message to the Forge,
cantata, by Alberto Randegger, written for
and first performed at the Birmingham
(England) Festival, Aug. 28, 1873. The
text, by Mme Erminea Rudersdorff, is
founded on Schiller's ballad, " Der Gang
nach dem Eisenhammer." Characters rep-
resented : "\Yaldemar, Count of Saverue ; Eg-
lantine, Countess of Saverne ; Fridolin, page
to the Countess ; Hubert, squire to the
Count. The cantata was a complete suc-
cess. Published by Chappell (London).
Upton, Standard Cantatas, 299.

FRIDZERI, ALEXANDRE MARIE AN-
TOINE FRIXER, called, born at Verona,
Italy, Jan. 16, 1741, died in Antwerp in
1819. Violinist, and virtuoso on the man-
dolin. He lost his sight when a year old,
and learned to play the mandolin without
a teacher ; he had five different violin
teachers, constructed his own mandolin at
eleven, learned the flute, the viol d' amore,
the organ, the horn, and several other in-
struments without instruction, and never re-
ceived any lessons in harmony or counter-
point. He was organist of the Chapel la
Madonna del Monte Berico, at Vicenza, for
three years, and at the age of twenty-four
started on a concert tour, played at the Con-
certs Spirituels in Paris (where he remained
two years), travelled through the northern
part of France, Belgium, Germany, lived
in Strasburg over a year, and returned to
Paris in 1771. He went to Brittany, and
spent twelve years with the Comte de Cha-
teaugiron, -visiting Paris several times. On
the breaking out of the Revolution he went
to Nantes, and established a philharmonic
academy. The terrors of the war in the
Vendee caused him in 1794 to seek refuge
in Paris, whence he left for Antwerp in 1801,



IPO



FRISCHMUTII



settled there as a music teacher, and estab-
lished a trade in music and instruments.
Works : Les deux miliciens, comic opera,
given at the Comtidie Italienne, 1772 ; Les
souliers mordores, do., ib., 1776 ; Lucette,
do., ib., 1785 ; Les Thermopyles, grand
opera ; Six quartets for strings ; Six sonatas
for mandolin ; Two concertos for violin ;
Symphonic coucertante for two violins, viola,
and orchestra ; Six quartets, 2d book ; Duos
for violins ; Six romances for voice and
pianoforte. Futis ; Mendel.

FEISCHMUTH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN,
born at Schwabhausen, Gotha, died in Ber-
lin, July 31, 1790. Dramatic composer, was
musical director of various travelling com-
panies, and small theatres, then lived for
some years at Gotha, and removed to Ber-
lin, where he became director of the Dob-
bliu Theatre in 1785, and Kapellmeister of
the National Theatre in 1787. Works : Die
krauke Fran, Clarissa, Das Modereich, oper-
ettas ; Sonatas for pianoforte ; Duets for
violin, etc. Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

FRITHJOF, cantata, for soli, male chorus,
and orchestra, by Max Bruch, op. 23.
Scenes from the Frithjof-Saga of Esaias
Teguijr. The cantata opens with Frithjof's
return from the Orkneys, and closes with
his sailing away in " Ellida " to become a
sea rover, after firing the temple in which
the false kings are sacrificing. Upton,
Standard Cantatas, 87.

FRITHJOF - SYMPHONIE, symphony
for orchestra, by Heinrich Hofmann, op.
22, written in 1874.

FRITZ, KASPAR, born in Geneva in
171C, died there in 1782. Violinist, pupil
in Turin of Giovanni Battista Somis.
Works : Quartets and solos for violin ; 6
symphonies ; Concerto for harpsichord,
etc. Futis ; Mendel, iv. G7 ; do., Ergiiuz,
115.

FRITZE, WILHELM, born in Bremen,
Feb. 17, 1842, died in Stuttgart, Oct. 7,
1881. Pianist, pupil in Bremen of Sobo-
lewski, then studied at the Conservatorium
in Leipsic, and under Biilow and Weitzmanu



in Berlin. Having travelled in France and
Italy, he settled in 1866 at Glogau, Silesia,
and in 18G7 at Liegnitz, where he conducted
the Singakademie in 1867-77, went once
more to Berlin to study under Kiel, and in

j 1879 to Stuttgart. Works: Die Jahres-
zeiten, symphony ; Fingal, oratorio ; David,
do. ; Concerto for violin ; do., for piano-
forte ; Sonata for do., op. 2 ; Sanctus, Bene-
dictus, and Agnus Dei for mixed chorus, soli,
and orchestra ; Pianoforte pieces, songs, and
choruses. Riemann.

FROBERGER, JOHANN JACOB, born
(Mattheson says in Halle, but no proof has
been found) early part of 17th century (the
date usually given, 1635, is undoubtedly
many years too late), died at Hc'ricourt
(Haute-Saune), France, May 7, 1667. The

! story of his life has been made the nucleus
of a large amount of accumulated fiction ;
Fetis's acount is eminently untrustworthy,
and Mattheson's dates are mostly wrong.
The following facts are known : Jan. 1,
1637, he was appointed, by Emperor Fer-
dinand HI., organist in the imperial Hofmu-
sikkapelle, Vienna, where he remained un-
til Sept. 30, when he was sent by the Em-
peror to study under Frescobaldi, at Rome,
where he changed from the Lutheran to
the Romish faith, in accordance with the
Emperor's wish. In 1641 he returned to
Vienna, and resumed his position as court
organist. He relinquished this post in Oc-
tober, 1645, but staid in Vienna certainly as
late as September, 1649. He occupied this
post for a third time from April 1, 1653, to
June 30, 1657, when he incurred the Em-
peror's displeasure (how, is not known) and
was discharged in disgrace. He then en-
tered the service of Sybilla, Dowager Duch-
ess of Wiirtemberg, as teacher and music
director, and passed the last years of his life
at her home at H^ricourt, much beloved
and revered by his pupil and patroness. He
died suddenly of a stroke of apoplexy while
at evening prayers, and was buried, May
10, in the church at Bavilliers (Haut-Rhin).

; The monument erected over his tomb by



101



FROM




Sybilla was destroyed during the French
Revolution. Besides these absolutely known
facts of Froberger's life, his visits to Paris,
Dresden, and London may be accounted as
more than probable. In Paris he caught
the ornamented lute-style of Galot and Gau-
tier and applied it to the clavecin, which
proves that the accepted legend which credits
Couperin (1668-1733) with originating the
ornamented clavecin-style is
false, for the so-called French
agremeuts are found plenti-
fully in Froberger's clavecin
works. Internal evidence goes
to place the date of his visit to
Paris before his return from Rome to Vienna
in 1637. His visit to Dresden was probably
between 1646 and 1657. The date of his visit
to London is set at 1662 by Dr. Franz Geh-
ring in Grove's Dictionary, relying upon
M;ittlieson, but Ambros suspects that this
date should be earlier, before Froberger's
final departure from Vienna in 1657. That
Froberger went to Mainz after quitting Vi-
enna, as asserted by Gerber, is more than
doubtful. Froberger was the first of the
great German organists and claveciuists.
He brought the grand Italian style of or-
gan writing, which, first developed by
Claudio Merulo (1533-1604), culminated in
Frescobaldi (1588 ?), to Germany, and
was thus the real father of the great Ger-
man organ school, the precursor of Pachel-
bel, Buxtehude, and the other immediate
predecessors of Sebastian Bach. His style,
if somewhat less grand than that of his
master Frescobaldi, was more easily grace-
ful and elegant. Ambros calls him the
earliest salon-composer. None of his works
were published during his lifetime. Those
published since are : 1. Diverse ingegnosis-
sime e rarissime Partite di Toccate, Cauzoni,



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