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Ricercari . . . Stampate da Ludovico
Bourgeat . . . Mogont., 1693. (Two
copies, one with Italian, the other with Ger-
man title, are in the possession of Dr. F.
Gehring in Vienna. A copy of a reprint,
1695, is in the possession of Prof Im. Faisst



1 in Stuttgart. This, and another edition,
dated 1714, are printed from the same
plates as the first, but bear different titles.

j No copy of the edition of 1714 is known to
exist.) 2. Diverse. . . . etc., Prima con-
tinuazione . . . Mogont., 1696. 3. Suites
de Clavecin, par Giacomo Froberger, 2me
edition ; Amsterdam : Roger. (A copy is in
the Berlin Library. ) Several volumes of au-





tograph MS., dated 1649 and 1656, are in
the Berlin Library ; four volumes do., in
the Vienna Hofbibliothek. Ambros, iv.
463 ; Edmund Schebek, Zwei Briefe iiber
J. J. Froberger, . . . (Prague, 1874) ;
Sam ml. mus. Vortritge, v. 357.

FROM LOVE UNBOUNDED. See " Aus
Liebe, nur aus Liebe," in Johanu Sebastian
Bach's Passion nach Matthiius.

FRO MM, EMIL, born at Spremberg,
Nether Lusatia, Jan. 29, 1835, still living,
1889. Organist, pupil of A. W. Bach, Grell,
and Schneider, at the Royal Institute for
Church Music in Berlin, became cantor at
Cottbus in 1859, received the title of royal
director of music in 1866, and went to
Flensburg as organist of St. Nicholas's in
1869. "Works: Die Kreuzigungdes Herrn,
oratorio ; Two Passion cantatas ; Organ mu-
sic, and songs. Mendel.

FROM MIGHTY KINGS, soprano air in
A major, in Handel's Judas Maccaboeus,
Part H.

FROM THE VALLEYS AND HILLS.
See Bohemian Girl.

FROST, CHARLES JOSEPH, born at
Westbury-ou-Trim, near Clifton, England,
June 20, 1848, still living, 1889. Organist,
pupil of his father, who was organist at
Tewkesbury from 1849, of George Cooper,
Steggall, and Sir John Goss ; was organist
successively at different places from 1865 to
1884, when he succeeded Henry Robert



103



FEOVO




Gadsby at St. Peter's, Brockley, Surrey, a
position which he still holds. He has beeu
also professor of the
organ at Guildhall
School of Music since
1880. Mus.Bac., Cam-
bridge, 1877; Mus.
Doc., ib., 1882. Works:
Nathan's Parable, ora-
torio, 1878 ; Harvest
cantata, 1880 ; By the
Waters of Babylon, can-
tata, 187G ; Services ;
Anthems ; Te Deum ; Symphony for orches-
tra, 1878 ; Evening Service in D, 1883 ; The
Gypsies, chorus, 1888; Organ music, and
songs.

FROVO, JOAO ALVAPiEZ, born in Lis-
bon, Nov. 16, 1608, died in January, 1GS2.
Mestre de capella to Dom Jouo TV., and of
the Cathedral of Lisbon, and librarian of
the royal musical library. He composed
hymns, masses, motets, etc., preserved in
the royal library of Portugal, and wrote sev-
eral theoretical works. Fetis ; Vascoucel-
los, Mus. Portug., i. 113 ; Mendel.

FRUH, ARMIN LEBERECHT, born at
Miihlhausen, Bavaria, Sept. 15, 1820, still
living, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of
Dehu in Berlin, where he settled to teach
vocal music. lu 1857 he invented an appa-
ratus, called by him Semeio-Melodicon, to
facilitate elementary musical instruction, by
introducing the notes to sight and hearing
simultaneously. Having travelled and se-
cured approvals for his invention from such
authorities as Fetis, Moscheles, Stephen
Heller, Auber, HaK-vy, Dreyschock, the
Paris Conservatoire, etc., he settled in 1858
in Dresden, to establish a factory, but
failed in his enterprise. Works Operas :
Die Bergknappen ; Die beideu Figaro ; Dei-
Stern von Grenada ; Nachtigall und Savoy-
arde ; A symphony, and songs. Mendel.

FRUHLINGS-BOTSCHAFT (Spring's
Message), cantata (Couzertstiick) for chorus
and orchestra, by Niels Wilhelm Gade, op.
35. Breilkopf and Hurtel (Leipsic).



FRUHLINGSKLANGE (Sounds of
Spring), symphony No. 8, in A, for orches-
tra, by Joachim Raff, op. 205, first per-
formed, 1878.

FRUHLINGSPHANTASIE (Spring Fan-
tasy), cantata (Couzertstiick) for four solo
voices, orchestra, and pianoforte, by Niels
Wilhelm Gade, op. 23, written in 1850.
Subject, a poem by Edmund Lobedanz,
translated into English by Mrs. Vail der
Weyde, for the performance of the work in
London, 1878, under the direction of von
Biilow. Upton, Standard Cantatas, 14G.

FRY, WILLIAM HENRY, born, of Amer-
ican parentage, in Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
vania, Aug. 10, 1815, died in Santa Cruz,
West Indies, Dec. 21, 1864 About 1835
he went through a course of musical in-
struction in the United States, and wrote
four orchestral overtures which were pub-
licly performed ; in 1845 he produced an
English opera entitled Leonora, which was
given in Philadelphia, and later in New
York. In 1846 he went to Europe as
regular correspondent of the New York
Tribune, and on his return to New York,
in 1852, he became its musical editor. He
wrote the music to an ode for the opening
of the New York Industrial Exhibition of
1853, and about this time delivered a
course of ten lectures on the history of
music, illustrated by performances of com-
positions, among them two of his own sym-
phonies, The Breaking Heart, and A Day in
the Country. A second opera, Notre Dame
de Paris, was produced at the Academy of
Music, Philadelphia, in April, 1864. Be-
sides those mentioned, his principal works
are a set of symphonies, performed by
Jullieu's orchestra in New York ; Stabat
Mater, 1854 ; Violin quartets, 1855 ; Can-
tatas ; Songs, etc.

FUCHS, ALBERT, born at Basel, Aug.
6, 1858, still living, 1889. Instrumental
and vocal composer, pupil at the Conserva-
torium, Leipsic (1876-79), became music
director at Treves in 1880, and settled at
ObeiiOssnitz, near Dresden, in 1883. He



103



FUCIIS



has composed Hungarian suites for orches-
tra, pianoforte pieces, and songs. Rie-
inann.

FUCHS, FERDINAND KARL, born in
Vienna, Feb. 11, 1811, died there, Jan. 7,
1848. Dramatic composer, pupil of the
Conservatoriurn, Vienna, where he soon be-
came popular through his numerous songs.
His operas, Gutteuberg, and Der Tag der
Verlobung, given 1842, show many pleasing
features, but lack originality. A third op-
era, Die Studenteu von Salamanca, was not
given. Wiener allgem. Musikzeitg. (1846),
Nos. 41, 42 ; (1848), 11-17, 19-23 ; Wurz-
bach.

FUCHS, GEORG FREEDRICH, born at
Mainz, Dec. 3, 1752, died in Paris, Oct. 9,
1821. Instrumental composer, pupil of
Cannabich at Mannheim, became military
music director at ZweibrUcken, whence he
went to Paris in 1784. At the foundation
of the Conservatoire he was appointed one
of the teachers to form the musicians for
the armies of the French Republic. Works :
Marches for military band ; Concertos for
llute. clarinet, and horn ; Quartets, trios, and
duos for wind instruments ; Sis quartets
fur strings. Futis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Schil-
ling.

FUCHS, JOHANN (NEPOMUK), born
in Vienna, June 29, 1760, died at Eisen-
stadt, Hungary, Oct. 29, 1839. Dramatic
and church composer, pupil and great fa-
vourite of Haydn, whom he succeeded as
conductor of Prince Eszterhazy's famous
orchestra. He numbers among the best
church composers of his time. His complete
works are in the princely archives at Eiseu-
stadt, and consist of 20 operas, 3 operettas,
1 cantata, 28 masses, 51 offertories and grad-
uals, 31 litanies and vespers, 62 Salve Regiua,
Ave, etc., and hymns, 1 Te Deum, 2 over-
tures for orchestra, 1 nonet, 1 octet, 1 quar-
tet, 3 trios, and 15 quartets for male voices.
Theaterzeitung (Vienna, 1840), 688 ;
Wurzbach.

FUCHS, JOHANN NEPOMUK, born
at Frauenthal, Styria, May 5, 1842, still liv-



ing, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of
Sechter in Vienna, became opera-Kapell-
meister at Presburg in 1864, then acted in
the same capacity at different theatres ; last
in Cologne, Hamburg, and Leipsic, and since
1880 at the imperial opera, Vienna. His
opera Zingara was given at Briinn, Moravia,
1872 ; he wrote additional accompaniments
to Handel's Almira for representation at
Hamburg, and revised Schubert's Alfonso
und Estrella, and Gluck's Der betrogene
Kadi, for Vienna. His brother Robert
(born, Feb. 15, 1847), pupil at the Couser-
vutorium, Vienna, where he teaches har-
mony, has published a symphony, op. 37, a
quartet, a trio, 3 serenades, 2 sonatas for
violin, sonata for pianoforte, several varia-
tions, etc. Riemann.

FUCHS, PETER, born in Bohemia about
1750, died in Vienna, 1804. Violin virtu-
oso, studied in Prague, where he enjoyed
considerable reputation as early as 1768 ;
then went to Hungary. In 1794 he was ap-
pointed violinist in the imperial chapel in
Vienna. He published a concerto for vio-
lin, sonatas for violin and violoncello, and
variations for violin. Mendel ; Schilling.

FUENTES, Don PASQUALE, born at
Albayda, Valencia, early part of the 18th
century, died, April 26, 1768. Church com-
poser, one of the best of the Valencian
school. He was maestro de capilla of the
Church of S. Andres and in 1757 of the Ca-
thedral of Valencia. Works : Masses ; Te
Deums ; Motets for 6 to 12 voices ; Vilhan-
cicos with orchestral accompaniment. (-
tis ; Mendel ; Viotta.

FUETSCH, JOACHIM JOSEF, born at
Salzburg, Aug. 12, 1766, died (?). Violon-
cellist, self-taught, afterwards pupil of Luigi
Zardonati, who came for a year especially
for this purpose from Verona, engaged by
the Archbishop of Salzburg, whose court
violoncellist FuOtsch had become. With
Luigi Gatti he studied thorough bass, and
with Michael Haydn composition. Before
taking up the violoncello he had been in-
structed on the violin by Hafeneder and



104



FUIIRER



Leopold Mozart. He composed concertos,
sonatas, solos, etc., for violoncello, also for
violoncello and bass, and published three
and four-part songs for male voices. Futis ;
Mendel ; Schilling ; Wurzbach.

FUHRER, EGBERT, born at Prague,
June 2, 1807, died in Vienna, Nov. 28,
1801. Organist, pupil of "Witasek, was at
first organist at Strahow, appointed princi-
pal instructor at the organists' school in
Prague, 1830, and organist of the cathedral,
1839. His irregular life caused the loss of
his position in 1845, after which he lived in
Salzburg, Bavaria, and Upper Austria, ob-
taining an appointment as organist at
Gmunden and Ischl in 1857, which he did
not keep long. He finally settled in Vienna,
where he died in the hospital. Works :
Twenty masses, and other church music ;
Preludes, fugues, etc., for the organ ; Sev-
eral theoretical works about the organ. Fi>
tis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach.

FUITE EN EGYPTE, LA. See Enfance
du Christ.

FUMAGALLI, ADOLFO, born at In-
zago, near Milan, Oct. 19, 1828, died in
Florence, May 3, 185G. Pianist, pupil, at
the Milan Conservatorio, of Angeleri. He
gave his first concerts in Milan in 1848,
then visited Turin and Paris, travelled in
Belgium in 1854, and afterwards played in
many Italian cities. Works : Fantasia on I
Puritan! (Milan), Grande fan taisie de concert
on the same ; Others on La Favorite, Lucia,
Norma, etc. Caprices, tarantellas, marches,
etc. ; Concerte fantastique with orchestra,
entitled Les clochettes. FiHis ; Filippi,
Delia vita e delle opere di Ad. F. (Milan) ;
Mendel ; Wurzbach.

FUM3, VINCESLAO, born at Montepul-
ciano, Italy, Oct. 30, 1826, died at Florence,
Nov. 20, 1880. Dramatic and instrumental
composer, pupil of Giorgetti at Florence ;
was maestro di cappella to the operatic
stages of different Italian cities, and in Con-
stantinople, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Ayres,
and Montevideo, and returned afterwards to
Florence. Works : Atala, opera, given at



Buenos Ayres, 1852 ; Several compositions
for orchestra. Riemauu.

FUNERAL ANTHEM, music by Handel,
composed for and performed at the funeral
of Queen Caroline, in the Chapel of Henry
VH., Westminster Abbey, Dec. 17, 1737.
The score, in Buckingham Palace, is headed :
" The Anthem for the Queens Carolines Fu-
neral," and is dated Dec. 12, 1737. The
text, from Psalms, was probably selected by
the composer himself. Though the score
occupies, in its published form, about
eighty pages, it was written within five
days. It was given by eighty singers and
one hundred instrumental performers.
First printed by Walsh ; full score, Handel-
gesellschaft (Leipsic, 18G1). Schcelcher,
Handel, 192 ; Rockstro, 206 ; Chrysander,
ii. 436.

FUOR DI PERIGLIO, duet for soprano
and tenor (Rossaue and Timaute) in F ma-
jor, with accompaniment of 2 flutes, 2 oboes,
2 bassoons, strings complete, and cembalo,
in Handel's Floridante, Act ii. Published
with additional accompaniments by Robert
Franz, Leipsic, Kistner.

FURCHTE DICH NIGHT, chorus in
Mendelssohn's Elias, Part H.

FURIBONDO SPIRA IL VENTO, con-
tralto aria of Arsace, in E minor, with ac-
companiment of violins in unison, and bass,
in Handel's Partenope, Act iii. Published
with additional accompaniments by Robert
Franz, Leipsic, Kistner.

FURIO CAMILLO. See Camillus.

FURLANETTO, BONAVENTURA (sur-
named Musiu), born in Venice, May 27,
1738, died there, April 6, 1817. Organist,
educated at the Jesuit College, Venice, took
orders, and devoted himself to music. He
became maestro of the girls' choir of La
Pieta, and in 1797 maestro di cappella of
S. Marco. He was celebrated for his
fugues, and on his appointment as maestro
of counterpoint at the Philharmonic Insti-
tution of Venice, in 1811, he wrote for his
pupils a treatise on fugue and counterpoint,
which still remains in MS. Works : La



105



FURSTEXAU



caduta delle mura di Gerico, and La sposa
de' Sacri Cautici, II Tobia, and II voto di
Jefte, oratorios ; II S. Giovanni Nepoiuu-
ceno, sacred cantata ; Galatea, dramatic can-
tata ; Te Deuin ; Dies irse ; Psalms, etc.
Caffi, Delia vita e del comporre di B.
Furlanetto (Venice, 1820). Futis ; La-
rousse ; Mendel ; Wurzbaeh.

FURSTENAU, ANTON BERNHARD,
born at Miinster, Oct. 20, 1792, died at
Dresden, Nov. 18, 1852. Virtuoso on the
flute, son and pupil of Kaspar Fiirsteuau,
whom he even surpassed. He appeared
as a solo player when scarcely seven
years old, and from 1803 travelled exten-
sively with his father, earning everywhere
enthusiastic applause, until he settled at
Dresden in 1820 as royal chamber musi-
cian. His last concert tour was made with
Weber to London, in 1826. He published
about 150 works, consisting of concertos,
fantasias, rondos, variations, studies, tran-
scriptions, duos, trios, quartets, etc., for the
flute, which rank high among compositions
for this instrument. Allgem. d. Biogr., viii.
214 ; Fi'tis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

FURSTENAU, KASPAR, born at Miin-
ster, Feb. 26, 1772, died at Oldenburg,
May 11, 1819. Virtuoso on the flute, pupil
of his father, who was a member of the
bishop's orchestra at Minister, and of Anton
Romberg ; then of Josef Franz Antony in
composition. In 1793 he made his first suc-
cessful concert tour through Germany, and
in 1794 became first flutist in the court or-
chestra at Oldenburg. When the latter was
disbanded, in 1811, he set out on extensive
travels with his son Beruhard, on which
both acquired world wide reputation. Of
his numerous compositions about GO works
are known, consisting of concertos, fan-
tasias, rondos, variations, pot-pourris, etc.
Allgem. d. Biogr., viii. 215 ; Fctis ; Men-
del ; Schilling.

FUSS, JOHANN EVANGELIST, born
at Tolna, Hungary, in 1777, died in Vienna,
March 9, 1819. Dramatic and church com-
poser, pupil of Albrechtsberger in Vienna,



whither he went after having occupied a po-
sition as music master at Presburg, where
he brought out also a duodrama, Pyramus
uud Thysbe. His compositions in Vienna
aroused the interest of Haydn, who assisted
him with advice. Recalled to Presburg as
Kapellmeister at the theatre, he proved him-
self a skilful conductor and considerably
raised the standard of the opera there, but
finally chose Vienna for his permanent resi-
dence. Of his works, the following were
published : Quartets and trios for wind in-
struments ; Duos for pianoforte and violin ;
Sonatas for pianoforte (2 and 4 hands) ;
Rondos, variations, and dances for piano-
forte ; Songs. Besides these are known a
mass and other church music ; an overture
to Schiller's Braut von Messina ; the duo-
dramas : Watwort, Isaak, Judith, Jacob uud
Rahel ; the operetta, Der Kiifig ; Paudorens
Biichse, a parody ; Melodramas with cho-
ruses, and cantatas. Fctis ; Mendel ; Schil-
ling ; Wurzbach.

FUX, JOHANN JOSEPH, born at Hir-
tenfeld, near Gratz, Styria, in 1660, died in
Vienna, Feb. 13, 1741. He was appointed
organist of the Schottenkirche, Vienna, in
1696, and in 1698 the Emperor Leopold I.
made him court composer ; he became
Kapellmeister to the Cathedral of St. Ste-
phen in 1705, vice-Kapellmeister to the impe-
rial court in 1713, and at the same time Ka-
pellmeister to the Dowager Empress Wil-
helmine Amalie. On the death of Ziaui,
in 1715, he was made chief Kapellmeister
to the court, the highest office then open to
a musician. Many marks of imperial favour
were bestowed upon him. He dedicated
his first work to Archduke, afterwards Em-
peror, Joseph I., and his Gradus ad Par-
nassum to the Emperor Charles VI. The
latter monarch had him brought from Vi-
enna in a litter, while suffering from gout,
to witness the coronation in Prague in
1723 and to listen to one of his own operas.
In spite of painful illness and all the in-
trigues of court he kept his office and faith-
fully performed its duties until his death.



loc



GABELLONE



He was buried at St. Stephen's. Among bis
best pupils were Wageuseil, Tuma, Muffat,
and Zeleuka. He was a master of composi-
tion, as understood in liis time, of the art of
interweaving contrapuntal and fugue forms
iu the way then admired. His operas do
not rise above the Italian taste of his day,
but he is seen to better advantage in his
church music, where his reverent spirit pre-
vented his abuse of the polyphonic writing
so easy to him. If he had possessed the
genius of his younger contemporaries, Bach
and Handel, to rise above mere musical
forms, he would not have incurred the ob-
livion and the reputation of a pedant, which
are now perhaps unjustly his fate. Works :
290 compositions in church music, including
50 masses, among them the Missa cauonica,
a masterpiece ; 3 Requiems ; 2 Dies irse ;
1 Domiue Jesu Christe ; 1 Libera me, Do-
mine ; 57 vespers and psalms ; 22 litanies
and completoria ; 14 offertories ; 12 gradu-
als ; 22 motets ; and 10G hymns. Further,
10 oratorios in Italian ; 18 operas, some
of which were : La clenieuza di Augusto,
1702 ; La decima fatica d' Ercole, 1710 ;
Elisa ; Angelica vincitrice d' Alciua, 1716 ;
Psyche, 1719 ; Costauza e Fortezza, 1723 ;
La Corona d' Ariauua, 172G ; Enea negli
Elisi, 1731. Instrumental music: The Con-
centus musico-instrumentalis, his opus 1
(1701) ; Many other partitas ; 38 sacred
sonate a tre ; Overtures ; and 8 pieces for
clavier. The Gradus ad Parnassum (Vienna,
1725, also many later editions and transla-
tions) is in Latin and treats of the theory
and practice of composition. It was ap-
proved of by Piccinni, Martini, and Vogler ;
Albrechtsberger and Cherubim followed its
method ; young Mozart used it in his con-




trapuntal exercises, and Haydn studied it
again and again. Altogether, his known



works number 405 ; and but a small portion
of them has been printed. Most of them,
either in autograph or copies, are in the
Vienna Imperial Library. Kuchel, Johanu
Josef Fux, etc. (Vienna, 1S72) ; Allgem. d.
Biogr., viii. 272 : Futis ; Gerber ; Mendel ;
Schilling ; "\Vurzbach.



GABELLONE, GASPARO, born at
Naples about 1730, died (?). Church
composer, and one of thebestsiuging
masters of Italy. A Requiem mass by him
was a model of its kind. The following
works are iu the Library of S. Pietro a Ma-
jella, Naples : Mass for four voices and in-
struments, original MS. ; Passion for Good
Friday, 1774 ; Fugues for two voices, 1783 ;
Christus and Miserere for four voices ; 3
Tantum ergo ; Cantatas and arias. Fetis.

GABLER, CHRISTOPH AUGUST, born
at Miihldorf, Voigtlaud, March 15, 1767,
died in St. Petersburg, April 15, 1839.
Studied theology, acted as secretary to a
nobleman, and then pursued the study of
law and music together in Leipsic. He was
a music teacher and concert player in Reval
in 1800 and the same in St. Petersburg
from 1836. "Works : Der Pilger am Jordan,
oratorio ; Songs ; Pianoforte and other in-
strumental music. Mendel ; Fetis ; Schil-
ling.

GABRIEL, (MARY ANN) VIRGINIA,
born at Banstead, Surrey, England, of Irish
parentage, Feb. 7, 1825, died in London,
Aug. 7, 1877. Dramatic composer, pupil
on the pianoforte of Pixis, Dohler, and
Thalberg, and in harmony and construction
of Molique. She married in 1874 George
E. March, the author of most of her librettos.
Her death was the
result of a carriage
accident. Works
Operettas : The
Widows Bewitched,
given in London,
1867 ; The Grass Widows ; The Shepherd
of Cornouailles ; Who's the Heir ? ; A Rainy



107



GABRIELI



Day. Cantatas ; Dreamland, 1870 ; Grazi-
ella ; Evangeline, 1873. Many songs, some
of which were popular. Grove ; Brown.

GABRIELI, ANDREA, born in the Caua-
reggio quarter (whence called also Andrea
da Canareggio, or da Canareio) of Venice
about 1510, died in Venice, 1586. Born of
one of the oldest and most distinguished
families in Venice, he studied composition
under Adrian Willaert. In 1536 he entered
the choir of St. Mark's; iu 1558 he was, to-
gether with Zarlino, elected member of the
Accademia della Fama ; in 1566 he suc-
ceeded Claudio Merulo as second organist
at St. Mark's, and again as first organist in
1581. In 1574 the Republic commissioned
him to write the music given at the recep-
tion of Henri HI. of France. Although his
fame has been somewhat overshadowed by
that of his nephew Giovanni, he was one of
the glories of the great Venetian contrapun-
tal school. Noted as an organist and organ
writer during his lifetime, his greatest fame
rests upon his choral works masses, mo-
tets, and madrigals. He was the first con-
trapuntist to write a real fugue, which form
was afterwards developed into the tonal
fugue by Frescobaldi. He was also noted
as a teacher ; Giovanni Gabrieli, Hans Leo
Hassler, and Jan Pieter Swelinck were
among his pupils. He himself accounted
his Psalmi Davidici, qui pieniteutiales nun-
cupantur (Venice, 1583) his greatest work.
His Psalm Ixv., Deus misereatur, for three
choruses, far surpassed anything of the sort
that had been written up to his time. Ani-
bros, iii. 523.

GABRIELI, DOMENICO, surnamed
Menghiuo del violoncello, born at Bologna
about 1640, died there about 1690. Dra-
matic composer and virtuoso on the violon-
cello ; was at first connected with the Church
of S. Petronio in his native city, and after-
wards in the service of Cardinal Panfili,
grand prior of Rome. Member of the Ac-
cademia Filarmouica, 1676 ; principe, 1683.
Works : Cleobulo, given at Bologna, Teatro
Forinagliari, 1683 ; Gige in Lidia, ib. ; 1683 ;



Clearco in Negroponte, Venice, 16S5 ; Ro-
doaldo, re d' Italia, ib., Teatro San Most,
1685 ; Teodora Augusta, ib., Teatro S. Sal-
vadore, 1685 ; Maurizio, ib., 1687 ; Gordi-
ano, ib., 1688 ; Le generose gare tra Cesare
e Pompeo, Venice, 1686 ; Carlo il Grande,
ib., 1688 ; Cautate a voce sola (Bologna,
1691) ; Vexillum pacis, motet for contralto
with instruments (ib., 1695) ; Balletti, gighe,
correnti, e sarabande, for two violins and
violoncello, with basso continue (ib., 1703).
Fetis ; Mendel.

GABRIELI, GIOVANNI, born in Venice,
1557, died there, Aug. 12, 1612 (1613?).
Church composer and organist, nephew
and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, acquired con-
siderable reputation early in life, and in
15S5 succeeded Claudio Merulo as first or-
ganist at San Marco. Like his uncle, he
entertained a lively intercourse with the
German masters of his period, and was es-
pecially allied in close friendship with
his famous co-disciple, Hans Leo Hassler.
Among his patrons in Germany, where he
was the most esteemed of foreign masters,
were Duke Albrecht V. of Bavaria and his
sons, and the Counts of Fugger at Augs-
burg. As a teacher he was sought far and
wide ; his most renowned pupil was Hein-
rich Schiitz, who spent four years in Venice,
sent there by the Elector Maurice of Sax-
ony. Together with Palestrina and Orlando
Lasso, Giovanni Gabrieli represents the
culminating glory of the strict contrapun-
tal schools of the 16th century ; he was in-
disputably the greatest genius of the Vene-
tian school. Unlike Palestrina, who always
wrote strictly a cappclla, Gabrieli often in-
troduced instrumental parts in his great
choral works, although a cappella writing,
often for two or three choruses, was still
his habitual style. But these instrumental



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