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the Pontifical Chapel. Under the name of
Gascong his masses in MS. are found in
the royal library at Munich ; others are in
the public library at Cambrai among the
MSS. of the 16th century. Fetis ; Mendel.

GASPAR VAN WERBECKE (Weerbeke),
born in Audenarde, Flanders, about 1440,
died after 1509. He was singing master to
the house of Sforza in Milan until 1490,
when he returned to his native town.
Works : Misser (sic) Gaspar, 5 masses (pub-
lished by Petrucci, Venice, 1509) ; 3 parts
of masses in Fragmenta missarum (ib.,
1509) ; a mass in Missarum diversorum auc-
torum liber primus (1508) ; Several motets
and lamentations in Petrucci's different col-
lections ; Manuscript masses in library of
Pontifical Chapel. Fetis ; Riemauu ; Am-
bros, iii. 246.

GASPARI, GAETANO, born in Bologna,
March 14, 1807, died there, March 31, 1881.
Church composer, pupil of Benedetto Do-
nelli at the Lyceo, where he won several
important prizes. He became maestro di
cappella of the church at Cento in 1828,
and of the cathedral at Imola in 1836-39,
when he was called to assist Donelli at the
Lyceo in Bologna. He became librarian of
the musical library of the Lyceo in 1856,
and maestro of S. Petrouio in 1857. A
clever contrapuntist, he wrote church com-
positions, chiefly Miserere and masses. He
published, also : Memorie risguardanti la
storia dell' arte musicale in Bologna al svi
secolo. Fetis, iii. 413 ; do., Supplement, i.
364 ; Mendel ; Riemann.

GASPARLNI (Guasparini), FRANCES-
CO, born at Camajore, near Lucca, March
5, 1668, died in Rome, April, 1727. Dra-
matic composer, pupil in Rome of Corelli
and Pasquini. He was maestro di coro at
the Ospedale della Pieta, Venice, and mem-
ber of the Accademia Filarmonica. Iu 1725
he was elected maestro by the chapter of S.
Giovanni iu Laterauo, Rome, with Girolamo



121



GA8PAEINI



Chiti as his coadjutor, but ill-health com-
pelled Liiu soon after to retire on half-pay.
He wrote equally well for the stage and
the church, but the work by which he is
best remembered is his treatise on accom-
paniment entitled, "L'armonico prattico
al cembalo," etc. (Venice, 1683 ; 7th eel.,
1802), which has maintained its position
in Italy, even since the appearance of the
clearer and better-arranged treatise by
Feuaroli. Works : Tiberio, impc-ratorc
cV Oriente, given in Venice, Teatro Sant' Au-
giolo, 1702 ; Amor della patria, Imeiiei
stabiliti dal caso, II priucipe tra i vassali,
Rome, 1703 ; II miglior d' ogui amore per
il peggior d' ogni odio, Venice, Teatro San
l',-ihsiauo, 1703 ; Fede tradita e vendicata,
La maschera levata al vizio, Koine, 1704 ;
Amleto, Autioco, Fredegouda, ib., 1705 ;
II principato custodito dalla fraude, Statira,
Venice, Teatro San Cassiano, 1705 ; Jaicou,
iv della China, Rome, 1706 ; Amor genc-
roso, Anfitrioue, ib., 1707 ; Flavio Anicio
Olibrio, ib., 1708; L' Alcide, o violen/a d 1
amore, Eugelberta, ib., 1709 ; Laprincipessa
fedele, Sesostri, re d' Egitto, Tamerlauo,
La ninfa Apollo, Venice, Teatro San Cas-
siano, 1710; Costautiuo, La pazzia arno-
rosa, ib., 1711 ; Merope, ib., 1712 ; La ve-
rita nell' iugauuo, ib., 1713 ; Bajazette, ib.,
1719 ; II Pirro, H trace in catena, Rome,
1717 ; Lucio Vero, Astianatte, ib., 1719 ; II
Faranioudo, Amore e Macstu, ib., 1720 ; La
Zoe, ovvero il comandououinteso, ib., 1721 ;
Gli equivoci d' amore e d' iunocenza, La
fede in cimento, Venice, 1730 ; Mosc liber-
ate dal Nilo, oratorio. Fetis ; Grove ; Men-
del ; Riemaun ; Schilling.

GASPARINI, MICHELE ANGELO, born
at Lucca, died in Venice in 1732. Dra-
matic composer and contralto singer, pupil
of Lotti. He founded in Venice a cele-
brated school of singing, where many well-
known singers were formed, among others
Faustina Bordoui. Works Operas : II
principe selvaggio, given in Venice, 1695 ;
II Rodomonte, ib., 1714 ; Arsace, ib., 1715 ;
Lamauo, ib., 1719 ; II piii fedel tra gli



ainici, ib., 1721. Fetis ; Burney, Hist., iv.
526 ; Mendel.

GASPARINI, QUIRING, maestro di cap-
pella to the King of Sardinia, Turin, in
174U-70. He was a virtuoso violoncellist
and composed motets, a Stabat Mater, and
trios for two violins and violoncello, which
last were published in London. Fetis;
Mendel.

GASSE, FERDINAND, born in Naples,
March, 1788, died (!). Violinist and dra-
matic composer ; pupil at the Paris Con-
servatoire of Kreutzer, Catel, and Gossec.
He won the 1st violin prize in 1801 ; the
2d grand prix in 1804, and the grand prix
de Rome in 1805. He was violinist in the
orchestra of the Opera, Paris, in 1812-35.
Works Operas: La fiuta Ziugara, opera
bulVa, given at Naples, 1812 ; Le voyage
incognito, Paris, Opera Coniique, 181!) ;
L' idiote, ib., 1820 ; Uue nuit de Gustave
Wasa, ib., 1825; Te Deum for two cho-
ruses ; Christe eleison, fugue for six voices ;
Three duos for violins, op. 1 ; Duos faciles,
2d and 3d book ; 3 grand duos coucertants ;
3 duos faciles ; 3 sonatas for violin and vio-
loncello. Fetis ; Mendel.

GASSMANN, FLORIAN LEOPOLD,
born at Briix, Bohemia, May 4, 1723, died
in Vienna, Jan. 21, 1774. Dramatic com-
poser, ran away from home when thirteen
years old, and, supporting himself by play-
ing the harp, worked his way to Bologna
and became the pupil of Padre Martini,
who established him as organist of a church
i in Venice. He entered the service of Count
! Leonardo Veneri, and soon began to attract
attention by his compositions. In 1762 the
Emperor Francis I. called him to Vienna
as composer for the theatre, and Joseph II.
subsequently appointed him Hofkapellmeis-
ter and librarian of the imperial musical
library. He founded the Society for the
widows and orphans of Vienna musicians,
which in 1862 was reorganized under the
name of Haydn Society. His most distin-
guished pupil was Salieri. He composed a
great deal of church music, which Mozart



122



GASSNER



thought more of than of his operas, among
which are : A Mass, for chorus and orches-
tra, and a very fine Dies irse ; Psalms, hymns,
offertories, and an oratorio, Betulia liberata,
which had a brilliant success. Works
Operas : Merope, given in Italy, about 1759 ;
Issipile, ib., ab. 17GO ; Catone in Utica, ib.,
ab. 17C1 ; Ezio (two different settings), ib.,
ab. 17G1 ; Olimpiade, Vienna, 1764; II
mondo uella luua, Venice, 1765 ; II trion-
fo d' Amore, ib., 1767 ; Gli uccellatori, Vi-
enna, rewritten for Venice, 17G8 ; II filosofo
iunauiorato, ib., 1768 ; do. (new music, Vi-
enna, 1771) ; Uu pazzo ne f;i cento, ib.,
1769 ; I viaggiatori ridicoli, Vienna, 17G9 ;
L' Amor artigiano, ib., 17G9, Milan, 1770 ;
La pescatrice, Vienna, 1771 ; I rovinati,
La casa di campagua, Amore e Venere, ib.,
1772. Two German operas : Die juuge GriV-
fiu, Berlin, about 1769 ; Die Liebe unter
den Handwerksleuten. Instrumental mu-
sic : Symphonies for orchestra ; 6 quartets
for flute, viola, and bass ; 6 quintets for 2
violins, 2 violas, and bass ; 6 quartets for 2
violins, viola, and violoncello (Amsterdam).
Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Wurz-
bach.

GASSNEB, FERDINAND SIMON, bom
in Vienna, Jan. 6, 179S, died in Carlsruhe,
Feb. 25, 1851. Violinist, went early to
Carlsruhe, where he studied the violin while
attending the gymnasium ; entered the
court orchestra, and in 1816 became violinist
of the new Nationaltheatcr in Mainz and
soon after Correpetitor and vice music di-
rector, being influenced by Gottfried Weber.
In 1818 he was university music director in
Giessen, received in 1819 the degree of doc-
tor, and authority to lecture on music ; re-
turned to the Carlsruhe orchestra in 1826,
and was later singing teacher and music
director of the court theatre there. Com-
posed operas, ballets, cantatas, and other
music, edited musical journals, and wrote
several books. Works : Der Schiffbrucb,
opera ; Das Stiiudcheu, do. ; Die Miiller,
ballet ; Several other ballets ; Die Aufer-
weckung des Jiingliugs von Naiu, cantata ;



Songs and male choruses. Allgem. d.
Biogr., viii. 406 ; Fetis ; Mendel ; Weech,
Badische Biogr., i. 277 ; Wurzbach.

GASTINEL, LEON GU STAVE CY-
PRIEN, born at Villers - les - Pots (Cote
d'Or), France, Aug. 15, 1823, still living,
1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of Halevy,
won in 1846 the grand prix de Rome for
his cantata Velasquez. Several of his opi'-
ras-comiques have been successful. Works
Operas : Le miroir, given in Paris, Jan.
19, 1853 ; L'opera aux fenutres, 1857 ;
Titus et Berenice, 1860 ; Le buisson vert,
1861 ; Biauca Capello ; La Kermesse ; Les
dames des pres ; La tulipe bleue ; Le roi
barde (the last five unrepresented). Orato-
rios : Le dernier jour, 1853 ; Les sept pa-
roles ; Saul ; La fee des eaux ; Mexico, can-
tata, 1S63 ; 3 grand masses ; 3 symphonies ;
Concerto for two violins with orchestra ; 2
overtures ; Chamber music ; Songs. Fetis ;
do., Supplement, i. 365 ; Mendel.

GASTOLDI, GIOVANNI GLA.COMO,
born at Caravaggio, Italy, about the middle
of the 16th century, died after 1596. Maes-
tro di cappella in Mantua, and in 1592 in
Milan. His Balletti da suonare, cautare e
ballare are said to have served Morley as
models for his Ballets or Fa-las. Two of
them are well known to English amateurs :
Maiden fair, of Mantua city, and, Soldiers,
brave and gallant be. He was a prolific
writer of canzonets and madrigals. There
were published five or more books of his
madrigals for five, six, eight, and nine
voices, 8 books of canzonets for three, four,
and five voices, besides books of masses,
psalms, vespers, etc., published in Venice,
Mantua, Milan, and Antwerp, between 1581
and 1611. He was one of the composers
who dedicated a collection of psalms for
five voices to Palestriua iu 1592 (Martini).
His madrigals are found in a collection pub-
lished at Antwerp by Andre Pevernage in
1593 with the title, Harmonie celesti di di-
versi excel, mus. They are also in the col-
lection Trioufo di Dori (Venice, 1596) ; in
Madrigali a otto voci (Phalesius, Antwerp,



123



GASTPJTZ



1596) ; and in many other collections of that
time. Fetis ; Grove, Mendel ; Eieuiann.

GASTRITZ (Castritz, Castricius, Castri-
tius), MATTHIAS, German composer of
the 16th century. He was organist in Ani-
berg, Upper Palatinate, about 1571 ; wrote
Latin and German songs, and particularly
the melody to Herzlich lieb hab' ich dich, o
Herr. He is sometimes called erroneously
Michael Gastritz. Allgem. d. Biogr. ; Mo-
natshefte fiir Musik-Geschichte, v. 123 ; vi.
26 ; Mendel.

GATAYES, FEIJX, bom in Paris, 1809,
still living, 1889 (?). Pianist, self-taught,
afterwards received a few lessons from
Liszt ; he improvised with rare facility, and
won great applause on his concert tours,
which led him for twenty years through
Europe, America, and Australia. His sym-
phonies and overtures for orchestra are es-
teemed by critics. For pecuniary reasons
he devoted himself later to compositions for
military baud. Fetis.

GATAYES, GUILLAUME PIERRE AN-
TOINE, born in Paris, Dec. 20, 1774, died
there, October, 1S46. An illegitimate sou
of the Prince de Conti ami the Marquise
de Silly, he ran away from the theological
seminary where he had been placed and was
befriended at the time of the Revolution by
M:irat, who was attracted by his singing and
guitar playing. His romances, especially
Mou delire, which was sung throughout
France, soon won him popularity and he
became noted as a guitar and harp virtuoso.
His guitar method (1790) was for a long
time the only one used in France. He pub-
lished trios for guitar, flute, and violin ;
duos for two guitars, for guitar and piano-
forte, for guitar and violin or flute, and for
harp and horn ; and solos for guitar and for
harp. His son, Joseph Leon Gatayes ( 1 M i.'i
1877), was a harp virtuoso and composer.
Fetis ; Mendel ; Larousse ; Riemann.

GATTI, Abbate LUIGI, born in Mantua.
Italy, about 1750, died(?). Dramatic com-
poser ; maestro di cappella at Salzburg iu
1790. Works Operas : L' Olimpiade, Pia-



cenza, 1784 ; La Nitteti, Lucca, 1786 ;
Demofoonte, Mantua, 1787. The Death of
Abel, oratorio, 1788 ; Church music in MS.
Fetis ; Mendel.

GATTI, SIMONE, born in Venice about
the middle of the 16th century, died ('?).
Composer of several religious dramas or
mysteries written for the Duke Albert of
Bavaria, in whose chapel he was musician,
after serving in the same capacity iu that of
the Archduke Charles of Austria. Fetis ;
Mendel.

GATTI, TEOBALDO DI, born in Flor-
ence about 1650, died in Paris, 1727. Dra-
matic composer. He heard Lulli's music
in Italy and went to Paris to join him,
M TV< d in his orchestra at the Opera, and re-
mained there fifty years. Works : Coronis,
pastorale, given in Paris, Opera, 1091 ;
Sylla, opera, ib., 1701 ; Twelve Italian arias
(Paris, 1696). Fetis ; Hawkins, Hist., v.
45 ; Mendel ; Schilling.

GATTY, ALFRED SCOTT, born at Ec-
clestield, England, April 25, 1847, still liv-
ing, 1889. Vocal composer, studied at
Marlborough and Christ's College, Cam-
bridge. Appointed, 1880, Rouge Dragon,
Pursuivant of Arms, Heralds' College,
London. Works : Saudford and Mertou's
Christmas Party, operetta, 1880; Songs;
Pianoforte music.

GAUCQUIER (du Gaucquier, Nuceus),
ALARD DUNOYER, born at Lille, Flan-
ders, first half of the 16th century. He was
tenor in 1564, and second maitre de chapelle,
in 1567-7(i, to the Archdukes of Austria
Ferdinand I, Maximilian H., and Matthias.
Works : Magnificat, 4-6 voc. (1547) ; Qua-
tuor missfe 5, 6 et 8 vocum (Antwerp, 1581).
Fetis ; Van der Straeten, iii. 150 ; v. 103 ;
Mendel ; Ambros, iii. 325.

GAUDE, THEODOR, bom at Wesel-on-
the-Rhine, June 3, 1782, died (?). He fin-
ished his musical education in Paris, where
he made a reputation as a guitar virtuoso
and teacher. In 1814 he started on a con-
cert tour for St. Petersburg, but was taken
sick in Hamburg, and on recovering settled



184



GAUDEAMUS




there as a teacher of his instrument, for
which he composed and published about
80 works. Mendel ; Schilling ; do., Sup-
plement, 162.

GAUDEAMUS IGITUR, Humoreske for
orchestra, soli, and chorus, by Franz Liszt,
op. 10. Published, score and parts ; also
for pianoforte (2 and 4 hands), Schuberth.

GAUL, ALFKED (ROBEET), born in
Norwich, England,
April 30, 1837, still liv-
ing, 1888. He was a
cathedral boy at Nor-
wich, from nine until
fifteen years old, when
he was articled to Dr.
Zachariah Buck, or-
ganist of the cathedral.
In 1854-59 he was or-
ganist at Fakfiiham, Norfolk, and in the
latter year he became organist of St. Augus-
tine's, Edgebaston, Birmingham, a position
he still holds. He is also teacher of harmony
and counterpoint at the Midland Institute
and conductor of the Sunday School Union
Choral Society, Birmingham. Mus. Bac.,
Cambridge, 18G2. Works : Hezekiah, ora-
torio, 1860 ; 1st Psalm, cantata ; 96th Psalm,
for solo voices and 8-part chorus ; Ruth,
cantata, 1881 ; The Holy City, do., Bir-
mingham Festival, 1882 ; Passion Service,
do. ; Joan of Arc, historical cantata, text
by Frederick Enoch, Birmingham Festival,
1887 ; Offertory Sentences ; Anthems ;
Glees ; Songs and part-songs. His Holy
City is often sung in the United States ; his
Passion Service was sung for the first time
in America at Chickeriug Hall, New York,
Dec. 15, 1885 ; and his Ruth, ib., Feb. 14,
1887.

GAULTIER , French dramatic com-
poser in the last part of the 18th century.
He wrote the following operas for the The-
atre des Jeunes Artistes, Paris : Pheuix, ou
1'ile des vieilles, 1796 ; Zephyr et Flore, ou
rose d'Amour, 1797 ; Le dedit, 1798 ; Le
nid d'Amours, 1798 ; Vert- Vert, ou le per-
roquet de Nevers, 1800 ; Frosiue, ou la



negresse, 1801 ; Le petit Poucet, ou 1'or-
phelin de la foret ; Joseph. Fetis, Supple-
ment, i. 367 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 119.

GAULTIER, DENIS, born at Marseilles
between 1600 and 1610, died in Paris be-
fore or in 1664. Celebrated virtuoso on
the lute, went early in life to Paris, where
he studied law, and about 1637 was already
famous as a lute player. In 1647-48 he es-
tablished, with his cousin Jacques Gaultier,
the Paris school of the lute, where they con-
jointly formed many pupils. In 1656 he
became lieutenant-general of the bailiwick
at Clermont, and after 1660 lived again in
Paris. He was equally great as a virtuoso
and composer, and looked upon by his con-
temporaries as the most distinguished rep-
resentative of lute music in general. Of his
compositions two printed collections are
preserved : Pieces de luth (1660), and Livre
de tablature, besides the Codes Hamilton,
containing La rhetorique des dieux, a col-
lection of 62 pieces in manuscript (1650-
55 ?), now in the cabinet of engravings at
the Berlin Museum. Vierteljahrsschrift fur
Musikwissenschaft, ii. (1886) 1-180.

GAULTIER, JACQUES (Gautier le
vieux?), called Gautier d'Angleterre, born
(at Lyons ?) about 1600, died in Paris be-
fore 1671. Virtuoso on the lute, pupil of
Mesangeau ; was royal lutist in London,
1617-47, had won reputation in 1622, and
settled in Paris, 1647, where he formed
many pupils of note, with his cousin Denis
Gaultier. He is probably identical with
Gautier le vieux, Sieur de Neiie, of Lyons.
Some of his compositions are preserved in
the Codex Milleran in the library of the
Conservatoire, Paris. Vierteljahrsschrift
fur Musikwissenschaft, ii. 2-11.

GAULTIER, PIERRE, born at La Ciotat,
Provence, in 1642, died in the harbor of
Cette in 1697. Dramatic composer in the
style of Lulli, of whom he bought, in 1685,
for Marseilles, his patent to give operas,
and brought out with great success his
opera Le triomphe de la paix, March 22,
1687. He then played with his company



125



(iATXTLETT



alternately at Marseilles, Montpellier, and
Lyons, and on embarking in 1097 for Mar-
seilles was shipwrecked and lost with his
entire troupe. Ho published also a collec-
tion of duos and trios for violin and flute,
and left other instrumental music in MS.
Vierteljahrsschrift f. Musikwisseuschaft,
ii. 28.

GAUNTLETT, HENRY JOHN, born at
Wellington, Shropshire, England, in 1806,
died in London, Feb. 11, 1876. Organist,
studied law and music ; practised law in
1831-42 ; organist in 1827-47 of St. Glare's,
Southwurk, and afterwards of several other
churches. Mus. Doc., Lambeth, 1S42. In
1846 he was chosen by Mendelssohn to play
the organ part in Elijah, on its production
at Birmingham. Works : Hymns for Mat-
ins and Evensong (1844) ; Church Hymnal
and Tune Book, with W. J. Blew (1844-51) ;
Gautus melodici (1845) ; The Congi'ega-
tioual Psalmist, with Dr. Allon (1851);
Hymns and Glorias; Tunes new and old
(1868) ; Anthems ; Songs and glees ; Organ
music. Grove ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 110.

<1 YUSSOIN, AUGUSTE LOUIS, bom in
Brussels, July 4, 1814, died there, Jan. 11,
1846. Composer, professor at the Brus-
sels Conservatoire. Pupil of Masset, Snel,
Hanssens, and Fctis. In 18117 he insti-
tuted people's concerts in Brussels, and free
choral schools for workmen. Works : Ser-
enade for orchestra ; Le poete mourant,
cantata ; La mort du contrebaudier, do. ;
Overture for grand orchestra ; La chute
des feuilles, elegie ; Album lyrique ; Album
de chant. Fetis, Supplement, i. 367 ; Men-
del, Ergiinz., 119.

GATJTIER (Gautier le vieux, or 1'ancieu),
DENIS, Sieur de Neiie, born about 1620,
died in 1678-80. Lutist at the French
court ; published a Livre de tablature de
pieces de luth sur differents modes (Paris,
1664), and other music. Fetis ; Mendel.

GAUTIER, JEAN FRANCOIS EUGENE,
born at Vaugirard, near Paris, Feb. 27,
1822, died there, April 3, 1878. Violinist,
pupil of Habeneck and Halevy at the Con-



servatoire, Paris ; won the 1st violin prize
in 1838) and the 2d grand prix in 1842.
He became in 1848 second chef d'orchestre
at the Lyrique, in 1864 chef de chant at the
Theatre Italien, and in the same year pro-
fessor of harmony at the Conservatoire for
the female classes and afterwards of the class
in musical history. He was also for several
years maitre de chapelle of the Church of
Saint-Eugene, Paris. Works Operas : L'an-
neau de Marie, given at Versailles, 1845 ;
Les barricades (with Pilati), Paris, 1848 ;
Le marin de la garde, ib., 1849 ; Murdock
le bandit, ib., 1851 ; Flore et Zephire,
Choisy le Roi, ib., 1852 ; Schahabaham H.,
ib., 1854 ; Le mariage extravagant, ib.,
1857 ; Le docteur Mirobolan, ib., I860 ; La
bacchante, Jocrisse, ib., 1862 ; Le tresor de
Pierrot, ib., 1864 ; La clef d'or ; La mort
de Jesus, oratorio ; Lo 15 aout, cantata,
1861; Ave Maria, IS IS. Fctis ; do., Sup-
l'l< nieiit, i. 368 : Mendel ; do., Ergiinz, 120 ;
Riemann.

GAVKAUX, PIERRE, born at Beziers
(Herault), France, August, 1761, died in the
hospital for insane atChareuton (Paris), Feb.
.">, 18-25. At the age of six he became choir-
boy at the cathedral in his native town. He
was destined for the church, and studied
Latin and philosophy. In 1778 he purposed
going to Naples to complete his musical
studies, but was prevented by the Bishop
of Beziers ottering him a benefice. On the
death of this prelate, however, he accepted
the position of first tenor at the Church of
Saint-Severin at Bordeaux, where he also
studied composition under F. Beck. After
the successful production of several compo-
sitions, he determined to make music his
vocation ; so he quitted the cloth, and en-
tered the company at the Bordeaux theatre
as tenor. In 1788 he went to Montpellier,
and in 1789 to Paris, where he was made
leading tenor at the Theatre de Monsieur,
which was then at the Tuileries. When tho
Feydeau was opened, on Jan. 6, 1791, this
company was joined with the Italian troupe
of the foire Saint-Germain, and from that



126



GAVIiMES



time Gaveaux never sang at any other thea-
tre, lu 1801 the companies of the Theatre
Favart and the Feydeau were united, and
Gaveaux was made a member of the new
combination, but no longer as first tenor.
His compositions, too, began to attract less
attention than formerly, and his singing
could not vie with that of Elleviou and
Martin. In 1812 an attack of insanity
forced him to quit the stage. He recovered
a few mouths later, but in 1819 his insanity
returned, and he was sent to Chareuton,
where he remained until his death. Ga-
veaux wrote many operas for the Feydeau,
in which his graceful, facile style almost
made up for a certain lack of melodic
originality ; but for a time his works were
very popular. Works : Le paria, on la
chaumiere iudiemie, given at the Theatre
Feydeau, 1792 ; Les deux Suisses, ib. (after
the events of Aug. 10th, entitled L'amour
filial, on la jambe de bois) ; Les deux
ermites, La faniille iiidigente, La partie
carree, 1793 ; Sophrouime, 1794 ; Le petit
matelot, Lise et Colin, 1795 ; Tout par
hasard, Celiane, Delmou et Nadiue, La
gascounade, 1796 ; Le traite mil, Sophie et
Bloncars, on 1'intrigue portugaise, 1797 ;
Leonore, on 1'amour conjugal (his best
work, subject identical with Beethoven's
Fidelio), 1798 ; Les uoms supposes, 1798 ;
Les deux jockeys, 1799 ; Owinska, Le trom-
peur trompe, 1800 ; Le locataire, Theatre
Favart, 1800 ; Avis aux femiues, Uu quart
d'heure de silence, Theatre Feydeau, 1804 ;
Le diable couleur de rose, ou le bonhomme
Misere, Le bouffe et le tailleur, Trop tut,
Le mariage inattendu, Theatre Moutausier,
1804 ; L'amour a Cythere, Opera, 1805 ;
Monsieur Deschalumeaux, Theatre Feydeau,
1805 ; Le diable en vacauce, Theatre Mon-
tansier, 1805 ; LV-chelle de soie, Theatre Fey-
deau, 1808 ; La rose blanche et la rose rouge,
1809 ; L'enfant prodigue, 1811 ; Une nuit
au bois, ou le muet de circonstauce, 1818.
Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 369 ; Mendel.
GAVINIES, PIERKE, born in Bordeaux,
May 26, 1726, died in Paris, Sept. 9, 1800.



Violinist, considered in France the founder
of the French school ; mostly self-taught,
forming his style chiefly after that of the
great Italian violinists. He made his debut
in 1741, at one of the Concerts Spirituels,
and after that resided chiefly in Paris,
where he soon won the reputation of being-
one of the greatest violinists of his age.
His Komance de Gavinies, played at his
concerts, is said to have always moved
his hearers to tears. He became director
of the Concerts Spirituels with Gossec in
1773, and professor of violin at the Conser-
vatoire in 1795. Among his pupils were
Caprou, Robiueau, Le Due aiue, Paisible,
Imbault, Baudran, and Verdigiiu-s. Works ;
Le pretendu, opera-coniique, played at the
Couu'die Italieime, 1760 ; Les vingt-quatre
matinees (1794) ; 6 sonatas for violin with
bass ; G do., op. 3 ; 6 concertos for violin
and bass ; 3 sonatas for violin solo (Nader-
man, Paris, 1801). Fetis ; Grove ; Hart,



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