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forte, op. 1- ; 3 nortunifs for violoncello,
\\ilh violin, op. 10; Sonata for pianoforte
and violoncello, op. 13 ; Fantasia for piano-
forte, op. 14. Fetis.

GENOVES (Genues), T( )MMASO, born
at Seville in the first years of the 19th cen-
tury. Dramatic composer ; went to Italy
in 1834, and lived in Bologna, Rome, and
Naples. Works Operas : La rosa bianca
e la rosa rossa, given in Madrid, 1831 ;
Zelma, Bologna, 1835 ; La battalia di Le-
pante. Koine, ls3i! ; J'.ianca di Belmonte,
Venice, 1838 ; Iginia d' Asti, Naples, is 10 ;
Luisa della Valliere, Milan, 1S45 ; Le sere
d'aut iiiiiio al Monte Pincio, collection of ro-
mances i Milan, Iticordi I. Fetis ; Mendi !.

GENOVEVA, (iernian opera in four acts,
text by Robert Reinick, music by Schu-
mann, i-i presented at the theatre of Leipsic,
June 25, 1850. The libretto, founded on
the legend of St. Genevieve, follows partly
the two versions of the story in the trage-
dies of Ticck and Hebbel, though princi-
pally the latter. Schumann, dissatisfied with
Rcinick's work, changed it materially to suit
his own ideas. The music, begun in 1847,
was finished in August, 1848, but its pro-
duction was delayed. Its reception was
honourable but not enthusiastic, and it was
withdrawn after three representations. The
overture, one of Schumann's masterpieces,
is a standard work in the concert repertory
all over Europe and America. Grove, iii.
399 ; Hauslick, Moderue Oper, 250.



(iKNST, AUGUSTE DE, born in Brus-
sels, June 24, 1801, living in 1889. Pianist,
pupil of Cazot. His compositions for pi-
anoforte, numbering about forty, were pub-
lished in Brussels, Holland, and Germany.
Afterwards he composed also operas, and
symphonies. Fetis ; Mendel.

GENTILI, GIORGIO, born in Venice
about 1G68, died (?). Violinist, first violin
of the ducal chapel of Venice. Works : So-
natas and concertos for violin (Venice, 1701-
08). Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber, ii. 289 ; Schil-
ling, iii. 11)4.

GENTILI, RAFFAELE, born in Rome
about 1837, died there, Aug. 7, 18G7.
Dramatic composer. His operas, Stefania,
given in Rome, I860, Werther, ib., 18G2,
Rosamouda, ib. , 18G7, gave signs of great
promise, cut short by his early death. He
left also pianoforte music and songs. Fe-
tis, Supplement, i. 372; Mendel, Ergiinz.,
121.

< I 'A'TLE AIRS, tenor air in A major
with violoncello obligato, of Matlian, in
Handel's Alitalia, Part I.

GEPRIKSKN SHI DIE STUNDE. See
Tannhiiuser.

GERBER, ERNST LUDWIG, born in
Sondershau se n,
Sept. 29, 1746, died
there, June 30,
1 S 1 1) . Composer,
son and pupil of
Heinrich Nicolaus
Gerber, under
whom he studied
the pianoforte, or-
gan, and violon-
cello. He entered
Leipsic University
in 17G5, but soon gave up law for music ; re-
turned to Soiiilershausen to assist his father,
and succeeded him as court organist in 1775.
He was also chamber musician, and from
1795 a court secretary. He visited Weimar
in 1772 and 1776, Leipsic in 1780, Cassel in
1786, and other German cities in 1793 and
1797. His collection of portraits of musi-




i >



GEEBEll



clans led him to think of writing biogra-
phies to accompany them. This resulted in
his "Historisch-biographisches Lexicon der
Toukiiustler " (2 vols., Leipsic, 1790-92).
Receiving corrections and further informa-
tion he prepared a new edition, " Neues
historisch-biographisch.es Lexikon der Tou-
kiinstler" (4 vols., Leipsic, 1812-14), which
does not supersede the older work, since it
constantly refers to it. Considering that
he lived in a small city without a public
library, and that few had preceded him in
the same field, his Lexicons are remarkably
complete, and give evidence of wonderful
industry. They have been extensively used
by all subsequent investigators. He wrote
also for several musical papers. The Vi-
enna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde bought



his books and music. Works : Pianoforte
sonatas ; Choral preludes for organ, and
other instrumental pieces. Gerber ; Schil-
ling ; Allgern. d. Biogr. ; Mendel ; Grove ;
Riemaun ; Rochlitz, Filr Freunde der Tou-
kunst, ii. 35.

GERBER, HEESTRICH NICOLAUS, born
at Weuigeu-Ehrich, near Sondershauseu,
Sept. G, 1702, died at Sondershausen, Aug.
6, 1775. Organist, pupil of Johami Sebas-
tian Bach, became organist at Heriugen in
1728, and court organist at Sondershausen
in 1731 ; was appointed secretary to the
court there in 1749, without, however, re-
signing his musical functions. He occu-
pied himself also with improvements in the
mechanism of the organ, and constructed
a Strohfiedel (Xylophone) with keyboard.
His compositions, consisting of concertos,
chorals, fugues, preludes, sonatas, and trios
for the organ, and concertos, meuuets, mur-
kys, suites, and trios for pianoforte, remain
in MS. Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

GERECHTER GOTT. See Rienzi.

GERICKE, WILHELM, born in Gratz,
Styria, April 18, 1845, still living, in Boston,
1889. The sou of a merchant in Schwan-




berg, he was brought up in that town un-
til 1857, when he was sent to school in
Gratz. In 18C2 he
entered the Vienna
Couservatoriuni,
where he studied com-
position three years
under Dessoff; many
of his works date from
this period. In Oc-
tober, 18G5, he be-
came Kapellmeister of
the theatre at Linz ;
in 1874, Kapellmeister at the Vienna Hof-
oper, conjointly with Hans Richter ; and in
1880 succeeded Brahms as conductor of the
Gesellschaftsconzerte, the principal concerts
in Vienna for the performance of large cho-
ral works. He conducted also the Singve-
reiu, a branch society of the Gesellschaft
der Musikfreunde. In 1884 he threw up
his positions in Vienna to accept the post of
conductor of the Boston Symphony Orches-
tra in Boston, Mass., which he has held ever
since. After leaving the Couservatoriuni,
during his three years at which he com-
posed almost incessantly, his duties as Ka-
pellmeister left him but little leisure for
composition. His works have been given
principally in Linz, Vienna, and Boston, ex-
cept some male choruses, which have made
the round of almost all the singing societies
in Germany. He is especially distinguished
as an orchestral and choral conductor, and
a remarkable score reader ; it is chiefly ow-
ing to his drilling that the Boston orchestra
owes its present high position among the
great orchestras of the world. Shortly be-
fore leaving Vienna, in 1884, he was made
honorary member of the Gesellschaft der
Musikfreunde, a distinction very seldom
conferred. Works in MS.: 2 sonatas for
pianoforte ; 2 sonatas for violin and piano-
forte ; Trio for pianoforte, violin, and vio-
loncello ; String-quartet ; Septet ; Requi-
em ; Little Singspiel ; about 100 Lieder
and many choruses (all written between
18G2 and 18G5) ; Concert overture (first



135



GEIIKE



given in Vienna, and Later twice in Boston,
in 1885-86 and 1887-88, under the pseudo-
nym of Wenzel Ecker) ; Sonata for piano-
forte ; Quintet for pianoforte and strings ;
1 movement of a sonata for violin and pia-
noforte ; Schou Haimcben, operetta, Liuz,
between 1865 and 1874, and also in Pesth ;
Huldiguugsclior, given at a serenade to the
newly married Crown Prince and Princess
in the spring of 1881, and in Boston, Jan.
16, 1886 ; Additional accompaniments to
Handel's Judas Maccabseus, and to an An-
them ; 3 sonata movements by Bach scored
for orchestra ; 3 movements of a suite for
orchestra, Boston. Published works : Deut-
sche T;iuze, Vienna, Boseudorfer ; Wenn dir
Gott eiu Lieb' geschenkt, chorus with tenor
and baritone solos, ib. ; 4 Lieder, ib. ; 4
t'ln \ierstiicke fitr die Jugeud, for 4 hands,
Vienna, Schmidt ; 4 Lieder, ib. ; 2 male
choruses, Wach auf, clu schoue Triiumerin,
and, () Welt, du bist so wuuderschun, ib. ;
3 mixed choruses, So weit, Muntrer Bach,
and Herbst am Rhein, ib. ; 3 male choruses,
Marie von Oberland, Herbst im Meere, and
\\Vnn der Friihling auf die Berge steigt,
Vienna, Buchholz ; 2 Lieder, Bitte, and
M' ine Boteu, New York, Sehirmer.

GERKE, AUCit'S T, born in Poland about
IT'.MI, died after 1848. Violinist, Kaj.cll-
meister to Count Hanski ; travelled with his
four precocious musical children ; in 1824
was attached to the ducal court of Dessau,
then returned to Russia ; in ls:!.~> was music
director in Cassel, and in 1848 occupied a
similar position in Detmold. Works : Over-
tures ; Polonaises ; Chamber and pianoforte
music. Fetis ; Mendel; Schilling.

GERKE, OTTO, born in Liineburg, July
13, 1807, died at Paderboru, June 28, 1878.
Violinist, pupil of his father and in Cas-
sel of Spohr and Hauptmann. He made
concert tours, and from 1837 lived nine
years in Russia. In 1847 he settled in
Paderborn as a teacher. Works : Concer-
tos, quartets, etc., in all about forty works,
for violin ; Pianoforte music. Mendel ;
Fctis.



GERL (Gorl), FRANZ, dramatic com-
poser, close of 18th century. He was an
actor at the Schikaneder Theater, Vienna,
before 1794, and after that time at the Na-
tional Theatre in Briiuu. Works Operet-
tas : Die Wiener Zeitung, given at Briinn,
1790; Das Schlarafi'enlaud, Vienna, 1790;
Die dunimen Gartner, ib., 1794 ; Der Graf
Balbaroue, Briiun, 1796 ; Der Stein der
Weiseu, Vienna, 1797. Mendel, iv. 195 ;
do., Ergauz., 121 ; Fctis ; Schilling ; Ger-
ber.

GERLE, HANS ; two musicians of this
name lived in Nuremberg in the 16th cen-
tury, and are distinguished as the elder and
the younger. They were both makers and
players of lutes and violins, but only the
elder one composed works that are of
historical value. Works : Lautenpartien
(1530) ; Musica Teusch, auf die Instrument
der grossen mmd kleinen Geygeu, auch
Lautten (Nuremberg, 1532) ; a second edi-
tion of same, as Musica und Tabulatur (ib.,
1546) ; Eyn Newes schr Kiiustlichs Lauteu-
buch (ib., 1552). Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 23 ;
Gerber; Allgem. mus. Zeituug, xviii. 309,
'.'>'2~> ; Monatsheft fiir Musik-Geschichte, iii.
211 ; iv. 38 ; vii., Beilage, 100 ; Fetis ; Schil-
ling.

GERLI, GIUSEPPE, born in Italy in
1812, died at Milan in May, 1885. Dra-
matic composer and basso ; made his ap-
pearance on provincial stages in Italy, 1832,
attempted to establish Italian opera in
Algiers, 1839, but, failing, proceeded to
Spain, where he sang at Pampeluna and
Bilbao in 1841, at Cadiz and Santauder,
1842, and at Saragossa in 1845. lu the
year following he was orchestra conduc-
tor of the Italian theatre in Berlin. Works
Operas : II piocco, opera buffa, I gal-
autuomini falsi, do., given in Milan,
1834 ; II sogno puuitore, Algiers, 1839, Mi-
lan, 1844 ; Pelagio, Algiers, 1840, Barcelona,
1845. Fctis.

GERNE WILL ICH MICH BEQUE-
MEN, aria in G minor for the bass of Coro
II, with accompaniment of violin and cou-



136



GERNSHEIM




tiuuo, in Jobann Sebastian Bacb's Passion
nacb Matthaus, Part I.

GERNSHEIM, FRIEDRICH, born at
Worms, July 17,
1839, still living,
1889. Pianist, first
instructed by Musik-
director Liebe, then
at Mainz pupil of
Pauer, at Frankfort
of Roseuhaiu and
Hauff, at the Conser-
vatorium, Leipsic, of
Moscheles, Haupt-
mauu, Eietz, and Richter ; finally studied ill
Paris (1855), where he begun also to teach,
and was esteemed as a pianist. In 18G1 he
became director of music at Saarbriicken,
in 18C5 instructor at the Conservatorium
of Cologne, where he conducted three mu-
sical societies, and in 1873 the opera or-
chestra ; in 1872 he was made professor by
the Duke of Gotha, and in 1874 director of
the Couservatoriuni at Rotterdam. Works :
Wiichterlied aus dor Ncujahrsnacht des
Jalires 1200, for male chorus and orchestra,
op. 7 ; Salamis, Siegesgesang der Griecheu,
for do., op. 10 ; RGmische Leichenfeier, for
do., op. 1 ; Gerinania, Eiu deutscher Sieges-
gesaug, for do., op. 24 ; Das Grab im Bu-
sento, for do., op. 52 ; Odins Meeresritt, for
baritone solo, male chorus, and orchestra,
po. 48 ; Nordische Somnieruacht, for mixed
chorus, soli, and orchestra, op. 21 ; Agrip-
pina, scene for contralto or mezzo-soprano,
chorus, and orchestra, op. 45 ; Salve Regina
for soprano solo and female chorus, op. 11 ;
4 Gesilnge for male chorus, op. 40 ; Zwei
Lieder, for do., op. 41 ; Kriegslied, for do. ;
Lied der Stadte, for do., op. 43 ; Festgruss,
for do., op. 49 ; Auf der Wacht, for do., Der
Liebesbote, for mixed chorus ; Waldmeis-
ter's Brautfahrt, overture for full orchestra,
op. 13 ; 2 symphonies for do., op. 32, 46 ;
Concerto for pianoforte, with orchestra, op.
16 ; Fautasiestiick, for violin with orchestra,
op. 33 ; do. for violin, op. 42 ; Elohe nu,
Hebrew song for violoncello with small or-



chestra ; Quintet for pianoforte and strings,
op. 35 ; 3 quartets for do., op. 20 and 47 ;
2 trios for do., op. 28 and 37 ; Quintet for
strings, op. 9 ; 3 quartets for do., op. 25, 31,
and 51 ; 2 sonatas for pianoforte and violin,
op. 4 and 50 ; Sonata for pianoforte and
violoncello, op. 12. Mendel ; Mus. Wochen-
blatt, i. 388, 678 ; iii. 227 ; ix. 66 ; xiv. 476 ;
N. Zeitschr. f. Mus. (1868), 211 ; (1869),
116 ; Allgem. uius. Zeitg. (1865), 34, 116,
339, 343.

GERO, GIOVANNI DE, known asMaistre
Jhan, Italian vocal composer, maestro di
cappella of the cathedral at Orvieto during
the first half of the 16th century. He was
long erroneously identified with Jacobus
Gallus. Works : Syuiphonia quatuor modu-
lata vocibus (Venice, 1543) ; Madrigali a
tre voci, 2 books (ib., 1541, 1555) ; Madri-
gali italiani e cauzoni alia francese, a due
voci, 2 books (Orvieto, 1544, Venice, 1552,
1572, 1582) ; Many detached pieces in va-
rious collections of the time, as in Motetti
della Siuiia (Ferrara, 1539), Selectissiime
ncc 11011 familiarissimfe caiitiones ultra cen-
tum (Augsburg, 1540) ; Cautioues septem,
sex et quiuque vocuni (ib., 1545) ; Conceutus
octo, sex, quinque et quatuor vocuni omnium
jucundissimi (ib., 1545), Jacques Moderne's
fourth Livre de motets (Lyons, 1539). Fc-
tis ; Mendel ; Riemaiin.

GERSBACH, ANTON, boru at Siick-
ingen, Baden, Feb. 21, 1803, died iii
Carlsruhe, Aug. 17, 1848. Pupil of his
brother, Joseph Gersbach, also studied at
Niigeli's Institute, Ziirich. After a short
time spent in Nuremberg and Halle he
taught the pianoforte in Ziirich, and in
1831 succeeded his brother iu the seminary
at Carlsruhe, where he taught singing, the
organ, and harmony. He composed songs
and pianoforte music. Works : 12 varia-
tions for pianoforte ; 30 studies for do. ; 6
four-part songs ; 29 two-part songs (1839) ;
25 children's songs for one and two voices ;
12 motets for male chorus ; Songs. Men-
del ; Fetis ; Riemann ; Allgem. d. Biogr.,
ix. 44.



137



GEESBAGH



GERSBACH, JOSEPH, born at Siick-
iugen, Dec. 22, 1787, died in Carlsruhe, Dec.
3, 1830. He studied at the gymnasium at
Villiugen in the Black Forest in 1800-5,
then at the university in Freiburg. He
taught music in Switzerland in 1808-16,
then in Wiirzburg, Yft'ertcu, Rastatt, and
Nuremberg. In 1823 he received a posi-
tion at the seminary in Carlsruhe, where he
remained until his death. Works : Chorals
in four parts (lN2(i) ; Wandervoglein, col-
lection of four-part songs (1859, 4th ed.) ;
Singvoglein, 30 two-part songs for young
people (1830, 3d ed.) ; Singscliule (1829) ;
Part-songs for mixed and male chorus
(1839). Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 45 ; Mendel ;
Fetis ; Schilling.

(1KUVAIS, CHARLES HUBERT, born
in Paris, Feb. 19, Kill, died there, Jan.
15, 1744. Dramatic composer. MS. motets
by him are in the National Library, Paris.
Four of his operas are mentioned by Fetis,
one of which, Hypernmestre, was partly
written by the Recent (1716). Fetis; La-
rousse ; Hawkins, Hist., v. 381 ; Mendel.

GERVAIS, PIERRE NOEL, born, of
French parents, iu Mannheim, Germany,
about 174G, died in Bordeaux about 1805.
Violinist, pupil of Igna/ Friinzl. He played
at the Concerts Spirituels, Paris, in 17S5, and
was first violinist at the Bordeaux theatre
from 1791. His violin concertos were pub-
lished in Paris. Fetis ; Mendel ; Wasielew-
ski. Die Violine, 269.

GERVASI, LUIGI, Neapolitan compose! 1 ,
pupil at the Naples Conservatorio. Made
his debut as composer with I promessi
sposi, Rome, Teatro Valle, 1834. In 1841
he was in Odessa, director of music at the
Italian opera, where he brought out H casino
di campagua. Fetis ; Mendel.

GESANGE DER FRUHE (Morning
Songs), 5 pieces for the pianoforte, by Uub-
ert Schumann, op. 133, composed in 1853 ;
dedicated to the poetess Bettina. Published
by F. W. Arnold (Elberfeld, 1855).

GESCHOPFE DES PROMETHEUS,
DIE. See Uomiia di Prometeo, Gli.



GESHJS (Gese, Goss), BARTHOLO-
MAUS, born in Miiucheberg, near Frauk-
fort-ou-the-Oder, about 1555, died in Frank-
fort-on-the-Oder about 1613. He lived in
Wittenberg, then settled in Fraukfort-on-
the-Oder, where he was chorister in 1595.
Works : Passion iiaeh Johannes (Witten-
berg, 1588) ; Teutsche geistliche Lieder
(1594) ; Hymui5 vocum (1595) ; Melodise 5
vocum (1598) ; Psalmodia Choralis (1600) ;
Teutsche Lieder Dr. Lutheri und auderer
frommer Christen (1601, 1607, 1608, 1616) ;
Hymni patrum cum cautu (1603) ; Synopsis
Musicro practicsc (1609, 1615, 1618) ; Christ-
liche Musica (1605) ; Christliche Choral-
und Figuralgesiiuge (1611) ; Opus prirnuni
et secuiidum cautiouum ecclesiasticaruiu
(1613) ; Cautioues uuptiales (1614) ; Motet-
t;e Latino-Germanicse (1615) ; Fasciculus
etlicher deutscher und lateinischer Motetten
auf Hochzeiteu und Ehreutage (1616) ; Mis-
SM .">, I! et plurium vocum (1621) ; Vierstim-
miges Handbiirhlein (Ki21) ; Teutsche uud
lateinische Hochzeitsgesange (1624). All-
gem, d. Biogr., ix. 93 ; Fetis ; Riemaun ;
Winterfeld, Der evaug. Kircheugesaug, i.
359.

( : KSTEWITZ, FRIEDRICH CHRIS-
TOPH, born at Prieschka, near Meissen,
Nov. 8, 1753, died in Dresden, Aug. 1,
IMi"). He studied in Leipsic, iu 1770, un-
der his brother-in-law, J. A. Hiller ; was
music director of Bondiui's German theatre
in 17S4, and in 17!>0 director of the royal
Italian opera in Dresden. Works : Dio
Liebe ist siniireich, operetta in one act,
Leipsic, 1781 ; L' orfanella aniericaua, oper-
etta, Dresden, 1790 ; Church music ; Pi-
anoforte music. Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. 128 ;
Mendel ; Fetis.

GESUALDO, CARLO, Principe di Ve-
nosa, born about the middle of the 16th cen-
tury. Amateur composer of madrigals, pu-
pil of Pomponio Nenna. He was a finished
player on the lute and several other instru-
ments, and entertained several composers,
singers, and instrumentalists at his court.
He was one of the first to attempt chromat-



: .



GEVAERT



ic writing. His first five books of madri-
gals were printed iu separate parts (Genoa,
1585). Sirnone Moliuara, maestro of the ca-
thedral of that city, published a complete
edition of them with the title : "Partitura
delli sei libri de' madrigali a cinque voci
dell' Illustrissimo et Eccellentissimo Prin-
cipe cli Venosa, D. Carlo Gesualdo " (Genoa,
1613). Fetis ; Ambros, iv. 236.

GEVAERT, FRANCOIS AUGUSTE,
born at Huysse, near Audeuarde, July 31,
1828. Dramatic composer, pupil in 1841
at the Ghent Conservatoire, where he stud-
ied the pianoforte under Sommere, winning
the first prize in 1843, and harmony under
Meugal. He became organist of the Jesuit
church, and in 184G a Christmas cantata by
him was performed in Ghent. In 1847 he
took the prize given by the Societe des
Beaux-Arts for his cantata, Belgie, and the
grand prix at the Brussels Concours, and in
the same year his psalm, Super flumina
Babylonis, was played at the Zangverbond.
After producing two operas with moderate
success, he went in 1849 to Paris, and then
to Spain, where his fantaisie, Sobre motives
espafioles, won him the Order of Isabella la
Catolica. After a visit to Italy he returned
to Ghent in 1852, and in the following years
brought out, principally in Paris, several suc-
cessful operas, which won him popular favour
iu France as well as at home. In 1857 he
received the Order of Leopold for his can-
tata, De natiouale verjaerdag, for the 25th
anniversary of the reign of Leopold. In
18C7 he became chef-de-chant at the Aca-
demic de Musique, Paris, a post which he
held until the Opera was closed by the War
of 1870. In 1871 he succeeded Fetis at the
Brussels Conservatoire. He was elected in
1873 a member of the Academie des Beaux-
Arts in the place of Mercadante. Works
Operas : Hugues de Somerghem, given in
Ghent, March 23, 1848 ; La comedie de la
ville, ib., 1848 ; Georgette, ou le moulin de
Fonteuoy, Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Nov. 27,
1852 ; Le billet de Marguerite, ib., 1854 ;
Les lavandieres de Santarem, ib., 1855 ;



Quentin Durward, Opera Comique, ib.,
1858 ; Le diable au moulin, ib., 1859 ;
Chateau-Trompette, ib., 1860 ; La poularde
de Caux, ib., 1861 ; Les deux amours, the-
atre of Baden-Baden, 1861 ; Le cupitaine
Heuriot, Opera Comique, Paris, 1864 ; Per-
tinax, 1884. Le depart, cantata for three
voices ; Jerusalem, for double chorus with-
out accompaniment ; Chants lyriqties de
Saiil ; Le Lion Flamand ; Jacques Van Arte-
velde, cantata (1863) ; Ik Speekvanzoo zel-
den ; Many Lieder in the collection Neder-
lansche zangstukken (Ghent) ; Flaudre au
Lion, overture ; Transcriptions classiques



&is-&ertL



pour petit orchestre, for the use of the Con-
servatoire ; Vade-mecum des organistes,
and many other minor works. Clement,
Mua. celebres, 655 ; Fetis, iii. 470 ; do.,
Supplement, i. 375 ; Larousse ; Biemann.

GEYEE, FLODOAEU, born in Berlin,
March 1, 1811, died there, April 30, 1872.
After studying theology he became the
pupil of A. B. Marx in composition, and in
1842 founded the academic Mannergesang-
verein and conducted it ; was also one of the
founders of the Berlin Tonki'mstlerverein.
He taught theory in the Kullak-Stern Con-
servatorium in 1851-54, and remained with
Stern after Kullak's departure until 1866.
In 1856 he received the title of professor.
He composed operas, symphonies, songs,
and chamber music, and was connected
with the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung and
the Speuer'sche Zeitung for a quarter of a
century. Mendel ; Fetis, iii. 472 ; Supple-
ment, i. 376 ; Eiemann.

GHEBART, GIUSEPPE, born in Pied-
mont, Nov. 20, 1796, died iu Milan, Jan. 22,
1870. Violinist, pupil of Kadicati ; he en-
tered the royal chapel in Turin in 1814, and
become solo violinist in 1824. From 1817
he directed the concerts of the Philharmon-
ic Academy, in 1832 was conductor of the
theatre orchestra, and in 1846 of the royal



139



GHEEARDESCHI



chapel and chamber music. Works : Violin
concertos, quartets, and quintets ; Church
music. Mendel, Ergiinz., 122 ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, i. 37(5 ; "\Yasielewski, Die Violiue,
107.

GHERARDESCHI (Gheradesca), FILIP-
PO, born at Pistoja 111 1738, died at Pisa
in 1808. Dramatic composer and organist,
pupil of Bosamelli, and subsequently of
Padre Martini in Bologna. His first opera
buft'a was given in Lucca in 17G3 ; one pro-
duced at Pisa, in 17G9, on the occasion of
the visit of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tus-
cany, won him his nomination of maestro
di cappella to the conventual chapel of the
Knights of Pisa, and the position of director
of the court music and teacher of the pi-
anoforte to the ducal family. When Leo-
pold became Emperor. ( Iberardesehi re-
mained at the ducal court of Ferdinand
III., and later became maestro to Louis I.
de iJoiirbon, King of Etruria, for \\hose
funeral ceremony he wrote a Requiem mass,
considered one of his best works (ISO:!).
Works Operas: Amor jirligi.-ino, opera
bufl'a, Lucca, 17(53 ; II ciirioso iudiscrcto.
ib., 17(54; I visionari. ib., 17i>."> : La Coii-
tessina, ib., 17(50 ; L' astuzia felice, ib.,
1767; I due Gobbi, Pisa, 17C9. Fetis ;
Mendel ; Schilling.

GHERARDESCHI, GIl'SKIM'F., horn in
I'istojn, Nov. 4, 1759, died there in 1815.
Organist, nephew of Filippo Gherardeselii.
pupil of liis father, who was maestro di eap-
pella of the cathedral at Pistoja, and of
Sala ill Naples; he succeeded his ratlin.
He wrote much church music, which re-
mained in manuscript. An opera L' appa-
renza inganna, was given at Mantua, 17S2.
and at Florence, 1784. Fetis ; do.. Sup-
plement, i. 376 ; Mendel; do., Ergi'm/., 122.

GHERARDESCHI, LVK1I, Lorn at Pis-
toja, July 5, 1791, died there, March 21,
1871. Church composer, son and pupil of
Giuseppe Gherardeschi, then at the acade-
my of Florence pupil of Disraa Ugolini in
counterpoint and composition, for which
he carried off the first prize ; returned to



his native city, where he succeeded his
father as maestro di cappella at the cathe-
dral. Besides a cantata, Cristoforo Colom-
bo, performed at the Academy of Pistoja,
he has composed a great number of masses,
psalms, hymns, and motets, partly a cap-



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