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for his cantata, Waterloo. His opera-co-
mique, Edmond et Henriette, was repre-
sented at Bruges, Sept. 15, 1819. He com-
posed church music also. Fetis, Supple-
ment, i. 381 ; Mendel, Ergitnz., 124

GILES, NATHANIEL, born in Worces-
tershire, England, about the middle of the
16th century, died at Windsor, Jan. 24,
1633. Organist, chorister of Magdalen Col-
lege, Oxford, in 1559-61, and clerk of the
same in 1577. In 1595 he was clerk, or-
ganist, and master of the choristers in St.
George's chapel, Windsor, and in 1597
gentleman and master of the children of
the Chapel Royal. Mus. Bac., Oxford,
1585, Mus. Doc., 1622. He contributed to
Leighton's " Teares or Lameutacions of a
Sorrowfull Soule " (1614) ; A service and
anthem by him were printed in Barnard's
Church Music (1641), and other anthems
are in MS. Hawkins prints a curious
" Lesson of Descant of thirtie eighte Pro-
portions of sundrie kindes," in the Appen-
dix to his History of Music. Grove ; Fetis.

GILLE ET GILLOTIN, opera-comique
in one act, in verse, text by Thomas Sauvage,
music by Ambroise Thomas, represented at
the Opera Comique, April 22, 1874. It was
written in 1861. Clement, Diet. Lyr., Sup-
plement, iii.

GILLES, JEAN, born at Tarascon in
1669, died in 1705. Maitre de chapelle at
Aix, Provence, and subsequently at Agde.
Celebrated in the south of France for his
church compositions, he was called in 1697



to direct the niaitrise of Saint-Etienne,
Toulouse. A famous Messe des Morts by
him, preserved in the National Library,
Paris, was played at Rameau's funeral cere-
monies. Fetis ; Mendel, iv. 246 ; Ergiinz,
124 ; Gerber.

GILLIERS, JEAN CLAUDE, born in
Paris in 1667, died there in 1757. Dra-
matic composer, first violin at the Comvdie
Franyaise, one of the first writers of music
for vaudevilles, divertissements, etc., at the
Comedie Italienne and the Comedie Fran-
raise. Works : L'hynu'nee royal, 1699 ;
Ccphale et Procris, 1711 ; La foire de Gui-
bray, Le tombeau de Nostradamus, 1714;
Parody on Telemaque, La ceiuture de Ve-
nus, 1715 ; Les dieux a la foire, 1724 ;
L'amante retrouvee, 1727 ; Saucho Panya,
gouverneur, ou la bagatelle, Le bouquet
du roi, 1730 ; La niece vengee, ou la dou-
ble surprise, 1731 ; La fille sauvage, Le
pot-pourri comique, Sophie et Sigismond,
1732 ; La premiere representation, Lucas
et Perrette, 1734, etc. Fetis, Supplement,
i. 381 ; Poisot, Hist, de la Mus. en France.

GIMENEZ HUGALDE, CIRIAQUE,
born in Pampeluna, Spain, Feb. 5, 1S28,
still living, 1889. Church composer, pupil
at the Madrid Conservatorio of Eslava. He
was maestro de capilla of the primatial
church of Toledo in 1865. Works: Motets ;
Masses ; Psalms, etc. A Miserere by him
is celebrated. Fetis, Supplement, i. 382 ;
Mendel, Ergiinz., 124.

GIMENO, JOAQUIN, born at Santo Do-
mingo de la Calzada, Nov. 21, 1817, died at
Nivelles, Brabant, Nov. 29, 1849. Church
composer, member in 1834 of the Society of
Jesus, Madrid. On the suppression of the
religious orders in Spain he went to Bel-
gium, and taught in the College of Saint-
Michel, Brussels. His church compositions
have an orchestral as well as an organ ac-
companiment. Fetis ; Mendel.

GINESTET, (FRANCOIS REGIS) PROS-
PER, Vicomte DE, born at Aix, Provence,
about 1796, died in 1860. Dramatic com-
poser, served in the Gardes du Corps under



147



GINOUVfiS



Louis XVHL Works Operas : L'orphc-
lin et le brigadier, given in Paris, 1827 ;
Francois lier a Chambord, ib., 1830 ; Le
mort fiance, ib., 1833. Pianoforte and violin
music. Fetis, iv. G ; do., Supplement, i.
382 ; Larousse ; Mendel.

GINOUVES, FERDINAND, born at Cay-
enne in 1844, died at Marseilles, August,
1888. Pianist, pupil from 185G at the Mar-
seilles Conservatoire, where bo won the
pianoforte prize ; became professor of the
pianoforte in 18G7. Wrote operas-comiques.
Works : Wilfride, grand opera in five acts,
given at Marseilles, 18(59 ; Le violou de
Stradivarius, opera-comique, ib., 1877.
Songs, etc. Fetis, Supplement, i. 3s

GIOCONDA, LA, opera in four acts, text
by Arrigo Boito, music by Amilcare Pon-
chielli, first represented at La Seala, Milan,
April 8, 1876. The libretto is an adapta-
tion of Victor Hugo's drama, " Angelo."
This opera, one of the best of the modern
Italian school, had a success in Italy ex-
ceeded by A'ida only. It had the same en-
thusiastic reception at the Tcatro Carln
Felice, Genoa, and the Pagliano, Florence,
as at Milan.

GIORDANI, Padre DOMKNICO AN-
T< >NIO, church composer, maestro di cap-
pella of the Cathedrals of Narni and Itieti,
and of the church of the SS. Apostoli in
Rome ; became a monk in the convent of
Rocca Siuibalda. His offertories were pub-
lished in Rome in 1724. Fetis ; Mendel.

GIORDAXI, GIUSEPPE (called II Gior-
danello), born in Naples in 1744 (1753 ?),
died at Fermo, Jan. 4, 1798. Dramatic com-
poser, violinist, and pianist, pupil at theCon-
servatorio of Loreto, where he was a fellow-
student of Cimarosa and Zingarelli. Joined
his family, 1772, in London, whither they
had gone in 17G2, and became composer for
the troupe they formed. Was also much in
vogue as a teacher, and published a great deal
of violin music, lessons for the harpsichord,
etc., between 1776 and 1782. Returned to
Italy and remained there ten years, produc-
ing in that time 24 operas, and oratorios ;



went to Lisbon to conduct Italian opera, and
in 1791 was called to Fermo, as maestro di
cappella of the cathedral. Works Operas:
L' astuto in imbroglio, given at Pisa, 1771 ;
Artaserse, pasticcio, London, 1772 ; Anti-
gouo, ib., 1773 ; II bacio, opera buffa, ib.,
1774-79 ; H ritoruo d' Ulisse, Mantua, 1782 ;
Aconiato, Pisa, 1783 ; Erifile, Bergamo,
1783 ; Epponinia, Novara, 1783 ; Elpinice,
Bologna, 1784 ; Tito Maulio, Genoa, 1784 ;
Pizzarro noil' Indie, Florence, 1784 ; Osmane,
Bergamo, 1785 ; La Yestale, Modena, 178G ;
Ifigenia in Aulide, L' impegno, ossia chi la
fa' 1' aspetta, Ferdinando nel Messico, Rome,
1786 ; I ripieghi fortuuati, intermezzo, Al-
ciade e Telesia, Rome, 1787 ; Cajo Ostilio,
Faenza, 1788; Ariarate, Turin, 1788; La
distruzioue di Gerusalemme, II corrivo,
Naples, 1788 ; La disfatta di Dario, Milan,
ITS* ; (<aj,, Mario, Venice, 1790 ; Medonte,
re d' Epiro, Rome, 1791 ; Don Mitrillo cou-
trastato, Venice, 1791 ; Atalauta, Turin,
1792 ; Dome-trio. La morte d' Abele, ora-
torio, performed at lesi, 1785 ; Le tre ore
d' agouia di N. S. Giesti Cristo, do. (MS.
in the royal library, Berlin). Instrumental
music : G quintets for pianoforte ; 3 quar-
tets for do. ; 30 trios ; 6 string quartets ; 3
concertos for violin and orchestra ; besides
church music and vocal music, including lit-
anies, psalms, 5 books of cauzonette for one
voice. Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemaim ; Schil-
ling.

GIORDANI, TOMMASO, born in Naples
in 1744, died in Dublin after 1816. Singer,
composer, and teacher, brother of Giuseppe
Giordani, with whom he is of ten confounded ;
he was one of a family of opera buffa sing-
ers in Naples, consisting of a father, two
sons, and three sisters, who went to Eng-
land in 17G2 and played at the Haymarket.
He went to Dublin in 1779, associated with
Leoni to establish an opera, but, failing, set-
tled there as teacher. Works : Perseve-
rance, or the third time is the best, opera,
given at Dublin, 1789 ; Isaac, oratorio ; 5
books of duos for flute (London, 1775-
1783) ; 6 trios for flutes, and violoncello ; 6



IIS



GIOKGETTI



do. for flutes aud bass ; G duos for violon-
cellos, op. 5 ; Songs, Italian and English,
and pianoforte music. Grove ; Fetis ; Men-
del.

GIORGETTI, FEBDINANDO, born in
Florence, June 25, 1796, died there, March
23, 18G7. Violinist, pupil of Francesco
Giuliani. At the age of fifteen he was vio-
linist in the band of the Queen of Etruria.
Illness in 1814 making him an invalid, he
took up composition and teaching, studying
harmony under Disma Ugoliui. In 1839
he became professor of the violin at the
Lyceo, Florence, where he formed many ex-
cellent pupils, among whom were Giuseppe
Giovacchini, Corazzi, Ferroni, and Bruui.
Works : Le turbe nel deserto, oratorio ;
Violin music ; Church music. Fetis, iv. 9 ;
do., Supplement, i. 383 ; Mendel, iv. 248 ;
do., Ergiinz., 124 ; Schilling.

GIORGI, GIOVANNI, born about the
end of the 17th century, died in January,
1725. Maestro di cappella of the Chapel of
S. Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, in 1719.
Works : Church music, preserved in MS. in
S. Giovanni in Laterano and in S. M. Mag-
giore. Fetis, iv. 10 ; Mendel, iv. 248.

GIORGIS, GIUSEPPE, born in Turin in
1777, died(?). Violinist, pupil of Colla.
He appeared in Paris as a virtuoso in 1807,
entered the royal chapel in Cassel, made
concert tours in 1813, and settled in 1820
in Paris, where, in 1823-34, he was first
violin at the Opera Comique. He composed
trios, duets, and other pieces for the violin.
Mendel ; Fetis ; Wasielewski, Die Vio-
line, 131.

GIORNO D' ORRORE. See Semira-
mide.

GIORNOVICHI (Jarnovich), GIOVANNI
MANE, born at Palermo, Sicily, in 1745,
died in St. Petersburg, Nov. 21, 1804.
Violin virtuoso, pupil of Lolli, made his first
concert tour to Paris in 1770, and won great
success in the Concerts Spirituels by his
elegant style of playing as well as with his
own compositions. Called to Berlin in 1779,
he belonged to the orchestra of the Crown



Prince until 1783, when he started on a
concert tour, crowned with brilliant success,
to St. Petersburg, Warsaw, Vienna (178G),
and other capitals. In London he was with-
out a rival until 1792, when Viotti appeared
there, aud he could have held his own
against this master, but for his irregular
life and arrogant behaviour which made him
unbearable there, as before in Paris and
Berlin. In 1796 he went to Hamburg,
whence he visited Berlin again in 179G and
1802, winning undiminished applause ; in
1802 he went to St. Petersburg, and was
the lion of the day until Rode's arrival.
Struck by apoplexy, he died suddenly while
playing at billiards. His compositions, much
in favour in their time, consist of 1C con-
certos, 7 symphonies, 6 string quartets, 16
duos for violins, sonatas for violin and bass,
and variations. Fetis, iv. 429 ; Mendel ;
Schilling.

GIORZA, PAOLO, born in Milan in 1832,
still living, 1889. The sou of an organist
and singer, who gave him his first musical
instruction, he is a composer of the higher
class of ballet music peculiar to Italy. He
has written more than forty ballets, some of
which have had a successful run in many of
the larger cities of Europe. His one opera,
Corrado, console di Milauo, Milan, I860,
was not successful. He is the author also
of much dance music, published in the form
of albums. During the war of 18GG he wrote
a martial hymn for Garibaldi at the lat-
ter's request. Principal ballets : Un fallo,
Milan, 1853 ; I Biauchi ed i Negri, ib., 1853 ;
Uii' avventura di Carnevale a Parigi, Genoa,
1863 ; Farfalletta, London, 1863 ; La mas-
:hera, Paris, 1864 ; Fiammella, Milan, 1866 ;
La Capanna dello zio Tom, Florence ; Fol-
gore ; La Silfide a Pechino (with Madoglio
and Sarti) ; Un ballo nuovo ; Cherubina, o
.a rosa di Posilippo ; Pedrilla ; etc. Fetis,
Supplement, i. 383 ; Mendel, Erganz., 124.

GIOSA, NICOLA DA, born at Ban, May
5, 1820, died there, July 7, 1885. Dramatic
composer, pupil at the Naples Conserva-
iorio, under Pasquale Bongiorno for flute,



GIOVANELLI



Buggi for counterpoint, Zingarelli and Don-
izetti for composition. He was maestro
di cappella at different times at the San
Carlo, Naples, the Fenice, Venice, and at
the Italian theatres at Buenos Ayres and at
Cairo. His first opera, produced in 1842,
was favourably received, and his Don Checco,
his best work, represented in 1850, had a
greater success than any opera buffa had
enjoyed for nearly a quarter of a century,
and still holds its place in the theatres of
Italy, but none of his many other works
met the popular taste. His albums of vocal
music, containing romances, melodies, can-
zoni, etc., more than twenty of which were
published in Naples, had a great success.
Among them are the following : La cetra
eapriceiosa, 5 melodies ; Stornelli d' amore,
f> ; Gioja c dnlore, 6 ; Le canzoni d' Italia, -4 ;
Sereiiata di Mergellina, 6 ; Eeo dell' oceano,
I! ; etc. Beside^ these he published masses,
cantatas, and instrumental pieces. Fetis,
iv. 11 ; do., Supplement, i. 385 ; Mendel.
Ergiinz., 12") ; Riemami.

GIOYANKLLI, RUGGIERO, born at
Yelletri, near
Jtmiic, about
15i;i>, died after
1G15. One of
the best compos-
ers of the l<< >in in
school, but little
is known of his
life. He was
maestro di cap-
pella of S. Luigi

de' Francesi, Rome, in 15H7, and later of
the Chiesa dell' Anima of the German Col-
lege, and was appointed in 1594 succe-, ..>r
to I'alestrina at St. Peter's. In 15!)',) he be-
came a member of the Sistine choir. He
was living in 1G15, in which year he pub-
lished the second volume of his new edition
of the Graduate, undertaken at the request
of Paul V., and magnificently printed at
the Medici press. Works : 3 books of five-
part madrigals (1586, 1587, 1589) ; 2 books,
four-part madrigali sdruccioli (1587) ; 2




books, five- and eight-part motets and three-
part canzonets (1592) ; Villanelle a 3 voci
(1593) ; Villanelle a 5 voci (1608) ; Masses,
motets, psalms in MS. in the Vatican, among
them a Miserere for four and eight voices
and a mass for eight, on Palestrina's madri-
gal Vestiva i colli. Other madrigals are in
the collections of Scotto and Phalesius ; and
motets and psalms in those of Fabio Con-
stant iui and Proske. Fetis ; Grove ; La-
rousse.

GIOVANI LIETI. See Nozze di Figaro.

GIG V ANN A D' ARCO (Joan of Arc), Ital-
ian opera in three acts, text by Solera, mu-
sic by Verdi, first represented at La Scala,
Milan, Feb. 15, 1845. It was given in Paris,
at the Italieus, March 28, 1868, with Patti,
Nicolini, and Steller in the cast, but with-
out success. The score contains numbers
of great merit, but the libretto is weak and
ridiculous. Hanslick, 222.

GIOVENTU DI ENRICO QUINTO, LA
(The Youth of Henry the Fifth), Italian
opera buffa in two acts, text by Laudri-
ani the composer, music by Hcrold, repre-
sented at the Teatro del Fondo, Naples,
1815. The libretto is an adaptation from
Dnval's comedy, "La jeunesse de Henri V."
The opera, written in the third year of He-
rold's residence in Italy as a pensioner of the
Academic de France, was a success. The li-
bretto was printed (Naples, 1815) anony-
mously, but the music remains in MS.
Operas of the same title are by J. Mosca,
Palermo, 1817 ; Carlini, Naples and Milan,
1820 ; Paciui, Rome, 1821 ; Moiiacchi, Dres-
den, 1823 ; Garcia, New York, 1827 ; and
Mercadantr, Milan, 1834. Grove, i. 731.

GIPPENBUSCH, JACOB, born in Speyer
in 1612, died July 3, 1664. Entered the
Order of Jesuits in 162!), taught the classics
in Cologne, and at the same time acted as
choir-master. Published hymns and mo-
tets. Mendel ; Fetis ; Gerber.

GIPSY'S WARNING, THE, English ro-
mantic opera, text by Linley, music by Ju-
lius Benedict, first represented at the Ly-
ceum Theatre, London, 1838. This work,



150



GIEALDA



Benedict's first English opera, was given
afterwards in Berlin and other German cities.

GIIIALDA, ou la uouvelle Psycho, opera-
comique in three acts, text by Scribe, mu-
sic by Adolphe Adam, first represented at
the Opera Comique, Paris, July 20, 1850.
A king of Spain, accompanied by his queen
on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela,
stops at the farm of Giues, the betrothed
of Giralda. She is secretly in love with a
cavalier whom she has met, but whose face
she has never seen, he being obliged to con-
ceal himself on account of some political in-
trigue. He (Don Manoel) gives farmer Gines
sis hundred ducats to let him take his place
at the altar on his wedding-day, and so be-
comes the husband of Giralda. On the arri-
val of the king he is obliged to take to flight,
and during his absence poor Giralda believes
herself in turn wedded to Gines and then
to an old seigneur named Don Japhet ; but
at last the queen secures the pardon of Don
Manoel, and he returns to claim his bride.
This work, the best of the composer's from
a musical point of view, was well interpreted
by Miles Miolau and Meyer, and by Messrs.
Bussiue, Audran, Saiute-Foy, and Ricquier.
It met with great success throughout France
and in Germany, and was revived in Paris
in 1802 and 1876. Pougin, Adolphe Adam,
204 ; Larousse, viii. 12G7.

GIRANEK, ANTON, born in Bohemia
about 1712, died at Dresden, Jan. 16, 1761.
Violinist, lived for some years in Prague,
then went to Warsaw, where he became
first violinist in the royal orchestra, after-
wards director of music in Dresden. He
composed 24 concertos for the violin, and
several concertos for pianoforte, flute, and
viola di gamba. Fetis ; Mendel.

GIRARD, NARCISSE, born at Mantes,
France, Jan. 27, 1797, died in Paris, Jan.
16, 1860. Dramatic composer, pupil at the
Paris Conservatoire, from 1817, of Baillot
for violin ; won the 2d prize in 1819 and
the 1st in 1820. He studied counterpoint
under Reicha. In 1830-32 he was conductor
of the orchestra at the Opera Italieu, and in



1837-46 at the Opera Comique. In 1846
he succeeded Habeueck at the Opera, and in
1856 became director in chief there. Ho
also became in 1847 Habeueck's successor
as professor of the violin in the Conserva-
toire, and chef d'orchestre of the Societe
des Concerts. Legion of Honour, 1843.
Works Operas : Les deux voleurs, Opera
Comique, Paris, 1841 ; Le conseil des dix,
ib., 1842. He arranged Beethoven's Sonate
pathetique as a symphony, and gave it at a
concert in Paris presided over by Liszt in
1832. F6tis ; Larousse.

GIRAUD, FRANCOIS JOSEPH, French
composer of the 18th century. Violoncel-
list, member of the orchestra at the Opera,
Paris, in 1752-67 musician of the royal
chapel and of the King's chamber music.
Several of his motets were played at the
Concerts Spirituals. He wrote Deucalion
et Pyrrha (with Bertou pere), 1755 ; and
L'opera de societe, 1762. He published a
book of sonatas for the violoncello. Fetis,
iv. 14 ; do., Supplement, i. 385 ; Mendel.

GIRBERT, CHRISTOPH HEINRICH,
born at Friihnstockheim, near Crailsheim,
Wurtemberg, July 8, 1751, died in Baireuth
about 1826. Pupil of his step-father in
singing, pianoforte, and organ, then of Can-
tor Stadler, and settled in Baireuth as a
teacher in 1769. Became music director
of Schmidt's travelling company in 1784,
bringing out seven of his operettas, and re-
turned to teaching in Baireuth. Works :
Two symphonies for 8 and 10 instruments ;
Four concertos for pianoforte ; Eleven for
do. ; Five quartets for violins. Mendel ;
Fetis.

GIROFLE'-GIROFLA, opera-boufl'e in
three acts, text by Vanloo and Leterrier,
music by Charles Lecocq, first represented
at the Theatre des Fantaisies Parisieunes,
Brussels, March 21, 1874. The plot turns
on the confounding of Girofle and Girofla,
the two daughters of Don Bolero d'Alcara-
zas, one of whom is promised in marriage
to the banker Marasquin, and the other to
the Moorish warrior Mourzouk. It was



GIUOUST



given in Paris, at the Theatre de la Renais-
sance, Nov. 11, 1874.

GIROUST, FRANgOIS, born in Paris,
April 9, 1730, died in Versailles, Aug. 28,
1799. When maitre de musique in the
metropolitan church in Orleans, his psalm,
Super flumina Babylonis, won the 1st prize
in 1768 at a government concours, he being
awarded also the 2d prize. In consequence
lie was called to Paris to become maitre de
chapelle of the Church des Innocents, and
he subsequently held a similar position in
the royal chapel, and in 1775 became super-
intendent of the king's music. His orato-
rios were played at the Concerts Spirituals,
among them, Le passage dc la Mer Rouge.
His motets were composed for the royal
chapd. His music is preserved in the
national library, Paris. Fetis ; Larousse ;
Mendel.

GIRSCHNER, CHRISTIAN FRIED-
RICH JOHANN (or Karl, according to
Mrudel), born at Spandau in 1794, died at
Libourue (Gironde) in June, I860. Dra-
matic and church composer, studied music
at Frankfort-ou-the-Oder, and in 1820 went
to Berlin, where he held a position as or-
g.'inist for two years. Logier arriving then
in Berlin, to establish a school for his new
method of musical instruction, Girschner
allied himself with him, and in 1822 became
director of the Logier Academy, which
flourished, however, for scarcely ten years.
In 1833 he was editor of the Berliner inu-
sikalische Zeitung, and, having occupied
various positions at Potsdam, Dautzic, Jena,
and Aix-la-Chapelle, he finally obtained an
appointment as organist of the Lutheran
chapel at Brussels in 1840, and was made
professor of the organ at the Conservatoire
in the year following. His intemperate
habits unfortunately led to his resignation
from both positions in 1848, after which he
lived for a few months at Ghent ; for sev-
eral years nothing was heard of him, until
1851, when he appeared as chef d'orchestre
of a theatre at Rochefort, France. Works :
Undine, opera, given in Berlin, 1830 ; Die



drei Schulmeister, do., ib., 1834 ; Sympho-
nies, overtures, psalms, and songs. Fetis ;
Mendel.

GISELLE, ou les Willis, fantastic ballet
in two acts, text by Theophile Gautier and
Saint-Georges, music by Adolphe Adam,
first represented at the Opera, Paris, June
28, 1841. Subject derived from a Slav
legend related by Heinrich Heine in " De
1'Allemagne " (ii. GO), concerning a noc-
turnal dance called in the Slav countries
the Willi. Willis are betrothed girls, who,
having died before their wedding-day, can-
not lie quiet in their graves, but come out at
midnight in their wedding-garments and,
crowned with roses, dance in the moon-
light like elves. If they meet any young
man, they force him to dance with them
until he falls dead. Pougin, Adolphe
Adam, 156 ; Larousse, viii. 1280.

GIUDITTA (Judith), oratorio, by An-
tonio Lotti, written for Venice.

GIUDITTA, oratorio, text and music by
Benedetto Marcello, 1710.

GIULIANI, FRANCESCO, born in Flor-
ence in 1760, died after 1819. Violinist
and pianist, pupil of Nardiui on the violin,
and of Bartolommeo Felici in counterpoint;
when quite young he became first violin at
the Teatro Nuovo in Florence. His violin
music was printed in Berlin, Amsterdam,
and London ; he composed also vocal mu-
sic. Fetis ; Mendel.

GIULIANI, GIOVANNI DOMENICO,
born in Lucca about 1670, died in 1730.
He was maestro di cappella of the Church
of San Michele in Foro of his native place.
His masses, motets, and psalms are still
preserved there, and are occasionally per-
formed. Mendel, Ergauz., 125 ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, i. 387.

GIULIANI, MAURO, born in Bologna
about 1780, died (?). Famous guitarist and
composer. He settled in Vienna in 1807,
was in Rome in 1821, then in St. Peters-
burg for several years. He wrote much
music for guitar and orchestra, two guitars,
etc. Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling.



152



GIULIO



GIULIO CESARE, Italian opera in three
acts, text by Nicolo Francesco Hayni, music
by Handel, first represented at the King's
Theatre, London, Feb. 20, 1724. The orig-




benesino.

inal MS. score, in the Buckingham Palace
collection, is dated 1723. Characters rep-
resented : Giulio Cesare, Curio, Cornelia,
Sesto Pompeo, Cleopatra, Tolomeo, Achilla,
Nireno. Senesiuo (Francesco Bernardi,
called) created a profound impression in
this work by his magnificent delivery of the
accompanied recitative, "Alma del gran
Pompeo." Giulio Cesare often reappeared
on the stage, the last time in 1787, when
George III. attended the theatre. Published
first by Cluer ; full score, Handelgesell-
schaft (Leipsic, 1875). Rockstro, Handel,
139 ; Reissmann, 92 ; Schcelcher, 70, 90 ;
Chrysantler, ii. 10G.

GIULIO SABINO, Italian opera in three
acts, text by Metastasio, music by Giu-
seppe Sard, represented at the Teatro San
Benedetto, Venice, 1781. Subject founded
on the story of Julius Sabiuus, a noble
Gaul who, in the time of Vespasian, joined
Civilis in the revolt against the Roman
yoke. Defeated and forced to fly for his
life, he pretended to burn himself in his
country house, but escaped in the disguise of
a peasant and hid himself in a cave in the
depths of a forest, where he lived, attended
by two servants and by his faithful wife
Eppouina, nine years. Betrayed at last, he
was delivered up to Vespasian, who sent



both to punishment, Eppouina demanding
to be permitted to die with her husband.
In the opera the denouement is changed:
the two prepare to die together when Ti-



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