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handed to Siegfried by Gutrune, makes the



hero forget Briinnhilde, and love Gutrune.
Siegfried sues forthwith for Gutrune's
hand ; Gunther promises her to him, if he
will first help him win Briinuhilde for his
1 wife. Siegfried consents, and, disguising
himself as Gunther, by means of the Tarn-
helm, repairs to the BrUnnhildenstein,
wrenches the King from Brimnhilde's fin-
ger, and brings her captive to Gunther. In
the second act Siegfried, having doffed the
Tarnhelm, appears in his own shape ; Briiuu-
hilde claims him as her husband, but he,
still under the spell of Hageu's potion, dis-
claims all knowledge of her. She espies the
Ring on his finger, and sees that it was he,
and not Guuther, who brought her by force
from the BrUnnhildenstein. Both Gunther
and Briinnhilde think that Siegfried has
wittingly played them false, and, still further
incited thereto by Hagen, they plot Sieg-
fried's death. In the third act Siegfried,
one of a hunting party, comes to the banks
of the Rhine ; the Rhine-daughters beseech
him to restore the Ring to them, prophesy-
ing his death if he should keep it, but he
refuses to give it up. He is joined by Gun-
thiT, Hagen, and others, and during the
noontide rest Hagen asks him to tell the
story of his life. In the midst of the nar-
rative Hagen offers Siegfried a draught, a
counterpotion to the one given him in the
first act ; the young hero, his memory now
restored, proceeds to tell how he first won
Briinnhilde on the heights of the Briinn-
hildensteia (Siegfried, Actiii., So. 3). Gun-
ther springs up in horror ; "NVotan's ravens
llv up from a bush hard by, and as Sieg-
fried, startled by the whir of wings, turns
round to look after them, Hagen plunges
his spear into his back. Siegfried dies with
Briinnhilde's name on his lips ; the men
raise his body upon his shield, and bear it
home in solemn procession. On reaching
Gunther's dwelling, Hagen and Gunther
quarrel, and the latter is killed ; Hagen
tries to take the Ring from Siegfried's fin-
ger, but the dead arm raises itself and warns
him off with threatening gesture. While



GOTT



Gutruue is bewailing her hero's death,
Briimihilde appears, and claims him for her
o\vu ; she orders a fimeral pyre to be built,
aud, as the men lift Siegfried's body upon
it, draws the Ring from his finger and puts
it on her own. She lights the pyre with a
torch, aud, mounting her horse Graue, leaps
into the flames. The Rhine overflows its
1 milks into the hall, bearing with it the
Rhine-daughters, who recover the Ring and
drag Hagen, plunging into the waves after
them in delirium, down to the depths. A
ruddy glow lights up the northern sky, be-
tokening the end of Valhalla, and the Dusk
of the Gods : the RaguarOk of Northern
mythology.

Of the four Nibelungen dramas, GOtter-
dammerung is the one in which there is the
most of incident and dramatic action. As
in all of the dramas of Wagner's third pe-
riod, the music is not divided into distinct
numbers, but is a continuous working out
of characteristic Leitmotivs, most of which
have already appeared in the earlier parts of
the tetralogy. The music after Siegfried's
death has become familiar in the concert-
room under the misnomer of "Siegfried's
Funeral March," and Briinuhilde'w last
speech over the hero's body, beginning,
" Schweigt cures Jammers jauchzendeii
Swall !," is frequently given apart from the
rest of the work. The orchestral interlude
(scherzo) between the Prologue and Act i.,
known as Siegfried's Rheiufahrt " (S.'s trip
up the Rhine), which was written before the
rest of the music, is sometimes played also
at concerts. Gotterdammeruug was first
given in America at the Metropolitan Opera
House, New York, Jan. 25, 1888. Krehbiel,
Review (1887-88), 87 ; for other bibliog-
raphy, see liinrj des Nibeluugen.

GOTT ERHALTE FRANZ DEN KAI-
SER (God save Franz the Emperor), com-
monly called the Emperor's Hymn, the
national anthem of Austria. The words
were written by Loreuz Leopold Haschka,
in 1796, during the patriotic fervour caused
by the movements of the French army, were



set to music for four voices by Haydn, in
January, 1797, and were sung first on the
Emperor's birthday, Feb. 12, 1797. Haydn
subsequently used it as a theme for varia-
tions in his Kaiserquartet (op. 76, No. 3).
A. Schmid, J. Haydn uiid N. Zingarelli
(Venice, 1847).

GOTTES ZEIT 1ST DIE ALLERBESTE
ZEIT (God's Time is the best of aU Time),
cantata for soli and chorus, with accompani-
ment of two flutes, two viole da gamba, and
continue, otherwise called the Actus Tragi-
cus, by Johanii Sebastian Bach, written at
Weimar, probably in memory of Magister
Philipp Grossgebauer, rector of the school
there, who died in 1711. It is sometimes
called also the Mourning Cantata. Though
one of the composer's youthful compositions,
it has always been a favourite of the best mu-
sical critics. Published, edited by Robert
Franz, by Leuckhart (Leipsic, 185G). Spit-
ta, i. 451 ; Upton, Standard Cantatas, 33.

GOTT FAHRET AUF MIT JAUCHZEN,
cantata, festo Asceusionis Christi, for soli
and chorus, with accompaniment of three
trumpets, drums, two oboes, strings com-
plete, and continuo, by Johann Sebastian
Bach (Bachgesellschaft, No. 43). Publish-
ed in full and pianoforte score, with ad-
ditional accompaniments by Robert Franz,
Breslau, Leuckart.- Spitta, Bach, ii. 550.

GOTTHARD, J. P. (real name Pazdirek),
born at Drahauowitz, Moravia, Jan. 19, 1839,
still living, 1889. He was a choir-boy at
Altwasser, and finally solo soprano at the
cathedral in Olmiitz. He attended the gym-
nasium in Vienna, where he was the pupil
of Simon Sechter in composition. He
founded a musical establishment in 1868 in
Vienna. In his hall he established a series
of concerts, where young musicians ap-
peared. Works : Mass for soli, chorus and
orchestra, op. 66 ; 149th psalm, for do., op.
63 ; Ofi'ertorium, for do., op. 65 ; do. for
soprano and tenor, with strings, 2 horns
and organ, op. 67 ; Graduale, for tenor,
with flute, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns,
and double-bass, op. 64 ; Ave Maria, for



175



GOTT



Tenor solo and male chorus, with organ,
op. 39; Liebesgliick, song in dance form.
for a voice, with orchestra, op. 62 ; Con-
cert overture, for orchestra ; Quintet for
pianoforte and strings, op. 60 ; Andante
ongarese, for string quartet, op. 68 ; Cho-
ruses for male voices, op. 10, 19, 24, 32, 34,
35, 38, 41, 46, 69 ; Pianoforte music and
songs.

GOTT 1ST GERECHT, bass aria in B-
flat, with accompaniment of three oboes
and continue, in Johauu Sebastian Bach's
cantata for Dom. I post Triuit., " O Ewig-
keit, du Donuerwort " (Bachgesellschaft,
No. 20); published separately, with addi-
tional accompaniments by Robert Franz, by
V. Whistling, Leipsic, 1860.

GOTTLOB! NUN GEHT DAS JAHR
ZU ENDE, soprano aria in A minor, with
accompaniment of 2 oboes, taille, strings
complete, and contiuuo, in Johaim SeKi^-
tiau Bach's cantata for Dom. post Nativ.
Cliristi, " Gottlob ! Nun geht das Jahr zu
Ende " (Bachgesellschaft, No. 28) ; published
separately, with additional accompaniments
by Robert Franz, by F. Whistling, Leipsic,
I860.

GOTTSCHALK, LOUIS MOREAU, born
at Ne\v Orleans,
Louisiana, May S,
1829, died at Kio
tic Janeiro, Dec.
18, 1869. Pianist,
pupil in Paris of
Charles Halle and
of Stamaty on the
pianoforte, and of
M a 1 e d e n in har-
mony ; appeared
first iu public in

1845, then made a concert tour through
France, Switzerland, and Spain, meeting
everywhere with brilliant success. In 1853
he returned to America, and made a suc-
cessful tour through the United States,
Cuba, and South America, whither he went
from San Francisco in 1865. Endowed
with a poetic imagination, he was equally




original as virtuoso and composer ; and his
music has a colour peculiar to itself. His
numerous compositions, if not deep, are full
of novel accents and unusual rhythmical
combinations, producing an indefinable
charm ; they are nearly all so-called charac-
ter-pieces, and mostly of a national, espe-
cially Spanish tinge, brilliant, and at times
melancholy. Works : Charles IX., Isaura
de Salerno, operas ; La unit des tropiques,
symphony, for grand orchestra ; Monte-
video, do. ; Grand triumphal march, for
do. ; Gran marcha solemne, dedicated to
the Emperor of Brazil, for do. ; Finale coii-
certaute to the opera Charles IX., for do. ;
Escenas campestres cubauas, for do. ; Gran
Tarantella, for do. ; about 90 works for pi-
anoforte, a complete list of which is to be
found iu the monographs cited below, and
about a dozen songs. Fors, Gottschalk
(Havana, 1880) ; R. E. Peterson, Notes of a
Pianist, etc. (Philadelphia, 1881); Octavia
Heusel, Life and Letters of L. M. Gottschalk
(Boston, 1870).

GOTT SEI MIR GNADIG, bass air of
Paulus iu Mendelssohn's J'attlus, Part I.

GOTTWALD, HEINRICH, born at
Reicheubach, Silesia, Oct. 24, 1821, died in
I'.reslau, Feb. 17, 1876. Pianist, pupil of
his father ; entered the seminary in Bres-
lau hi 1839, but soon left to study under
Pixis at the Prague Couservatorium. He
became music director at Hohenelbe, Bo-
hemia, in 1844 ; was first horn in a theatre
orchestra in Vienna in 1846 ; returned to
Hohenelbe in 1847 ; settled in Breslau as
pianist, teacher, and writer, in 1857. Works :
Symphonies ; Overtures ; Masses ; Music for
horn and pianoforte. Mendel, iv. 310 ; Er-
giinz., 131 ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 404.

GOTTWALD, JOSEPH, born at Wil-
helmsthal, Glatz, Aug. 6, 1754, died in Bres-
lau, June 25, 1833. He became choir-boy
in the Dominican Church of Breslau in 1766,
organist of the same in 1769, organist of the
Kreuzkirche iu 1783, and of the cathedral
in 1819. Works : Masses ; Hymns ; Vespers,
and other church music. Mendel ; Fctis.



170



GOTZE



GOTZE, HEINRICH, born at Wartba,
Silesia, April 7, 1836, still living, 1889. In-
strumental composer, pupil of Mosewius
and Baumgart, then at the Couservatorium,
Leipsic, of Franz Gutze in singing ; losing
his voice, he devoted himself to teaching
and composition, went first to Russia as
musical tutor, then lived for some years at
Breslau, and in 1871 became instructor
of music at the seminary at Liebenthal,
Silesia. Among his compositions are es-
pecially noteworthy two serenades, and
six sketches for string orchestra, and a
pianoforte trio. Meiidel, Ergiinz., 129 ;
Riemann.

GOTZE, JOHANN NICOLAUS KON-
RAD, born at Weimar, Feb. 11, 1791, died
there, Dec. 5, 1861. Violinist, pupil in
Gotha of Spohr, in Weimar of August Miil-
ler, and at the Paris Conservatoire in 1813
of Kreutzer and Cherubini. After leaving
the Conservatoire he settled in Weimar,
making professional journeys to Vienna and
other cities. In 1826-48 he was director
of the Court Theatre at Weimar. Works
Operas : Der Markt, Weimar, 1819 ; Alex-
ander in Persien, ib., 1820 ; Das Orakel in
Delphi, three acts, ib., 1822 ; Der Gallego,
four acts, ib., 1834. He wrote also the
music for several vaudevilles and melo-
dramas ; Overtures for orchestra ; Quartet
for stringed instruments, op. 2 ; 3 other
quartets for do., op. 5 ; Variations for vio-
lin with accompaniment ; 3 trios for two
violins and violoncello ; Pianoforte music ;
Songs, etc. Fotis ; Larousse.

GOTZE, KARL, born in Weimar in 1836,
died at Magdeburg, Jan. 14, 1887. Dra-
matic composer, pupil of Topfer and Geb-
hardi, and later of Liszt. He became Cor-
repetitor of the Weimar Opera in 1855,
then theatre Kapellmeister in Magdeburg,
in Berlin in 1869, in Breslau in 1872, and
in Chemnitz from 1875. Works Operas :
Eine Abschiedsrolle, Die Korseu, Weimar,
1866 ; Gustav Wasa, der Held des Nordens,
text by Rost, ib., 1868 ; Judith, Magde-
burg, 1887. Eine Somniernacht, sympho-



nic poem, op. 20 ; Orchestral, pianoforte,
and vocal music. Riemann ; Mendel.

GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE, born at Vaison,
near Avignon, France, probably about 1505,
killed at Lyons in the massacre on St. Bar-
tholomew's Day, Aug. 24, 1572. Of his early
life nothing is known ; he went to Rome
and established a music school there, cer-
tainly before 1540. Li 1555 he had returned
to France, and was partner of Nicolas Du-
chemiu, book and music publisher in Paris.
The partnership was dissolved in the follow-
ing year. In 1562 he published his set-
ting of the Psalms in four-voice counter-
point on cautus firmi taken from Calvinistic
melodies. It is very doubtful, however, if
Goudimel was himself a Protestant. His
Psalms had the authorization of the Sor-
bonne (Oct. 16, 1561), and were actually
used in Catholic public worship. His being
included in the St. Bartholomew proscrip-
tion was probably due to the machinations
of envious rivals. Goudimel wrote almost
entirely for the church ; his works are nota-
ble for a peculiar charm and grace of style,
reminding one more of Costanzo Festa than
of his other great contemporaries Hobrecht
and Arcadelt. His fame as a teacher has,
somewhat unjustly, thrown his reputation
as a composer into the shade. Probably
no man ever formed so many great pupils,
among them being Palestrina, Giovanni
Auimuccia, Steffauo Bettiui, Giovanni Maria
Naniui, and Alessandro clella Viola. Am-
bros, iii. 578.

GOULD, NATHANIEL (DUREN), born
in Chelmsford (now Bedford), Massachu-
setts, March 26, 1781, died in Boston, May
28, 1864. He studied vocal music under
Reuben Emerson, established his first sing-
ing school in Stoddard, N. H., in 1798, and
for twenty years conducted singing schools
in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. In
1806 his name was changed from Duren to
Gould. About 1807 was formed the Mid-
dlesex Musical Society, of which he was
conductor for several years. In 1819 he
removed to Boston, and taught vocal music



177



GOULLEY



there and iu New York for ten years. He
then returned to Boston, where he passed
the rest of his life as a professional penman.
He edited the following works : " Social
Harmony " (1823) ; " National Church Har-
mony " (1832) ; " Sacred Minstrel " (1839) ;
" Companion for the Psalmist " (1853). He
was the author also of a book entitled
" Church Music in America."

GOULLEY (GouU'), JACQUES NICO-
LAS, born at Saint-Jean du Cardonuay
about 177-t, died at Eouen, May 30, 1818.
Church composer, pupil of Cordonnier and
Broche at the Maitrise of Eouen Cathedral,
where Boicldieu was his fellow pupil. Com-
posed his first mass, with orchestral accom-
paniment, at fifteen. His motet, Incipite
Domino, with full orchestra, was considered
a fine work. He excelled in romances for
3 or 4 voices ; one of these, O ma patrie, O
mon bonheur, was very popular. Fetis,
Supplement, i. 405 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 131.
GOUNOD, CHARLES (FRAXroiS),
born in Paris, June
17, 1818, still living,
1889. Dramatic
composer; gradu-
ated at the Lyct'e
Saint-Louis, anil in
1S36 entered the
( 'c mservatoire, where
lir became a pupil
of Hali'vy iu coun-
terpoint, and of PaiT
and Lesueur in composition. In 1837 he
won the second prize for composition, and in
1839 the prix de Rome, with the cantata
Fernaud. During his three years' residence
in Rome he studied the style of Palestrina,
brought out a mass in S. Luigi de' Fraucesi
in 1S41, and a Requiem in Vienna, 1842, and
after his return to Paris became organist and
maitre de chapelle of the Missions etran-
n-res. At that time he attended theologi-

O O

cal lectures, and came near taking holy
orders ; but suddenly a change took place
in his musical aspirations, which led him to
dramatic composition. It was, however, a








religious work which first brought him
into universal notice, after one of Hullah's
concerts in London,
1851, in which parts
of his Messe so-
lennelle were per-
formed. In the
same year he made
his debut at the
Opera with Sapho,
and in 1852 was
made director of
the Orpheou, the
great union of the
male singing societies and vocal schools of
Paris, which position he held for eight years.
In 1859 he won his greatest triumph with
Faust, which bore his fame into all coun-
tries of Europe, and continues to be his
masterpiece, although his Romeo et Juliette
(1867) is ranked even higher in France.
The war of 1870 caused his removal to Lon-
don, where he founded the choral union
Gounod's Choir, with whom he gave con-
certs ; in 1875 he returned to Paris, where,
after producing several new operas, the
success of which never equalled that of
Faust, he devoted himself almost exclu-
sively to sacred composition in the larger
forms. Gounod's genius is eminently ele-
giac and poetic, with a tinge of mysticism ;
he is a consummate master of the orchestra,
in his treatment of which he evinces consid-
i i alilc individuality. Member of the Insti-
tute of France ; Commander of the L. of
Honour. Works Operas : Sapho, given at
the Opera, April 16, 1851 ; La nonne, san-
glaute, Oct. 18, 1854 ; Le mvderin rualgre
lui, opc'ra-comique, Theatre Lyrique, Jan.
15, 1858 ; Faust, ib., March 1!)', 1859, and
with considerable modifications, Opera,
March 3, 18(59 ; /'Jiil.'mon et Baucis, The-
atre Lyrique, Feb. 18, 1860, Opera Co-
mique (reduced to 2 acts), 1876 ; La co-
lombe, opera-comique, Baden, 1860, Opera
Comique, June 7, 1866 ; La reine de Saba,
Opera, Feb. 29, 1862 ; Min-illr, Theatre
Lyrique, March 19, 1864, Opera Comique



ITS



(iOUVY



(reduced to 4 acts), November, 1874 ; Tio-
meo et Juliette, Theatre Lyrique, April 27,
1867 ; Cinq-Mai's, Opera Comique, April
5, 1877; Polyeucte, Opera, Oct. 7, 1878;
Georges Dandin, not performed ; Le tribal
de Zainora, April 1, 1881. Other dramatic
music : Choruses to Pousard's tragedy
Llysse, Comtklie Franchise, June 18, 1852 ;
do., and incidental music to Legouve's
drama Les deux reines de France, Theatre
Ventadour, Nov. 27, 1872 ; do. to Barbier's
drama Jeanne d'Arc, Theatre de la Gaite,
Nov. 8, 1873. Sacred music : Mass for
3 voices and orchestra, Rome, 1841 ; Re-
quiem, Vienna, St. Charles's, 1842 ; Messe
solenuelle, Paris, Saint-Eustache, 1849 ;
Missa brevis ; Second Requiem mass ; Two
masses ; Messe du Sacre-Cosur de Jesus,
for 4 voices, chorus, orchestra, and organ,
Paris, Saint-Eustache, 187G ; Stabat Mater ;
Tubie, oratorio ; Les Kept paroles du Christ ;
Mass, Angeli custodes ; Pater noster ; l'ri-s
du fleuve etranger, chorus with orchestra ;
Jesus de Nazareth ; Ave verum ; O saluta-
ris, for solo voice, with chorus and organ ;
Te Deum ; Jesus sur le lac de Tiberiade,
scene for baritone solo, chorus, and orches-
tra, Paris, 187G ; Magnificat ; Vexilla regis ;
Christus factus est ; Sis cantiques, for solo
or chorus ; Messe solennelle, Sainte-Cecile,
Paris, 1882 ; La Redemption, oratorio,
Birmingham Festival, August, 1882 ; jlfors
et vita, do., ib., 1885. Cantatas : Fernand
(1839) ; A la frontiere, Paris, Opera, 1870 ;
trallia, biblical elegy, for chorus, soli, and
orchestra, for the opening of the Interna-
tional Exhibition, London, Royal Albert
Hall, May 1, 1871. Instrumental music :
Symphony in D ; do. in E-flat ; La reine
des Apotres, symphony ; Marche romaiiie ;
Prelude de Bach, orchestrated, Concert
populaire, Dec. 8, 18G7 ; Meditation sur le
ler prelude de Bach, for soprano, violin,
pianoforte, and organ ; Le calme, for violin
solo, with orchestra ; Romances sans pa-
roles, for pianoforte ; 10 morceaux ori-
ginaux, for do. ; Marche poutificale, do. ;
Valses, do. ; Convoi funebre d'une mario-



iiette, do. ; Dodelinette, berceuse for do.
(4 hands) ; Methode de cor a pistons.
Vocal : 12 choruses for 3-6 voices ; Chceurs
orpheoniques, for 4 male voices ; Dans une
etable, chorus with orchestra ; Les Gaulois,
do. ; En avaut !, chanson militaire, for solo
and chorus, with orchestra ; Chants lyriques
de Saiil ; Pastorale sur un Noel du dix-
huitieme siecle, chorus with orchestra ;
Choruses dedicated to the Albert Hall Cho-
ral Society ; 20 melodies for voice and pi-
anoforte (Paris, Choudeus) ; do., 2d col. ;
do., 3d col. ;
do., 4th col. ;
15 duets for *
do. (mostly

extracts from his operas) ; Biondina,
12 melodies to Italian poems by Zaf-
fira ; Many other French, English, and
Italian songs. Autobiographic de Ch. Gou-
nod, etc. (London, W. Reeves, 1875) ; L'Art,
April 1 and 8, 1877 ; Claretie, Portraits
coutemporains (Paris, 1875) ; Clement,
Mus. celebres, 624 ; Fetis ; do., Supple-
ment, i. 405 ; Mendel.

GOUVY, (LOUIS) THEODORE, bora,
of French parents, atGoffontaine, near Saar-
briick, Rhenish Prussia, July 2, 1819, still
living in Paris, 1889. Pianist ; after a
course of study at the Metz Gymnasium he
went in 1840 to Paris to study law, but
gave it up for music ; studied composition
under El wart three years, then studied in
Berlin, and later in Italy fifteen mouths.
In 1846 he returned to Paris, where he has
since resided as a teacher and composer.
He gave his first concert in Paris in 1847,
when the orchestra of the Theatre Italien
played his second symphony, op. 9. The
Societe des Concerts of the Union Musicale
played his music in 1848 and it had a warm
reception, and since 1850 the different mu-
sical societies of Paris, notably that of Sainte-
Cecile, and the society of the young stu-
ilents of the Conservatoire have played his
works every year. His published and un-
published works extend to op. 75, and con-
tain more than 200 numbers. Works : Cid,



17'J



GOW



opera, 1863 ; Aslega, lyric-dramatic scene ;
Golgotha, cantata ; Requiem Mass ; Stabat
Mater ; Friihliugs Erwacben, for male cho-
rus, soprano solo, and orchestra, op. 73 ; G
symphonies for full orchestra ; 2 concert
overtures ; String quartets and a quintet ;
5 pianoforte trios and one quintet ; 18 ser-
enades for pianoforte solo ; Sonatas for pi-
anoforte, choruses, songs, and other pieces
in large numbers. Fetis ; do., Supplement,
i. 410 ; Grove ; Mendel ; Riemann.

GOW, NEIL, born at Liver, near Dun-
keld, Perthshire, Scotland, March -2-2, 1727,
died there, March 1, 1807. Violinist, self-
taught until the age of thirteen, when he
received lessons from John Cameron, :i
retainer of the Stewart family of Grand-
tully. He became noted for his perform-
ance of Scotch tunes, especially reels and
strathspeys, and he performed at most of
the fashionable balls and assemblies of his
time, supported by his brother Donald on
the violoncello. He published six collec-
tions of strathspey reels, and A Complete
Repository of the Original Scotch Slow
Tunes, Strathspeys, and Dances, many of
which were of his own composition. His
four sons, Nathaniel, Andrew, John, and
William, were all violinists, aiul noted in
their day. Nathaniel (17G6-1831), pupil
of his father, and also of R. M'lntosh,
M'Glashan, and -I. K.'inagle, edited The
Beauties of Neil (Jou (Klinburgh), in six
books, comprising ehietly the compositions
of Neil Gow and his suns, and several other
collections of Scotch melodies. Among his
airs, Caller Herrin' is one of the most pop-
ular. Neil Gow, Jr. (1795-1823), son of
Nathaniel, was the composer of Cam' ye by
At hoi ?, Flora Macdouald's Lament, and
Bonnie Prince Charlie. Grove ; Brown.

GRABELER, PETER, born in Bonn, Aug.
10, 1796, died there, Dec. 16, 1S30. Violin-
ist, played when ten years old in an orches-
tra of his native city ; learned several other
instruments, and in theory was the pupil of
Stegmann. He became a bandmaster in
the Prussian Army, and, after the battle of




Waterloo, directed German opera in Posen.
In 1821 he returned to Bonn, and took
charge of his dead father's brewery in 182-1,
without giving up music entirely. He com-
posed the oratorio, Salome's Urtheil, the
cantata, An die Hoffnung, to words by Lud-
wig, King of Bavaria, and other vocal and
instrumental music. Mendel ; Fetis.
GRA1 JEN-HOFFMANN ( H o ff m a n n ) ,
GUSTAV, born at
Bniu, near Posen,
March 7, 1820, still
living, 1889. After
studying at the semin-
ary of Bromberg, he
became a teacher near
and in Posen ; and in
1813 went to Berlin
and was a pupil of the
singer Stumer. He

founded a ladies' singing academy in Pots-
dam, studied composition under Hauptmann
in Leipsic, settled in Dresden as teacher of
singing in 1858, in Schwerin in 1868, in
Merlin in ]S70, and returned to Dresden in
1S73 ; settled at Potsdam, 1885. He has
composed !I5 books of songs and other mu-
sic, and has written several works on vocal
instruction. His ballad, 500,000 Teufel,
was very popular and often translated.
Mendel ; Brockhaus, ix. 300 ; Riemann,
''<-' ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 411.

GRABU (Grabut), LOUIS, French com-
poser, living in London about 1680. He
wrote the music for Dryden's Albion and
Albiuus, 1685, printed in London (KIS7).
Choron calls him chapel-master to Charles



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