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II. and director of Covent Garden Theatre,
and says that the first opera played in Lon-
don, Ariadne, or the Marriage of Bacchus
(1674), was by him, but this account has no
real foundation. Fetis ; Buruey, Hist., iv.
I'.') : M.ndel.

GRADEHAND, FRIEDRICH, born at
Brehua, Prussian Saxony, Dec. 24, 1812,
died in Leipsic, June 2, 1842. Organist,
pupil at the Thomasschule, Leipsic, of



Weinlig ; organist of the Church of St.



I M



GRADENEIl



Georg, Leipsic. Works : Symphony ; Mo-
tets ; Organ pieces. Fetis ; Mendel.

GRADENER, HERMANN, born at Kiel,
Germany, May 8, 1844, still living, 1889.
Organist, sou and pupil of Karl Griideuer,
and at the Couservatorium iu Vienna ; or-
ganist at Gumpendorf (Vienna), 1862, vio-
linist in the court orchestra, 18G4, instructor
of harmony at Horak's pianoforte school,
and for some years past at the Conservato-
rium. Works : Capriccio for orchestra, op.
4; Sinfonietta, for do., op. 14; Eine Lust-
spieZ-Ouvertttre, for do., op. 28 ; Octet for
strings, op. 12 ; Quintet for do., op. 23 ;
do. for pianoforte and strings, op. 6 ; Trio
for do., op. 1 ; 5 impromptus for do., op.
11 ; 5 intermezzi for violin and pianoforte,
op. 9 ; Sonata for two pianofortes, op. 18 ;
Other pianoforte pieces and songs.

GRADENER, KARL G. P., born at Ros-
tock, Jan. 14, 1812,
died in Hamburg,
June 10, 1883.
Studied at Halle
and Gottingen Uni-
versities, and then
adopted music as a
profession. He was
violoncellist in Hel-
siugfors, and uni-
versity and society
music director in
Kiel for ten years ; then founded a singing
academy in Hamburg in 1851, and con-
ducted it another ten years. He taught
singing and theory at the Vienna Conser-
vatorium in 1862-05, when he settled in
Hamburg again as a teacher. His works
are distinguished by original harmony and
striking form. Works : 2 symphonies ;
Overture to Schiller's Fiesco, op. 30 ; Con-
certo for pianoforte, op. 20 ; 2 quintets for
do. and strings; 2 trios for do.; 1 sonata,
variations, fantastic studies, Fliegende Blat-
ter und Blattchen, Trilumereien, for piano-
forte ; 3 sonatas for violin ; Sonata for vio-
loncello ; Octet for strings, op. 49 ; 3 string
quartets, op. 12, 17, 29 ; Trio, op. 48 ; Ro-




mance for violin with orchestra. Mendel ;
Riemann.

GRADENTHALER (not Guadenthaler),
HIERONYMUS, German composer of the
17th century. He was organist in Ratisbon,
and composed several collections of sacred
and secular songs. Fc-tis ; Gerber, N. Lex.;
Mendel.

GRADUS AD PARNASSUM, a series of
100 instructive studies for the pianoforte,
by dementi, dedicated to the Princess
Wolkonska. Some of these exercises had
been published previously, and were revised
and extended for this collection. Three
sonatas, op. 50, are dedicated to Cherubim.
Published by Ricordi (Milan, 1817). Cle-
ment i published an appendix to the Gradus,
containing 134 exercises, gavottes, gigues,
airs with variations, etc., chiefly by other
composers, to which he wrote preludes.
Selections from the Gradus, for advanced
students, have been edited, with modern
fingering, by Karl Tausig. Fux wrote, un-
der the same title, a treatise on composition
and counterpoint (Vienna, 1725), translated
into German by Mizler (Leipsic, 1742) ; Ital-
ian, by Manfredi (Carpi, 1761). An English
edition was published also, without date,
with a Kyrie and Amen from the Missa Vicis-
situdiuis. Grove, i. 616.

GRAESER, JOHANN CHRISTOPH
GOTTFRIED, born in Arnstadt in 1766,
died at the Castle of Erbach in 1790.
He chose the clerical profession, and at his
early death was a private tutor and a can-
didate for the ministry. His musical abil-
ities were demonstrated by pianoforte so-
natas and songs, which he published.
-Mendel, iv. 323 ; Schilling, iii. 285 ; Fe-
tis, iv. 77.

GRAF, CHRISTIAN ERNST, born at
Rudolstadt in 1723, died at The Hague in
1802 (?). Violinist, sou and pupil of Johaun
Graf, whom he succeeded as Kapellmeister
to the court of Rudolstadt ; iu 1762 he was
called to The Hague as royal Kapellmeis-
ter. His name is sometimes set down in
catalogues as Christian Friedrich Graaf.



GRAF



Works : G symphonies for orchestra ; 15
concertos for the violin ; Trios for 2 violins
and bass ; Duo ecouomique, op. 27 ; G duos
for violin and viola, op. 28 ; 2 sonatas for
pianoforte (4 hands), op. 29 ; Pot-pourri,
fordo., op. 31 ; Fables, for a voice and piano-
forte, op. 32 ; Sonata for violin and pianoforte,
op. 33 ; An oratorio, performed at The Hague,
July, 1802. -Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

GRAF, FRIEDRICHHARTMANN (H< '-
inann), born at Rudolstadt in 1727, died at
Augsburg, Aug. I'.', 171)5. Flute player,
brother of the preceding, pupil of his father.
He entered a Dutch regiment, and was taken
prisoner by the English at Berg-op-Zoom ;
after regaining his liberty, he went to Ham-
burg in 1795, and during a stay of live years
won reputation as flutist and composer,
then made a concert tour through England,
Holland, ( lei-many, Switzerland, and Italy ;
was first flutist of the royal orchestra at The
Hague, under his brother's direction, from
1769 until 1772, when he accepted a cull to
Augsburg us director of music. In 1779 he
was charged with the composition of a dra-
matic work by the director of the German
opera in Vienna, and while- there was in-
vited to conduct the grand concerts of the
season of 1783-84 in London, whence he re-
tunied to Augsburg, to resume his office as
Kapellmeister. The University of Oxford
sent him, in 1789, the diploma of Mus. Doc.,
waiving all usual formalities. Works : Die
Siindflutli, oratorio ; Der verloreue Sohn,
do. ; Die Hirten an der Krippe zu Bethle-
hem, do. ; The 29th Psalm ; Invocation of
Neptune and his attendant Nereids of Bri-
tannia, cantata, London, 1784 ; Andromeda,
heroic cantata ; 5 concertos for flute, violin,
violoncello, and orchestra ; 24 concertos for
the flute ; 2 do. for flute d'amour ; 2 sym-
phonies concertantes, for 2 flutes ; 18 quar-
tets for strings ; 12 do., for flute and strings ;
2 do., for 2 flutes, viola, and bass ; Quartet
for 4 flutes ; do. for oboe, violin, bassoon,
and violoncello ; Trios for 2 flutes and bass ;
G duos for flute ; 12 soli for do. Fetis;
Mendel ; Schilling.



GRAF, JOHANN, born in Nuremberg
towards the end of the 17th century, died in
Rudolstadt about 1745. Violinist ; went as
regimental bandmaster to Hungary, and
profited by several visits to Vienna. About
1718 he was court musician in Mainz and
Bamberg, and finally was called to Rudol-
stadt as Couzertmeister. Works : 12 Violin
sonatas ; String quartets. (Bamberg and
Rudolstadt.). Fetis ; Mendel.

GRAFE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, born
at Brunswick in 1711, died there, Feb. 7,
1787. Vocal composer, amateur, lived in
Halle and Leipsic, and afterwards returned
to his native city as chamber and post-oflice
councillor. Works : Sammluugen von Oden
mit Melodien (Halle, 1737) ; Odeu und
Schiifergedichte (Leipsic, 1744) ; Sonnet
(ib., 1755) ; Fiinfzig Psalme, Oden und
geistlifhe Lieder (Brunswick, 17GO) ; LA-
mour, cantata (Berlin, 17(!5) ; Sechs geist-
liche Oden und Lieder (Leipsic, 1762) ;
Odeu und Lieder (17G7-G8) ; and many
single pieces in Rich's Musikalisches Vieler-
lei (Hamburg, 1770). Allgem. d. Biogr., ix.
557; I'Ytis ; Gerber ; Mendel.

GRAFF, CARL, born at Also Eor, Hun-
gary, May 20, 1833, still living, 1889. Vio-
linist, studied at the Vienna Conservatori-
um ; then solo violinist at the Theater an
der Wien, and pupil of Bi'ilim in violin and of
Sechter in composition. He made a concert
trip in Austria, Hungary, and Turkey ;
after studying under Vieuxtemps in Paris,
he accompanied his master on a professional
tour ; appeared in London and Paris ; was
engaged by Spohr as first solo violinist in
Cassel in 1858 ; was afterwards in Mar-
seilles, and in 1870 in Mentone. Works:
Hercule, operetta ; Overture to Don Carlos ;
Conzertstiick for violin and orchestra ; Fau-
taisie dramatique, for violin and pianoforte ;
.'! string quartets ; Mass for 2 voices and or-
gan ; Mo tets for 4 voices and organ ; 2 grand
fugues for organ ; Tantum ergo, for piano-
forte ; Sonata for violin and pianoforte ; 2
Hungarian dances fordo. ; Several fantasias
for violin ; G niorceaux de salon, for piauo-



i .



GRAFFIGXA



forte ; Romances, songs, and choruses. Fe-
tis, Supplement, i. 412 ; Mendel, Erganz.,
132.

GEAFFIGNA, ACHILLE, born iu Lom-
bardy about 1817, still living, 1889. Dra-
matic composer, pupil at the Conservatorio,
Milan ; became director of the opera at Odessa
in 1845 ; visited Paris iu 1805, to bring out
an opera, and iu 1872 as impresario and or-
chestra conductor of an opera troupe, which
failed ; maestro coucertatore at the Teatro
Goldoni, in Florence, iu 1875. Works : Un
lampo d' infedelta, Lodi, 1838 ; La conquista
di Granata, ballet, Milan, Scala, 1839 ; Ilde-
gonda e Biccardo, Milan, 1841 ; Eleouora
di San Bouifazio, Verona, 1842 ; Mignoui e
Fanfau, Florence, 1844 ; Gli ultiini giorui
di Suli, Ester d' Engaddi, Odessa, 1845 ;
L' assedio di Malta, Udiue, 1854 ; La du-
chessadiSau Giuliano, Paris, Theatre Italien,
18G5 (formerly iu Italy under the title Ve-
ronica Cibo) ; Eomauces. Fctis ; do., Sup-
plement, i. 413.

GRAGNANI, FILIPPO, born in Leghorn
in 1707. Distinguished guitarist and com-
poser ; studied counterpoint under Luchesi,
intending to devote himself to church com-
position, but chance placing a guitar in his
hands, he adopted it as his instrument.
His music for guitar, alone or with other
instruments, was published iu Milan, Augs-
burg, Paris. Fetis, iv. 79 ; Mendel, iv.
320.

GRAMMANN, CARL, born at Liibeck,
March 3, 1844, still
living, 1889. Dramatic
composer, pupil at the
L e i p s i c Couserva-
torium in 1867-71,
then lived iu Vienna,
where he devoted him-
self to composition.
Works Operas : Der
Schatzgraber ; Die Eis-
juugfrau ; Melusine, op.
24, Wiesbaden, 1875 ; Thusndda, op. 29'
Dresden, 1881 ; Das Andreasfest, op. 35,
ib., 1882. Two symphonies ; Cantata for




chorus, soli, and orchestra ; Chamber musie.
Riemauu ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 133; Frtis,
Supplement, i. 413.

GRANARA, ANTONIO, born iu Genoa,
Italy, in 1809. Dramatic composer, pupil
of Generali at Novara. Works Operas :
Elisa de' Montaltieri, given in Genoa, 1832 ;
Giovanni di Napoli ; Un' avventura teatrale,
opera buffa, Venice, 1836. Fetis ; Mendel.

GRAN CID, IL. See Gid.

GRANCINI, MICHELE ANGELO, Ital-
ian composer of the 17th century. Organ-
ist of the Church del Paradiso and subse-
quently organist and maestro di cappella of
the cathedral, Milan. When a decree of
Carlo Borromeo, in 1506, excluded all mar-
ried men from these offices, he obtained a
dispensation in recognition of his talent as
a composer. His masses, psalms, and mo-
tets, published during his life, are iu 23
volumes. Fetis, iv. 81 ; do. Supplement, i.
413 ; Mendel.

GRANDE-DUCHESSE DE G35ROL-
STEIN, LA, opera-boufl'e in three acts and
four tableaux, text by Henri Meilhac and
Ludovic Halevy, music by Offenbach, first
represented at the Varietes, Paris, April 12,
1867. This grotesque parody, produced at
the time of the Exposition uuiverselle, had
an immense success and obtained a Euro-
pean celebrity. The Grande-Duchesse, re-
viewing her army, under the command of
General Bourn, notices Fritz, a soldier of fine
presence, and makes him her favourite. He
becomes almost at once sergeant, count, and
general in chief, and succeeds Bourn. A
conspiracy is organized against him, but he
destroys his own good fortune by preferring
to marry the little peasant Wanda rather
than accept the favours of the Grande-
Duchesse, and after a funny series of ad-
ventures is succeeded by Baron Grog, who
iu turn gives up the command again to
General Bourn. The role of the Graude-
Duchesse was filled by Mile Schneider ;
the other parts were sung by Dupuis, Cou-
derc, Grenier, Kopp, Baron, Gardel, and
Miles Garait, Legrand, Morosiui, Veron,



183



(JKANDK



and Maucourt. An Italian opera buffa, en-
titled II grauduca di Gerolstein, by Eurico
Bernard!, was given in Milan, 1871. Cle-
ment and Larousse.

GRANDE SYMPHONIE FUNEBRE.
See Symphonic fuuebre et triomphale.

GRANDFOND, EUGENE, born at Com-
piegne, France, in February, 1786. Com-
poser, pupil at the Conservatoire, under
Kreutzer for violin, Bertou for harmony;
became second chef d'orchestre at the Ver-
sailles Theatre iu 1809. He wrote an opera,
Monsieur Desbosquets, given at the Opera
Comique, 1810 ; concertos for violin, and
several romances, with pianoforte. Futis ;
Mendel.

GRANDI, ALESSANDRO DE'. born in
Venice, 16th century, died at Bergamo iu
1630. Church composer, pupil of Giovanni
Gabriel!. He was maestro di cappella, in
1597, at the Accademia della Morte, Fer-
rara, subsequently at San Marco, Venice,
IlUT, and in 1618 maestro cantatore of the
Ducal Seminary. Vice maestro di cappella
of San Marco in 1620, he resigned this posi-
tion to become maestro di cappella of S M.
Maggiore at Bergamo in l(J'2~. Works:
Madrigali eoneertati (Venice, 1619, 3d ed.) ;
Salmi per i Vespri, etc., Te Deum e Tautum
I'f^o, op. 2 (Bologna, 1607) ; 6 books of mo-
tets for 2-8 voices (1619-40) ; Messe cou-
certate a otto voci ; 3 books of motets (Ven-
ice, 1621) ; Messa e Salmi (Venice, 1623) ;
Celesti tiori ; Salmi brevi (1623) ; Messa e
salmi coucertati (ib., 1G30) ; Motetti con-
ccrtati (ib., 1632). Fetis ; Mendel ; Rie-
m.-inn.

GRANDIS, VIXCEXZO DE, born at
M -iite Albotto, Pontifical States, died ('?).
Church composer, maestro di cappella to the
Duke of Modena in 1682-83, where he pro-
duced the following oratorios : II uasci-
mento di Mosi>, 1682 ; La caduta di Adamo ;
II matrimonio di Most\ Fetis ; do., Supple-
ment, i. 413 ; Schilling.

GRAND'TANTE, LA, opera-comique,
text by Adenis and Grandvalet, music by
Jules Massenet, represented at the Opera



Comique, Paris, April 3, 1867. This, the
composer's first dramatic work, showed him
to be the skilled and graceful musician
which he has since proved himself.

GRANDVAL, MARIE FELJCIE CLE-
MENCE DE REISET, Vicomtesse DE, born
at the Chateau de la Cour-du-Bois (Sarthe),
France, Jan. 21, 1830, still living, 1889.
Dramatic composer, studied composition
under Flotow and Saint -Saeus. Her operas
have been given in Paris under different
pseudonyms : Caroline Blaugay, Clemeuce
Valgrand, etc. Some of her church music,
notably a Stabat Mater for soli, chorus, and
orchestra, was played at the Conservatoire
concerts. Her chansons have also been very
popular in France. Works Operas : Le
sou de Lise, operetta, Paris, Bouffes Pari-
siens, 1859 ; Les fiances de Rosa, ib., Thea-
tre Lyrique, 1863 ; La comtesse Eva, Baden,
1864 ; La peniteute, Paris, Opera Comique,
1868 ; Piccoliuo, ib., Theatre Italien, 1869 ;
La forct, lyric scene for soli, chorus, and or-
chestra, ib., Salle Veutadour, 1875 ; Saiute-
Agnes, oratorio, ib., Odeon, 1876 ; 2 masses ;
Stabat Mater ; Pater uoster, for soprano,
with organ ; Esquisses symphouiques, for
orchestra ; Suite for flute and pianoforte ;
Trio, op. 7 ; Sonata for violin and piano-
forte, op. 8 ; Concertino for violin ; Noc-
turnes for pianoforte ; Arias, chansons, and
duets. Fetis, Supplement, i. 414.

GRANDVAL, NICOLAS RAGOT DE,
born iu Paris in 1676, died there, Nov. 16,
1753. He wrote music for all the popular
comedies played in Paris at the Comcdie
Frauyaise from 1694 to 1751 ; became or-
ganist of a church. His cantatas were pub-
lished in 1729. Fetis ; do., Supplement, i.
414.

GRANET (Greuet), , born in Lyons,

France, in 1707, died in Paris in 1761. Lit-
tle is known of him, and his name has been
preserved only because certain detractors of
Jean Jacques Rousseau have accused him of
stealing from Granet the music of his Devin
du Village. Grauet was a director of con-
certs in Lyons. Works : Le triomphe de



18-1



GEAJS'lER



1'harmonie, opera-ballet, test by Lefrauc
de Pompignan, represented at the Aca-
deniie Koyale de Musique, May 9, 1737 ;
ApoHon, berger d'Admete, opera in one
act, Opera, Paris, 1759. Fetis, Supplement,
i. 420.

GEANIER, LOUIS, born at Toulouse in
1740, died there in 1800. Violinist and
dramatic composer ; studied music in his
native city, whence he went to Bordeaux,
and, although a mere youth, was made mai-
tre de musique at the Opera ; a few years
later he entered the service of Prince Charles
of Lorraine as first violin, was in Brussels,
and in 17GG went to Paris, where he was
2d violin at the Opera for twenty years, re-
tiring to his native town in 1787. He was
made inspector of the Opera in 1780.
Works : Choruses to Racine's Athalie ; The-
onis, ou le toucher, opera (with Berton and
Trial), given in Paris, Academic Roj'ale de
Musique, 17G7 ; Bellerophon, do. (with Ber-
toii), ib., 1773 ; Music to several divertisse-
ments, and ballets ; Sonatas and other
pieces for violin. Fetis ; Mendel ; Schil-
ling.

GRANZIN, LOUIS, born at Halle, Prus-
sian Saxony, about 1810, still living, 1889 (?).
Organist, pupil of Naue and Niemeyer. He
was cantor and professor of music at Mari-
euwerder, and in 1840 went as organist to
Dantzic. His oratorio of Tobias was played
there in 1845. Other works : Te Deum ;
Crucifixus, for 6 voices and organ ; Domiue
salvum fac regem ; Organ music, and songs.
Fetis ; Mendel.

GRASSET, JEAN JACQUES, born in
Paris about 17G9, died there, Aug. 25,
1839. Violinist, pupil of Berthaume ; served
in the campaigns in Germany and Italy, but
gave all his spare time to the study of mu-
sic. On his return to Paris he gave con-
certs, and in 1800 was appointed professor
of the violin at the Conservatoire. In 1801-
29 he was chef d'orchestre at the Italian
Opera. Works : 3 concertos for violin, op.
1, 2, 4 ; Duos pour deux violons, liv. 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, op. 9 ; Sonate pour piano et violin, op.



3. Fetis ; Grove ; Wasielewski, Die Vio-
line, 258.

GRASSI, FRANCESCO, church com-
poser, maestro di cappella of San Giacomo
degli Spaguuoli, Rome, about the end of
the 17th century. His oratorio, II trionfo
de' Giusti, was given at the Church della
Pieta in 1701. He left music in MS. : Masses
for 4 voices ; Coufitebor, Dixit, and Mis-
erere, for 8 voices, and several other pieces
of church music. Fetis ; Mendel.

GRASSI, GIUSEPPE, born at Palmi,
Calabria, Feb. 26, 1825, still living, 1889.
Pianist and dramatic composer, pupil of
Rosa Savoia, of Carmelo Jouita, and at
Naples of a German master, and in har-
mony and composition of Gaetano Rotondo.
Works Operas : La vergine del Castello,
given at Naples, Teatro Nuovo, 1845 ; Don
Procopio a Carditiello, ossia u' asciuta a lu
Fusaro, ib., 1849 ; I tre matrimonii, ib.,
1852 ; Melodramma in ouore di S. Rocco,
cantata, Palmi, 1840 ; Cantata in ouore della
Madonna della Moutagua, Radicena, 1850 ;
La guida e il solitario, cantata, Semiuaria,
1857. His son Pietro is a distinguished
pianist. Fetis, Supplement, i. 41(5.

GRASSONI, GIOVANNI, born at An-
cona about 1819, died there, July 13, 1882.
Composer, was professor of singing in the
normal school of Ancoua ; brought out a
successful opera, Matilda di Vaklelnio, at
Aucoua, about 1850. Has been maestro di
canto in many Italian theatres ; in 1875 at
Mantua. Fetis ; Supplement, i. 417.

GRATZ, JOSEPH, born at Vohburg, Ba-
varia, Dec. 2, 1760, died in Munich, July
17, 1826. Dramatic and church composer,
pupil of Michael Haydn at Salzburg", and
of Bertoni in Venice, whence he visited
the principal cities of North Italy, and re-
turned to Bavaria in 1788, settling in Mu-
nich. He was esteemed as a theoretician,
his instruction being sought by such men
as Cauuabich, Ett, Liudpaintner, and others,
when they were already ripened artists ;
but as a composer he was exceedingly dry,
to which his operas Das Gespenst mit der



185



GRAUN



Trommel, and Adelheid von Veltheim, de-
cidedly rejected at their first performance,
his oratorio, Der Tod Jesu, and his masses,
bear witness, while among his chorals, prel-
udes and other church music are works
of acknowledged merit. Fctis ; Mendel ;
Schilling.

GRAUN, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, born at
Wahreubriick, Merseburg, about 1G98, died
in Berlin, Oct. 27, 1771. Violinist, pupil
at the Kreuzschule, Dresden, with his
brother, Karl Heinrich Graun, of Grundig,
in singing and of Petzold on the organ and
pianoforte ; studied the violin under Pisen-
dcl, and in Padua under Tartini. In 172(1
lie was in the service of the court at Merse-
burg, in 1727 of the Prince of Wai. leek,
and in 1728 was Conzertmeister to the
Crown Prince of Prussia (Frederick the
(liv.'it) at Rheinsberg, and in 174d occupied
the same position in the royal c'hape.l.
Works : 40 symphonies ; 20 violin con-
certos ; 24 string quartets ; String trios, etc.
Allgem. d. Biogr., ix. Cidl! ; Wasielewski,
Die Violiue, 165 ; Dubourg, The Violin,
2'JS ; Mendel ; Fetis.
GRAUX, KARL HEINRICH, born at
Wahrenbrttck, Prus-
sian Saxony. May 7,
17(11, died iu Ber-
lin, Aug. 8, 1751).
Church and dra-
matic composer.
Gifted as a boy with
a remarkable so-
prano voice, he was
instructed in singing
by Cantor (irumlig,
and on the organ and pianoforte by Chris-
tian Petzold, at the Kreuzschule in Dres-
den, where he obtained a position in the
city choir. While his voice was changing
into n tenor he studied composition under
Johann Christoph Schmidt, and formed his
taste by frequent attendance at the opera,
then under the direction of Lotti. In 1725
he was engaged for the opera at Brunswick,
where within one year he won success as a




dramatic composer, was appointed Vice-Ka-
pellmeister, and composed iu rapid succes-
sion five operas, which spread his reputa-
tion throughout Germany. On a visit to
Brunswick, the Crown Prince of Prussia,
afterwards Frederick II., persuaded the duke
to release Grauu, whose services he wished
to secure for his chapel at Rheinsberg,
whither he went in 1735, and devoted him-
self for some time to the composition of
cantatas, for which the Crown Prince wrote
the text in French verse. On the accession
of Frederick II. he was sent to Italy to en-
gage singers for the king's favourite project
of establishing Italian opera in Berlin.
Having acquitted himself of this task, and
also having earned great applause as a
singer iu the principal cities of Italy, he
was appointed Kapellmeister, and during
his long service composed 28 operas, which,
with those of Hasse, were performed almost
exclusively at that time in Berlin. Inti-
mately as his life is connected with the his-
tory of the opera, his importance increases
in his church compositions, among which
the Passion oratorio, Der Tod Jesu, has kept
his fame alive to this day, and although
somewhat overrated, in spite of its high
merit, will probably continue so to do for fu-
ture generations. His harmony was singu-
larly pure, and in all his works prevailed the
most perfect system of modulation ; iu melo-
dious effects he has few equals, and while
his vocal compositions lack fire they never
fail in pleasing and tender expression,
stamping especially his adagios as master-
pieces, which perfectly correspond to his
affable and loving character. Works Op-
eras : Pollidoro, given at Brunswick, 172(i ;
Sancio e Sinilda, ib., 1727 ; Ifigenia in
Aulide (in German), ib., 1729 ; Scipio Afri-
canus (do.), ib., 1730 ; Timareta, ib., 1733 ;
Faraoue (with German recitatives and Ital-
ian arias), ib. ; Lo specchio della fedeltn,
Potsdam, 1733 ; Rodehnda, Berlin, 1741 ;
Cleopatra, ib., 1742; Artaserse, ib., 1743;
Catone in I'tica, ib., 1744; Ali-.^midro nell'
Indie, Lucio Papirio, ib., 1745 ; Adrinno iu



ISi



GRAUPXER



Siria, Demqfoonte, ib., 174G ; Cajo Fabrizio,
ib., 174:7 ; Le feste galante, Galatea, pastor-
al (with Frederick II., Quantz, and Nischel-
mann), Ciima, ib., 174S ; Europa galante,
ib., 1749 ; Angelica e Medoro, Coriolano,
ib., 1750 ; Medonte, Mitridate, ib., 1751 ;
Arnrida, Britannico, ib., 1752 ; Orfeo, II
giudizio di Paride, Silla (text by Frederic
II.), ib., 1753 ; Semiramittc, ib., 1754 ;
Montczuma, Ezio, ib., 1755 ; I fratelli ne-
mici, Merope, ib., 175G. Der Tud Jesu, ora-
torio, first performed in Berlin Cathedral,
March 20, 1755 ; Lavinia e Turno, cantata ;
Te Deum, with chorus and orchestra, on
the victory near Prague, 1756 ; About 25
church cantatas, with orchestra ; 2 passion
cantatas ; Mass ; About 20 Latin motets,
for 4 voices a cappella ; church melodies
for every day in the year (two years) ; Col-
lection of odes ; 3 collections of concertos
for the flute, with other instruments ; 12
concertos for harpsichord, with string in-
struments ; etc. Allgein. d. Biogr., ix. C07 ;



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