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op. 2 (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; Songs
without words, op. 4 (ib.). Schilling; Men-
del ; Fi'tis.

EICHNER, ERNST, born in Mannheim,
Feb. 9, 1740, died in Potsdam in 1777. He
entered the ducal chapel at Zweibriicken
about 1770, and left it clandestinely, be-
cause his resignation was not accepted ;
then lived in London until 1773, when he
joined the band of the Crown Prince of
Prussia in Potsdam. He formed some ex-
cellent pupils, and composed symphonies,
concertos, and chamber music. Fetis ;
Schilling ; Mendel.

TWELVE, ouverture soleunelle for orches-
tra, by Tschaikowsky, op. 49.

Barbiere di Siviglia.

EILT, IHR STUNDEN, soprano aria in
! E minor, with accompaniment of violin and
continue, in Johaim Sebastian Bach's can-
tata, " Freue dich, erliiste Schaar."

Lommatsch, Saxony, in 1798, died in War-
saw, Dec. 25, 1836. Organist, studied
under Schicht in the Thomasschule of Leip-
sic ; was a pupil of Friedrich Schneider for
organ and of Wach for double-bass. Became
music teacher in a noble Polish family and
went in 1821 to Warsaw, where he was or-
ganist of the Lutheran Church and double-
bass player of the Court Theatre. His or-
gan preludes were well written. Sowiuski,
165 : Fetis ; Mendel.

(A strong fortress is our God ; generally ren-
dered in English : God is our refuge in dis-
tress). Martin Luther's version of Psalm
xlvi. (Deus uoster refugiuni). It was pub-


lished first in " Geistliche Lieder auft's newe
gebessert zu Wittenberg. Dr. Mart. Luther,
1529." Several arrangements of it appeared
duringLutber's lifetime : 1. For three voices,
with melody in the tenor, ill " News Gesang,"
etc., by Jobaim Kugelinaun (Augsburg,
1540) ; 2. For four voices, with melod}- in
the bass, in " Newe cleutsche geistliche
Gesenge cxxiii, by Georg Rhau (Witten-
berg, 1544) ; 3. For five voices, with mel-
ody in the tenor, by Stephau Malm, in G.
Rhau's Hymn Book ; 4. For four voices,
with melody in the bass, by Martin Agri-
cola, in (!. Khan's Hymn Book ; 5. For four
voices, with melody in the bass, by L. Hel-
linck, in G. Rhau's Hymn Book. The tune
as now sung is derived from the form given
it by Johann Srliastian Bach in several of
his cantatas, especially in Ein' feste Burg,
which differs somewhat from Luther's \. i-
sion. It has been used as a theme by
various other musicians : Mendelssohn, in
the finale of his Reformation Symphony ;
Otto Nicolai. in his /' W-Ouverture ; Joachim
liatV. in liis Fest ( Invert urc ; Wagner, in his
rmarsch : Meyerbeer, in the //</-
note; Karl Reinecke, in Variations on Ein'
feste Burg (given in N>-w York. Xov. 12,
1SS7). Rambaeh, Ueber Luther's Ver-
dienst um deu Kirchengesang (Hamburg,
I M : '. i ; Winterf eld, Luther's deutsche geist-
liche Lieder (Leipsic, 1840) ; Wackernagel,
do. (Stuttgart, 1S48) ; Koch, Geschichte des
Knvlieulieds (Stuttgart, 1866-1877) ; Lu-
ther musicien, Revue et Gazette musicals.
July i:i, 1S7< ; Xauinaun (Ouselcy), i. 45S ;
Grove, ii. 17',).

EIN' FESTE BUKd. cantata, text by
Salomo Frauck, music by Johann Sebastian
Bach, written probably for the Reformation
Festival of 1780. Bitter thinks it was com-
posed for the bicentenary Reformation Fes-
tival of 1717, but Spitta argues that it was
for either the festival of 1730 or for the two
hundreth anniversary of Protestantism in
Saxony, May 17, 173!). The cantata has
eight numbers, five solos and three choruses.
The opening is a fugue based upon a varia-

tion on Luther's melody and set to the first
verse of his hymn. The solos are from the
cantata, Alles was von Gott geboren, writ-
ten in 1716. Spitta, ii. 470 ; iii. 283 ; Up-
ton, Standard Cantatas, 38.

at Hohlstedt, Thuringia, April 16, 1710, died
in Nordhausen, Feb. 20, 1770. Organist,
pupil of his father. He went to the Uni-
versity of Leipsic in 1732, and finished
his musical education under Sebastian Bach
and Scheibe. He succeeded his father as
Cantor and music director ; went to Frauk-
euhausen in a like capacity in 1746 and
to Nordhausen in 17~>7. Works: Concer-
tos ; Symphonies ; Church music. Allgem.
d. Biogr., v. 760 ; Mendel; Schilling; Fetis.

See Die ZaubetfliJte.


BASE. See Der Freisch H/:.

aria in F major, with accompaniment of
violins and violas in unison, and continue,
in Johann Sebastian Bach's cantata for
Dom. 4 ftvt. Trinit., of the same title ;
published separately, with additional nc-
eompaniiuents by Robert Franz, by F.
Whistling, Leipsic, 1860.

at Ilmmiiuster, Upper Bavaria, Nov. 29,
1783, died in Wiirzburg, Aug. 15, 1855.
While attending the University of Munich,
he finished his musical education under
Griitz ; gave up the study of theology, and
was school teacher and professor in sev-
eral places. He composed cantatas for
male voices, and many solo and part songs,
of which he wrote also the text. Mendel ;
Schilling, Supplement, 110; Fetis, iii. 123;
do.. Supplement, i. 302.

EISENHUT (Eisenuth, Eiseuhuet),
THOMAS, German composer, whose works
appeared in 1675-1702. He was Kapell-
meister of the Prince Abbot of Kempten
and a regular canon of the Monastery of



St. Georg in Augsburg. Among his publi-
cations were Harmonia sacra, church music,
and a theoretical book, "Musikalisches Fun-
dament." Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 767 ; Men-
del ; Fetis ; Schilling.

EISERT, JOHANNES, born at Dresden
in 1810, died there in 1864 Organist,
studied music in Vienna, where he ap-
peared successfully in public, until recalled
to Dresden as court organist. Among his
compositions for the organ, his fugues de-
serve especial mention for purity of style
and melodic beauty. Mendel ; Schilling.

EISFELD, THEODOR, born, of German
parentage, in Wolfeubiittel, Brunswick, in
1816, disd in Wiesbaden, Sept. 16, 1882.
Conductor, pupil in composition of C. G.
Keissiger, Dresden ; also studied the violin
in Bremen under Karl Miiller. In 1848
he went to New York, and the following
year was made conductor of the New
York Philharmonic Society, which he con-
ducted alternately with Carl Bergmann,
from 1855 to 1866, when he returned to
Europe. He was leader also of the Eisfeld
Quartet, which gave its first concert, Feb.
18, 1851. Eisfeld held a high position in
New York musical circles.

EITNER, ROBERT, born at Breslau,
Oct. 22, 1832, still living, 1888. Pianist,
pupil of Moritz Brosig, went in 1853 to
Berlin, where he won success as a virtuoso
and composer in concerts, given in 1857-
59. A school for the pianoforte which he
founded in Berlin, 1863, is still flourishing.
Since 1860 he has devoted himself more
especially to musical literature, and chiefly
to his agency was due the organization of
the Gesellschaft f ilr Musikf orschung in 1868,
of whose organ, the " Monatshefte fiir Mu-
sikgeschichte," he is the editor. Works :
Judith, biblical opera ; Pfingstcantate ; Sta-
bat Mater for 4 voices a cappella ; Over-
ture to the Cid ; Pianoforte music, and
songs. Futis, Supplement, i. 302 ; Men-

litz, Bohemia, about 1735, died ('?). Pianist,

organist, and harpist, pupil of his father,
and afterwards completed his studies in
Italy. For several years he was organist
of the Basilica of St. Peter, and in great
favour with Pope Clement XTV., especially
as a harp-player ; in 1780 he enjoyed con-
siderable reputation in Italy as an organist
and composer, but his works remain in
manuscript. Fetis ; Mendel.

ELBEL, VICTOR, born in Alsace early
in the 19th century. He lived in Paris as
a teacher ; brought out in Strasburg an
oratorio, Der Mdnsterbau ; and composed
also two descriptive symphonies. Fetis,
Supplement, i. 302.

ELEGIAC ODE, text from President
Lincoln's Burial Hymn by Walt Whitman,
for solos, chorus, and orchestra, by Charles
Villiers Stanford, composed for and first
given at the Norwich (England) Festival,
Oct. 15, 1884. Athenseum (1884), ii. 505.

ELEGIAC SYMPHONY, in D minor, by
Charles Villiers Stanford, first produced at
Cambridge, England, March 7, 1882, and
at the Gloucester Festival, 1883.

ELF^GIE, salon-piece for violin solo, with
pianoforte accompaniment, by Heiurich Wil-
helm Ernst, op. 10. It is extremely effec-
tive and well written, and was long popular.
Played at Chickering Hall, New York, Nov.
22, 1886, by Michael Banner.

Elegy), for pianoforte solo, in F-sharp
minor, by Johann Ludwig Dussek, op. 61.
Written in memory of Prince Louis Ferdi-
nand of Prussia, whose premature death on
the battle-field of Saalfeld, Oct. 13, 1806, de-
prived Dussek of a friend and patron. One
of the composer's best works.

for four voices, pianoforte, and string quar-
tet, music by Beethoven, op. 118, composed
1814 ; dedicated to Johann, Freiherr von
Pasqualati. Text, " Sanft wie du lebtest,
hast du volleudet," etc., by an unknown
author. Published by Haslinger after the
composer's death. Thayer, Verzeichniss,
120 ; Lenz, ii. 131.


ELEE, ANDRfi, born in Alsace about
17(14, died April 21, 1821. He went, when
young, to Paris, where be became professor
of counterpoint at tbe Conservatoire on
its reorganization in 1816. His collection,
copied in score, of the compositions of 16th
century masters, is now in the library of
the Paris Conservatoire. Works Operas :
Apelle et Campaspe, 1798 ; L'habit ilu
chevalier de Cirammont, 1800 ; La foivt
de Brama ; Interlude, Le chant des ven-
geances, words by Ixouget de Lisle, per-
formed in 1798 ; Overture ; Symphony ;
Sonatas ; Trios, and quartets for wind and
string instruments. 1'Ytis ; do., Supple-
ment, i. 303 ; Larousse ; Mendel ; Schil-

ELI, oratorio, text by William Bartholo-
mew, on the story of Eli and Samuel (Sam.,
i.-iv.), music by Michael Costa, first given
at the JS'irmingham (England) l'V-ti\al. Aug.
29, 1855; first time in America, Handel and
Haydn Society, Boston, l'Yl>. lo, 1857. At
Birmingham the part of Eli was sung by
Suns Ki eves, and that of Samuel by Mine
Vial-dot. The oilier parts \\ere by Mine
1 llan. Carl Formes, and W. H. Weiss.
Athen;eum (1S55), 1008; Upton, Standard
( h'.-ttorios. s I.

ELIAS (Elijah), oratorio, in two parts.
te\t from the Old Testament, music by Men-
delssohn, op. 7(>. first given in an English
translation at the I'.inningham (England)
Festival, Aug. 2C>, bstll. The idea was sug-
gested, says Hiller. by reading in 1 Kings,
xix. 11, " IJehold, the Lord passed by," and
the text was compiled mostly from the same
book. The libretto \\as sent to London as
soon as the work was completed, and trans-
hit* d into English by William Bartholomew.
The scenes treated are Elijah's prophecy of
the drought, the raising of the widow's son
at Zarephath, the rival sacrifices on Mt.
Cannel, the fall of rain, the persecution of
Elijah by Jezebel, his sojourn in the desert,
his return, and his translation in the fiery
chariot. The score is without date, but
Mendelssohn probably began the work in

the summer of 1837, though most of it was
written in 1846. The orchestral parts were
rehearsed by Mendelssohn at Leipsic, Aug.
5, 1846, and the vocal parts at Moscheles's
house, London, Aug. 18th, the evening of the
day of his arrival there ; then followed two
full rehearsals in Hanover Square, and on
Aug. 24th a full rehearsal at Birmingham ;
and on Wednesday, Aug. 26th, the first pub-
lic performance was given in the Town Hall,
Birmingham. After many alterations and
additions, it was given in London, April !(!,
IS 17, by the Sacred Harmonic Society. Its
first performance in Germany was at Ham-
burg, October, 1847. Published first by
Simrock (Berlin, 1S47). Grove, ii. 275,
'JSS ; J. Bemiet, in Concordia, 497, 523 ;
Upton, Standard Oratorios, 218.

ELIJAH. See Kh is.

ELISA, ou le voyage au Mont Bernard,
e.imedy in two acts, text by Saint-Cyr, mu-
sic by Cherubim, represented at the Thea-
tre Feydeau, Paris, December, 1794. The
scene is laid among mountains and glaciers,
and the dciioumeut is hastened by an ava-

ELISA E CLATIDIO, opera buffa, text
by Itomaiielli, music by Mercadante, repre-
sented in Milan in 1822. This opera, one
of Mereadante's best works, was given in
Paris, Nov. 2-_', 1X23. The beautiful duet,
" Se uu' istaute, all' offerta d' un soglio," is
still a favourite with singers.

ELISABETH, opera in three acts, text
by Brunswick and De Leuven, music by
Donizetti, represented at the Theatre Ly-
rique, Paris, Dec. 31, 1853. This is the
IVi neli version of Donizetti's Gli esiliati di
Siberia, text by Gilardoni, first given in
Naples, 1S27. The Italian libretto is from
the play by Guilbert de Pixerecourt, enti-
tled : " La fille de 1'exile, ou huit mois en
deux heures," which is an adaptation of
Madame Cottiu's romance, "Elisabeth, ou
les exiles de Siberie " (1806). It is the
story of a young girl who comes from the
depths of Siberia to ask from the Czar her
father's pardon. Donizetti's music was


adapted to the French version by Foutaua,
his pupil.

CaxteUo di Kenilworth.

TERRA, opera, text by Schmidt, music by
Kossiui, first represented at the Teatro San
Carlo, Naples, ill 1815. The libretto is not
from Scott's " Kenilworth," which was not
published until 1821, but is an adaptation
from a French melodrama. The opera was
Rossini's fifteenth work, and was written
when he was twenty-four years old. Mile
Colbran, whom he afterwards married, was
the original Queen Elizabeth. The opera
was given at the Italieus, Paris, March
10, 1822. It was not successful, excepting
at Naples. The overture, which had pre-
viously belonged to Aureliano in Palmyra,
is now the introduction to II Barbiere di
Siviglia. Stendhal, Vie de R. ; Edwards,
Life of R., 109.

ELISIRE D' AMORE, L' (The Elixir of
Love), Italian opera buffa in two acts, text
by Romani, music by Donizetti, represented
in Milan, May 12, 1832, in London, at the
Lyceum, Dec. 10, 183G, in New York, 1838,
and in Paris, at the Theatre Italien, Jan.
17, 1839. The subject of this graceful and
melodious opera, in some respects one of ;
Donizetti's best, is identical with that of
Auber's Le philtre, text by Scribe. Adiua,
a country girl, is loved by Nemoriuo, a
young farmer, and by Belcore, a sergeant.
Nemorino applies to Dr. Dulcamara, a
mountebank, for a bottle of the elixir of
love. Dulcamara gives him a bottle of
wine, and tells him that if he drinks of
it he can win the love of anyone. The
farmer drinks the whole of it, and, becoming
intoxicated, behaves in such a manner that
Adina promises to marry the sergeant.
The second act opens with the assemblage
of the villagers to witness the marriage
contract. Nemorino, in despair, begs Dul-
camara to give him some charm which will
make Adiua love him. Dulcamara refuses,
as the farmer has no money, and the ser-

geant urges the latter to enlist. To obtain
the bonus, Nemoriuo enlists and thus gets
another bottle from the quack. Meanwhile
Nemorino's uncle has died and left him all
his property, though he does not know it.
The girls crowd around and try to attract
his attention, which he attributes to the
elixir. Adina's jealousy is aroused, and
hearing, through Dulcamara, of Nemoriuo's
devotion, she repays the sergeant the enlist-
ment fee, changes her mind, and gives her
hand to the former. The principal nuni-

Persiani, as Adina.

bers in the first act are the buffo song by
Dulcamara, beginning with the recitative,
" Udite, udite, o rustici," and the duet be-
tween Dulcamara and Nemoriuo, "Obbli-
gato, ah ! si obbligato." In the second act
are the chorus : " Cantiamo, facciain brin-
disi ; " the quartet, " Dell' elisir mirabile ; "
the duet between Adiua and Dulcamara,
" Quanto aniore ! ed io spietata ; " and the
romanza of Nemoriuo, " Una furtiva lagri-
ma." Among the best impersonators of
Adina were Fanny Persiaui (1812-18G7) and



Piccolomiui. Lablache was a noted Dr.
Dulcamara, and Nemorino was a favourite
character with Mario.

ELKAMP, HEINRICH, born at Itzehoe,
Holsteiu, in 1812, died in Hamburg in
1868. Pupil in Hamburg of Clasiug and in
Berlin of Zelter ; then settled in Hamburg
as a teacher ; in 1842-51 he lived in St.
Petersburg, then returned to Hamburg.
Works : 2 oratorios, Die heilige Zeit, and
Paulus ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs. Men-
del ; Fetis ; Schumann, Gesammelte Schrif-
ten, i. 223.


ELLER, LOUIS, born at Gratz in 1819,
died at Pan in August, 1862. Violinist, pupil
of Hysel ; appeared in Vienna in 1 Slili. After
concert tours in Hungary, Croatia, Switzer-
land, and France, playing in Paris in 1844,
he returned home, then visited Italy and
Southern France, and settled in Pan after
<ra\ filing over Spain and Portugal with
Gottschalk. Works : Valsc diabolique ;
Menuet sentimental ; Rhapsodie hongr"! ii .
Fantasias. ;ind other violin music. Fetis ;
Wurzbaeh, iv. 23 ; Mendel.

Cheshire, England. Jan. 11, 1S07, died in
London, Jan. 3, 1873. Amateur composer,
graduate of Oxford (1828) where he stud-
ied music, chiefly composition, and wrote
an English operetta and an Italian opera.
He studied counterpoint, for two years in
Rome under Terriaui. In 1835 and ls:!S
he took prizes at the Catch Club for his
glees : Fayre is my love, and, How beau-
tiful is night. Works Operas: Issipile,
given in Prussia, about 1825 ; Anuibale in
Capua, Andromacca, II Marito a vista ; Carlo
liosa, German opera; Dominica, The Bridal
of Triermain, English operas, ib., about
1830 ; II Carnovale di Venezia, ib., about
1832 ; Berenice in Armenia, II Sacrifizio
d'Epito, ib., about 1835 ; Lucinda, English
opera, Baden-Baden, about 183S. Para-
dise Lost, oratorio ; G masses ; 6 anthems ;
17 motets ; 61 glees ; 83 duets for different
voices ; 5 symphonies for grand orchestra ;

4 concert-overtures ; 3 quintets for two
violins, viola, and two violoncellos ; 44 quar-
tets for two violins, viola, and violoncello ;
3 trios for violin, viola, and violoncello ; 8
do. for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello ;
2 sonatas for pianoforte and violin ; Sonata
for pianoforte and viola ; do. for pianoforte
and violoncello ; 9 do. for pianoforte and
tiuto. He was author also of a poetical
romance, the Bridal of Salerno (London,
1845), and of a poetical legend, The Elixir
of Youth (ib., 1864). Fetis ; Grove.

ELOY, - , born about 1400, died
about middle of 15th century (?). Nothing
of his history is known, but he must have
preceded Dufay, Duustable, and Binchois.
Tinctoris and Gaforius both quote his mass
Dixerunt discipuli, which is preserved
among the MSS. of the Vatican. Kiese-
wetter published the Kyrie and the Agnus
in Geschichte der Europ. abendliind. Mu-
sik. Fetis ; Mendel ; Ambros, Geschichte
der Musik, ii. 462.

bon in 1736, died in Sulzbach, Feb. 1, IT'.K).
He was at first cantor of the Latin school in
Sulzbach, and later private secretary there.
Works : Der Bar bier von Sevilla, opera,
Sulzbach, 1783 ; Church and instrumental
music. Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling.

ELSBETH, THOMAS, born at Ncustadt,
Franconia, and lived in Frankfort-on-the-
Oder about 11100. He was probably also a
chorister in Liegnitz. Works : 3 collec-
tions of Cantiones saene (Frankfort, KiOO,
Liegnitz, 1590, 1606) ; Weltliche und geist-
liche Lieder (Frankfort, 1599, Liegnitz,
1607) ; Zwei Theile Sonntaglicher Evange-
lieu (Liegnitz, 1616, 1621) ; Geistliche Fest-
gesiiuge auf das gauze Jahr (Breslau, 1624).
Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 62 ; Fetis ; Men-

Grottkau, Silesia, June 1, 1769, died in
Warsaw, April 18, 1854. The son of a
maker of musical instruments, he was des-
tined for medicine, but became choir-boy

1 1


and later violinist and singer at the Breslau
theatre. He received harmony lessons
from Forster in Breslau ; then read scores
and was intimate with musicians in Vienna ;
and became first violin of the Briiim theatre
in 1791, and musical director of the theatre
in Lemberg in 1792. In 1799 he settled in
Warsaw, where he was director of German
and Polish theatres ; and in 1815, with
Princess Zamoiska, founded a music so-
ciety, which was transformed into the War-
saw Conservatory in 1821, when he left the
theatre and became first director and pro-
fessor of composition in the new institution.
He retired in 1830, when political troubles
closed the Conservatory, but continued com-
position. During a visit to Paris some of
his works were performed at the Tuileries
and Saint-Cloud. He may be regarded
as the creator of Polish opera. His operas
are light and in the old style of Pai-r and
Mayr ; his church music is rather dra-
matic ; and his compositions generally
show ease and purity, though lack of
originality and thorough study. Works :
Osoblievi Bracia, opera, and about 30 other
small dramatic works in Polish ; Masses,
motets, requiems, offertories, and other
church music ; Cantatas and many songs ;
Symphonies, quartets, concertos, and much
other pianoforte and instrumental music.
The Polish titles of his operas are given in
Fetis and Sowiuski. Sowiuski, Musicians
polonais, 166 ; Fetis ; Allgem. d. Biogr., vi.
70 ; Mendel ; Grove.

Benshausen, Henneberg, Sept. 16, 179G,
.died at Wettiugen, Canton of Aargau, Dec.
19, 1857. He entered Leipsic University
in 1816 ; gave up theology for medicine ;
and after several years of adventurous wan-
dering, and military service in the French
army and in Greece, he made his way to
Switzerland, taught music in Leuzburg and
Baden, was music director of a travelling
theatrical company, and became music
teacher in Bremgarten and from 1846 in
Wettingen. Works : Richard uud Bloudel,

opera in three acts, text by Adami, given
in Meiningen, 1835 ; Songs and other vocal
music. Allgem. d. Biogr., v. 72 ; Mendel ;
Fetis ; Bechstein, Fahrteu eines Musikau-
ten (1837 ; 2d ed., 1854; 3d ed., 1858).

ELVEY, Sir GEORGE JOB, born at
Canterbury, England,
March 27, 1816, still
living, 1888. Church
composer and organ-
ist, brother and pupil
of Stephen Elvey, hav-
ing first been instruct-
ed by Highmore
Skeats, organist of
Canterbury C a t h e -
dral, whose son, High-
more the younger, he succeeded as organ-
ist of St. George's Chapel, "Windsor, in 1835.
Mus. Bac., Oxford, 1838 ; Mus. Doc., ib.,
1840 ; knighted, 1871. Works : The Resur-
rection and Ascension, oratorio, 1838 ; Ser-
vices in F and B-flat ; Anthems, chorals,
chants, hymns, psalms, etc. ; Songs ; Or-
gan music. Grove.

ELVEY, STEPHEN, born in Canterbury,
June 27, 1805, died in Oxford, Oct. 6, I860.
Organist, brother of Sir George Job Elvey ;
pupil at Canterbury of Skeats. He became
organist of New College, Oxford, in 1830 ;
was made Mus. Bac., Oxford, in 1831, Mus.
Doc. in 1838 ; and was choragus of the uni-
versity from 1840 until his death. Works :
Services ; Anthems ; Psalter and Canticles,
pointed for chanting (London, Svo, 6
editions to 1866) ; Hymns, etc. Grove ;

Paris, Nov. 18, 1808, died there, Oct. 14,
1877. Dramatic composer, pupil on the
violin of Ponchard the elder, and at the
Conservatoire of Madame de Sainte-Ursule
in harmony, of Fetis in composition, and of
Lesueur. In 1828 he started, with several
fellow pupils, the Concerts d'emulation,
given at the Conservatoire for six years,
to give young composers a school of prac-
tice. In 1831 he won the second prize for


composition of the Institut and in 1834
the grand prix de Home. Having filled
the position of adjunct professor of com-
position for two years, he resumed it on
his return from Italy in 1836, became pro-
fessor of harmony in 1840, retiring iu 1871.
Officer of the Academy, 1871 ; L. of Honour,
1872 ; Order of Charles HI. of Spain ;
Prussian Order of the Bed Eagle. Works :
Les Catalans, opera, given at Rouen, Thi'-
atre des Arts, 1840 ; La reine de Saba, Les
chercheurs d'or, operas, not performed ;
Choruses and instrumental music to Alces-
tis ; Noe, ou Le deluge universel, oratorio-
symphony in four parts, Paris, 1845 ; La
naissance d'five, oratorio, ib., 184G ; Les
uoces de Cana, mystery for soli, chorus,

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