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Tiiufer, oratorio ; Symphony ; Mass ; Con-
certo for violoncello ; Sextet for strings ;
Quartets, trios, etc. ; Songs and ballads.
Riemann.

HAGIUS, JOHANN, German composer
of the last half of the 16th century. He
was a preacher in Eger and an able musi-
cian. He had the original idea of setting
the sayings of celebrated men to music and
publishing them under the title of Symbola.
The Emperor Maximilian II., Luther, and
Melanchthou were among the celebrities
thus symbolized. Allgem. d. Biogr., x.
354 ; Fetis ; Gerber.

HAGIUS, KONRAD, born at Rinteln,
Schaumburg-Hesse, iu 1559, died (?). He
lived iu Poland in his youth, and afterwards
became chamber musician to the Count of



Holsteiu-Schaumburg. Of his numerous
compositions the best known are some
Magnificats for 4-6 voices (Dilliugen, 1606),
aud German songs for 2-8 voices (Lauiugen,
1614) ; besides, he has written intrudes, gal-
liardes, courantes, etc., for instruments, and
fantasias, and fugues. Gerber (1700), i.
578 ; (1812), ii. 480 ; Fetis ; Schilling ;
Mendel.

HAGUE, CHARLES, born at Tadcaster,
England, in 1769, died at Cambridge, June
18, 1821. Composer, pupil at Cambridge
of Manim on the violin, Helleudaal, senior,
in thorough-bass aud composition, and
studied also under Salomon and Dr. Cook.
He settled in Cambridge, where he became
, Mus. Bac. in 1794 ; professor of music in
the university in 1799, and Mus. Doc. iu
1801. His anthem, "By the Waters of
Babylon," published in score, and an ode
(1811) were great favourites. He arranged
Haydn's 12 symphonies as quintets, and
published two collections of glees. Grove ;
Fetis ; Mendel.

HAHN, BERNHARD, born at Leubus,
Silesia, Dec. 17, 1780, died in Breslau in
1852. Pupil of his father iu singing and
violin ; was choir-boy iu Breslau, then
played the violin in the private quartet of
Count Matuschka in Pitschen, where Fors-
ter instructed him further. He was influ-
enced by Turk in Halle in 1804, then re-
turned to Breslau, where he sang in the
cathedral and taught singing in the Catholic
gymnasium in 1815, aud later succeeded
Schnabel as Kapellmeister of the cathedral.
He wrote songs, church music, and vocal
instruction books. Mendel ; Fetis ; Schil-
ling ; Riemann.

HAHN, GEORG JOACHIM JOSEPH,
German composer of the 18th century. He
was senator and music director at Miinner-
stiidt, Fraucouia, and wrote masses, psalms,
arias, pianoforte pieces, and works on
theory. Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber (1790),
i. 579 ; (1812), ii. 482 ; Fetis.

HAHN, THEODOR, born at Dobers,
Silesia, Sept. 3, 1809, died in Berlin iu



I1AIINEL



18G5. Organist, pupil of Klein at Schmiede-
berg, of Rink and Gottfried Weber in
Darmstadt, and of B. Klein and Zelter in
Berlin. He went to Paris in 1838, and re-
ceived advice from Bordogni and Lablache ;
then visited Italy and Austria, and on re-
turning to Berlin became organist of St.
Peter's and in 1840 singing teaclier and
Kepetitor of the royal opera school. Works :
Cantatas, motets, psalms, songs, and organ
music. Mendel ; Fetis ; Yiotta.

HAHNEL, JACOB. See Gallu*.

HAIBEL (Haibl), JACOB, born in Gratz
in 1701, died in Deakovar in 1826. After
playing in the provinces, he became tenor
singer and actor at Schikaueder's theatre
in Vienna from 178',), and there composed
about ten light operettas. Ill 180-4 he be-
came church Kapellmeister to the Bishop
of Bosnia in Deakovar. The most popular
of his operettas were : Der Tyroler Wastel,
Der Landsturm (sequel), Das mediciuische
Collegium, Papagei und Gans, Der Eiu-
zug in das Friodens-^iiartier, Tschiug !
Tsrhing !. He wrote also the music to sev-
eral ballets. Allgem. d. Biogr., x. 379 ;
\Viirzbach ; Mendel ; Fetis.

HAIGH, THOMAS, born in London
about 17G!), died there, April, ISIIS. Pian-
ist and violinist, studied composition in
IT'.M '.12 under Haydn, some of whose sym-
phonies he arranged. In 1793 he removed
tn Manchester, and returned to London in
1801. Works : 12 sonatas for pianoforte
and violin ; Sonatas for pianoforte, four
hands ; do., for pianoforte and flute ; 3 ca-
priccios, op. 38 ; 3 sereuatas, op. 40 ; 12
preludes ; Songs, glees, etc. Fetis ; Grove.

HAIL COLUMBIA, a popular American
song, music from the President's Maivh by
Feyles, words by Judge Joseph Hopkinson,
written in 17'J8 for an actor, Fox, and first
sung by him in a theatre in Philadelphia in
that year. It became at once a national
song. Hail Columbia, a Fest-Ouvertiire by
Karl Hahnstock, op. 5, written for the Phil-
harmonic Society of New York, published
by Schuberth (Leipsic and New York).



HAH.! GENTLE SLEEP. See rri-

lan'x Daughter.

HAINE, KARL, born in Augsburg, Jan.
2, 1830, still living, 1889. The son of an
opera singer, he played the pianoforte in
public at the age of eight, made concert tours
with his father, and when sixteen years old
was music director of a travelling company
in Westphalia, and in 1847 entered the
theatre orchestra of Mainz. After visiting
Hanau and Worms, he taught in Bocholt in
1849-51 ; was theatrical music director in
Aurich and Emden ; became organist of the
i-.ii liedral in Worms in 1852 and of the syn-
agogue there in 18G8, founding an orches-
tral society in 1872. He wrote an opera,
Der Graf von Burgund, an operetta, and
pianoforte and vocal music. Mendel.

HAIXL, GEORGES FRANCOIS, born
at Issoire, France, Nov. 19, 1807, died in
Paris, June 2, 1873. Violoncellist, studied
at the Paris Conservatoire under Norblin,
and gained the first violoncello prize in 1830.
He was conductor of the orchestra at the
Grand Theatre of Lyons from 1840 ; went
to Paris in 1803 as conductor of the Acade-
mic do Musique, and was conductor of the
Societe des Concerts da Conservatoire in
1804-73. Works : Fantasias for violon-
cello, one on Guillaume Tell. He published
a book entitled " De la musique a Lyon "
(1852). Fetis ; Larousse.

HAKART (Hacquart), CAROLO, born at
Bruges (or at Huy ?) about 1040, died in
Holland, 1730. Viola di gamba player ;
seems to have lived at The Hague about
1080 in the service of the Prince of Orange.
Works : Cantioues sacra (1074) ; Harmonia
parnassia (1G8G) ; Motetti (1700) ; Prseludia
(1700) ; 10 sonatas for 2 viole di gamba
and bass (1700) ; Music to Dirk Buysero's
comedy De triomfeereude Min (1G80). Vi-
otta.

HAKENBERGER (Hackenberger), AN-
DREAS, church composer of the 17th cen-
tury. In 1010-28 he was Kapellmeister in
the Marieukirche of Dautzic. Possibly a pu-
pil of his predecessor Johannes Wauuingus,



-'14



IIAKIXG



he was a worthy representative of the tend-
ency prevailing at the end of the 16th cen-
tury, and ranks among the best masters of
his time. Works : Newe teutsche Gesaeuge
mit 5 Stimmen, etc. (Dantzic, 1610) ; Odaria
suavissima, etc. (Leipsic, 1C12) ; Harmonia
sacra, sen 6 rnotetti 6-12 voc. (Frankfort,
1617) ; Motets for 6-12 voices (Leipsic,
1612-19) ; Sacri modulorum conceutus, for
8 voices (Stettin, 1615, Frankfort, 1616,
Wittenberg, 1619) ; Od;B sacrne Christo in-
fautulo, etc. (Leipsic, 1619). Allgeru. d.
Biogr., x. 397 ; Fi-tis.

HAKING, Rev. RICHARD, born in Eng-
land in 1830, still living, 1889. He took
holy orders in 1861, became rector of Eas-
tou Grey, Malmesbury, in 1873, and of Cong-
ham, Norfolk, in 1882. In 186-4 he was
made Mus. Doc., Oxford. Works : Canta-
tas ; 2 lyrical legends ; Orchestral pieces ;
Solos for violin, violoncello, flute, etc. ; An-
thems ; Part-songs.

HAKON JARL, cantata for solos and
male chorus, with orchestra, text by Hein-
rich Carsten, music by Carl Reinecke, op.
142, first performed in 1877. Published
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1877). The
subject is from Ohleuschlager's tragedy of
" Hakon Jarl." He has used the same
theme for a symphonic poem in C minor,
first performed at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic,
Feb. 23, 1880. I. Allegro, Hakou Jarl ; H.
Andante, Thora ; HI. Intermezzo, Allegretto
moderate, in Odin's Grove ; IV. Olaf's Vic-
tory (1880). Frederik Smetana also wrote
a symphonic poem on this subject. Upton,
Standard Symphonies, 304.

HALEVY, (JACQUES FRANCOIS) FRO-
MENTAL (ELIE), born in Paris, May 27,
1799, died at Nice, March 17, 1862. " The
family name was Levy, but was changed by
Fromeutal's father in compliance with a
proposal made in 1807 by the French gov-
ernment, in concert with a decree of the
Sanhedrim convoked at Paris, to all Jews
in France to modify their surnames, to
avoid the confusion in the government reg-
isters arising from many families having




the same name. He entered Cazot's solft'ge
class at the Conservatoire in 1809 ; ill 1810
he began to study
the pianoforte un-
der Charles Lam-
bert, and in 1811
harmony under Ber-
ton. He then stud-
ied counterpoint for
five years under
Cherubim. He took
the Prix de Rome ill
1816 with his canta-
ta, Herminie, and set out for Rome the year
after. While in Italy he worked hard at an
opera and other music. On his return to
Paris, after many disappointments, he suc-
ceeded in having L'artisan brought out at
the Theatre Feydeau in 1827, but with de-
servedly little success ; yet, for several years
he continued to produce operas, which
showed a steady advance in his art. His
reputation with musicians was sufficient to
induce the management of the Opera Co-
mique to entrust to him the completion of
Heiold's unfinished opera, Ludovic, and this
work was brought out with great success
in 1834. But Halevy's first definite triumph
was in 1835, with La Juive, with which his
second manner began. Six mouths later
he won fresh laurels with LY-clair. His
reputation was now most brilliant, yet it
was not until 1838 that he produced Guido
et Ginevra, a work which, though full of
beauties of a high order, failed to catch the
popular taste. Les treize (1839) and Le
drapier (1840) had no better luck, but La
reine de Chypre, Opera, 1841, again placed
him upon the pinnacle of success, although
the work, as a whole, was hardly up to the
level of his two master-works, La juive and
L'eclair. It has been suspected that the
resounding success of Meyerbeer's Les Hu-
guenots, in 1836, overstimulated his ambi-
tion, and led him to attempt tasks not con-
genial to his cast of genius ; but it is more
probable that he often worked on subjects
which did not inspire him. As it is, there



215



IIALfiVY



are few of his operas which do not con-
tain beauties of a very high order, and
he has always been rather undervalued by
the French public. Meyerbeer's reputation
reached its height just in time to throw
Halevy 's into the shade at the very turning-
point of the latter's career. He had far
greater depth of sentiment than his more
successful rival, and was more prone to be
true to a high ideal ; but he had not so acute
a perception of what would be effective with
the public, and was not always careful to
make his style perfectly clear. The suc-
cess of La Juive procured him the succes-
sion to Reicha at the Institut, in 183C.
In 181G he had already begun to teach sol-
lYge at the Conservatoire, and was made
professor of harmony in 1827, being pro-
moted to the professorship of counterpoint
iu 1833, and to that of composition in 1840.
Gounod, Victor Masse, Baziu, Henri Duver-
noy, Bizet, and many others of note were
among his pupils. In 1827 he was accom-
paiiying pianist at the Theatre Italieu, and
in 1829 he became chef du chant at tin-
Opera. He was chosen permanent secre-
tary of the Academic des Beaux-Arts in
1854. He died of consumption at Nice,
but was buried in Paris, March 24, 1M12.
Works: I. Operas: Les bohemiennes, never
performed; Pygmalion, do.; Les deux pa-
vilions, do. ; L'artisan, Paris, Opera Co-
mic|ue, Jan. 1827 ; Le roi et le batelier (iu
collaboration with Rifaut), ib., Nov. 3, 1S28 ;
Clari, Theatre Italian, Dec. 9, 1828 ; Le di-
Irit inte d'Avignou, Opera Comique, Nov. 7,
182!) ; Atteudre et courir (in collaboration
with H. de Ruoltz), ib.. May 29, 1830 ; La
laugue musicale, ib., Dec. 11, 1830 ; Yella,
never performed ; La tentation, ballet-opera
(in collaboration with Gide), Paris, Opera,
June 20, 1832 ; Les souvenirs de Lafleur,
Opera Comique, March 4, 1833 ; Lm/ovif
(begun by Herold), ib., May 10, 1833 ; La
Juiue, Opera, Feb. 23, 1835 ; Ueclair, Opr-
ra Comique, Dec. 30, 1835 ; Guido et Gi-
nevra, ou la peste de Florence, Opera, March
9. ls:'s ; Les treize, Opera Couiique, April



15, 1839 ; Le sherif, ib., Sept. 2, 1839 ; Le
drapier, Opera, Jan. 0, 1840 ; Le guUarrero,
Opera Comique, Jan. 21, 1841 ; La reine de
Chypre, Opera, Dec. 22, 1841 ; Charles VI.,
ib., March 15, 1843 ; Le lazzarone, ou le
bieu vient en dormant, ib., March 29, 1844 ;
Les mousquetaires de la reine, Opera Co-
mique, Feb. 3, 1840 ; Les premiers pas (in
collaboration with Adam, Auber, and Gara-
fa), Opera National, Nov. 15, 1847; Le Val
d'Andorre, Opera Comique, Nov. 11, 1848 ;
La fee aux roses, ib., Oct. 1, 1849 ; La tent-
pesla, London, Her Majesty's Theatre, June
8, 1850 ; La dame de pique, Paris, Opera
Comique, Dec. 28, 1850 ; Le Juif errant,
Opera, April 23, 1852; Le Nabab, Opera
Comique, Sept. 1, 1853 ; Jayuarita 1'Iudi-
enue, Theatre Lyrique, May 14, 1855 ;
L'incousolable (given under the pseudonym
Alberti, but attributed to Halevy), ib., June
13, 1855 ; Valentine d'Aubiguy, Opera Co-
mique, April 20, 1856 ; La magicienne, Ope-
ra, March 17, 1858 ; Valentine d'Ornauo,
unfinished ; Noe, ou le Deluge, unfinished.
H. Cantatas, Ballets, etc.: Les deruiers ino-
| ments du Tasse, cantata (2d prize, Conser-
vatoire, 1810) ; La mort d'Adouis, cantata
(2d grand prix, Conservatoire, 1817) ; Her-
miuie, cantata (prix de Rome, 1819) ; De
profuudis for 3 voices and orchestra, to a
Hebrew text, for the death of the due de
Berry, given at the synagogue in the rue
Saiut-Avoye, Paris, March 24, 1820 ; Manon
Lescaut, ballet, Opera, May 3, 1830 ; Over-
tiin: and incidental music to Prornethee
euchaine (translated from JEscbylus by his
brother, Leon Halevy), Theatre Fraucais,
March 18, 1849 ; Italic, cantata, Opera Co-
mique, June
_ 7, 1849 ; Les
plages du Nil,
cantata ; Sev-
choruses for male
voices. HI. Pianoforte
music, etc. : Sonata for
four hands ; Rondo, or capriccio, and other
fugitive pieces ; Many songs and duets.
Leon Halevy, F. Halevy, sa vie, ses ceuvres




218



HALL



(Paris, Paul Dupont, 1862 ; 2d eel., enlarged,
with portrait and autograph, Paris, Heugel,
1803) ; Edouard Monuais, F. Halcvy, etc.
(Paris, Chaix, 1863); Arthur Pougin, F.
Halevy, Ecrivain (Paris, Claudin, 1865).

HALL, HENRY, born at Windsor, Eng-
land, about 1655, died March 30, 1707.
Organist, said to have studied under Dr.
Blow ; became organist of Exeter Cathedral
in 1674, and later organist and vicar-choral
of Hereford Cathedral. Works : Te Deum
in E-flat ; Benedicite in C minor ; Cantate
Domino and Deus Misereatur in B-flat ;
Five autherns ; Songs and duets. His son
Henry was also organist and vicar-choral of
Hereford Cathedral, and his sou William
was a member of the king's baud. Grove.

HALLE, CHARLES (Karl Halle), born at
Hageu, Westphalia,
April, 11, 1819, still
living, 1889. Pianist,
studied with Rink in
Darmstadt in 1835.
He went in 1840 to
Paris, where he as-
sociated with Cheru-
bim, Chopin, and
Liszt. In 1848 he
went to London,
where he first appeared at the orchestral con-
certs at Covent Garden, May 12, 1848, and at
the Philharmonic, March 15, 1852. In 1857
he began his orchestral subscription con-
certs at Manchester, and in 1861 his annual
series of recitals, in which he performed
all Beethoven's sonatas in eight matinees.
He has written a limited number of com-
positions, and a method for the pianoforte.
Fetis ; Mendel.

HALLELUJAH CHORUS, the closing
chorus in the second part of Handel's ora-
torio of The Messiah. When the oratorio
was first given at Coveut Garden Theatre,
March 23, 1743, the whole audience, includ-
ing King George H., arose and remained
standing until its conclusion a custom
still observed. Other Hallelujahs by Han-
del are in Judas Maccabseus, Athalia, the




Occasional Oratorio, and the Coronation
Anthems. Schtx'lcher, Handel, 253 ; Rock-
stro, 239.

HALLEN, ANDERS, born at Goteu-
burg, Sweden, Dec. 22, 1846, still living,
1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of Rei-
uecke at Leipsic (1866-68), of Rheinberger
in Munich (1869), and of Rietz in Dresden
(1870-71). In 1872-78, and again from
1883, conductor of the concerts of the mu-
sical union at Gotenburg ; in the mean-
while he lived mostly in Berlin. Works :
Harald der Viking, opera, given at Leipsic,
1881, and Stockholm, 1883 ; 2 Swedish
rhapsodies, op. 17 and 23 ; Vom Pageu
und der Konigstochter, Balladencyclus for
chorus, solo, and orchestra ; Traumkonig
uud sein Lieb, do. ; Das Ahreufeld, for fe-
male chorus, with pianoforte ; Viueta, cho-
ral rhapsody with pianoforte ; Romance for
violin, with orchestra ; German and Swed-
ish songs. Riemanu.

HALLSTROM, IVAR, born in Stock-
holm, 1826, still living, 1889. Dramatic
composer ; studied law and became private
librarian to the Crown Prince, the present
King ; in 1861 he was appointed director
of the school of music, as successor to
Lindblad. Works Operas : Hertig Mag-
nus, given iu Stockholm, 1867 ; The Rape
of the Mountain Maid, ib., 1874 ; Der Berg-
kunig, ib., 1875, Munich, 1876 ; The Vik-
ings, Stockholm, 1877 ; Nyaga, 1885 ; The
Flowers, idyl for solos, chorus, and orches-
tra (prize, Stockholm, 1860). Riemaun.

HALM, ANTON, born at Altenmarkt,
Styria, June 4, 1789, died in Vienna, April
6, 1872. After having served in the Aus-
trian army as lieutenant until 1811, he set-
tled down in Vienna to teaching pianoforte
and composing, and was for many years an
esteemed friend of Beethoven. Works :
Solemn Mass ; 6 Trios for pianoforte and
strings, op. 12, 21, 23, 42, 57, 58 ; 3 Quar-
tets for strings, op. 38-40 ; 3 Sonatas for
pianoforte and violoncello, op. 13, 24, 25 ;
do. for pianoforte solo, op. 15, 43, 51 ; Ron-
deaux brilliants, for do., op. 4, 14, 17, 20, 49 ;



HALTER



Themes varies, for do., op. 33, 37, 46, 47,
50 ; Graudes crudes de concert, op. 59 ;
Etudes melodieuses, op. 60 ; Etudes pathe-
tiques, op. 61 ; Etudes heroiques, op. 62 ;
Sonatas, rondos, marches, etc., for piano-
forte (4 bands), op. 41, 44, 45, 48, 54, 56 ;
Die Kronungsfeier M. der Kaiserin Karoline
Augusta, op. 55. Fetis ; Gassuer, Univ.
Lex. (Stuttgart, 1849) ; Wurzbach.

HALTER, WILHELM FERDINAND,
born in the last half of the 18th century,
died at Kouigsberg, April 10, 180G. While
secretary of Konigsberg, he was an amateur
musician, and later became organist of the
reformed church there. His operetta Die
Cantons-Revision, was given at Kouigsberg
in 1792, and won him much local fame.
He composed also sonatas (1788), and
songs. Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling, iii. 428.

HAMAL, HENltl GUILLAUME, born at
Liege in 1685, died there, Dec. 3, 1752.
Organist, pupil of Lambert Pietkiu. He
became in 1708 niaitre de musique at the
parochial church of Saiut-Trond, whence he
was called to Liege to be master of the
sous-maitrise of Saint-Lambert. He intro-
duced Italian music into Belgium. Works :
M' itets : Italian and French cantatas ; Songs
in the Liege patois. Fetis ; Mendel ; Vi-
otta.

HAMAL, JEAN NOEL, born at Liege,
Dec. 23, 1709, died there, Nov. 26, 1778.
He studied counterpoint at Rome with Giu-
seppe Amadori, became maitre de chapelle
at Saint-Lambert in 1738,. and again visited
Italy in 1749. He used the patois of Liege
in his operas. Works Oratorios : Jona-
than, Judith. Operas : Li voegge di Cho-
foutaine, written in 1757 ; Li Ligeois egagi,
1757 ; Li Fiess di houte si plau, 1758 ; Les
Ypocoutes, burlesque opera, 1758. Other
works : In exitu Israel, for two choruses
and two orchestras ; 6 quartets for strings ;
3 symphonic pieces for four parts. Mendel ;
Fetis ; do., Supplement, i. 446.

HAMERIK, ASGER, born at Copenha-
gen, April 8, 1843, still living, 1889. Dra-
matic composer, pupil of Gade, Matthison- |




Hausen, and Haberbier, then in Berlin
(1862) of von Biilow on the pianoforte, and in
Paris (1864-68) of Ber-
lioz, whose only pupil
he was, and with whom
he went to Vienna in
1866-67; during the
exhibition in Paris he
was a member of the
musical jury, and re-
ceived a gold medal
for his Hymne de la
paix. In 1869 he vis-
ited Italy, and in 1871
became director of the Conservatory of the
Peabody Institute, and of the Peabody
symphony concerts at Baltimore, where he
has done much toward the improvement
of musical life. Works Operas : Tovelille,
op. 12 (1863-65), performed in fragments
in Paris and Copenhagen ; Hjalmar and
Ingeborg, op. 18 (1868), do., ib., and Stock-
holm ; La vendetta, op. 20, given in Milan,
1870 ; The Traveller, op. 21 (Vienna, 1871) ;
Suites for orchestra : Nordische Suite, op.
22 (1871-72) ; Second do., op. 23 (1872-73) ;
Third do., op. 24 (1873-74) ; Fourth do., op.
25 (1875-76) ; Fifth do., op. 26 (1877-78).
Symphonies : Symphonie poetique, op. 29
(187D-80) ; Hi/,nj,hoiiiti tragique, op. 32
(1882-83) ; Symphonie lyrique, op. 33
(1884-85) ; Symphonie majestueuse, op. 35
(1888). Various works : Jiidaische Trilogio
for orchestra, op. 19 (1866-67) ; Christian
Trilogy, for do., baritone solo, mixed
chorus, and organ, op. 31 (1881-82) ; Re-
quiem, for alto solo, chorus in 6 parts, and
orchestra, op. 34 (1886-87) ; May-dance,
for female voices, and small orchestra, op.
28 (1879) ; Opera without words, in 3 parts
for orchestra, or pianoforte, op. 30 (1881) ;
Concert romance for violoncello, with or-
chestra, op. 27 (1878) ; Cantatas, chamber
music, and songs.

HAMLET, opera in five acts, text by
Michel Carre and Jules Barbier, after
Shakespeare, music by Ambroise Thomas,
first represented at the Opera, Paris, March



218



HAMLET



9, 18C8 ; produced in London in Italian, as ' marcl, and the others by Belval, Colin, Da-
Amleto, at Covent Garden, June 19, 1869. vid, Grisy, Castelmary, Ponsard, Gaspare! ,
The success of this work, written next after ! and Mermaut. The pianoforte score is by
Mignon, and which passed its 200th repre-
sentation at the Opera, Feb. 16, 1883, won
for the composer in 1871 the position of di-
rector of the Conservatoire. Among the
prominent numbers are : The duet in the
first act between Ophc-lie and Hamlet,
"Doute de la lumiore;" the aria of the
Queen, " Dans son regard plus sombre,"
and the chorus of the comedians, "Princes
sans apanages," in the second act ; the trio
in the third act, with the baritone phrase,
"Allez dans un cloitre, Ophulie," and the
grand scene between Hamlet and his mother
in the same act ; the andante sung by Ophe-
lie in the fourth act, with the waltz-rhythm,
" Partagez-vous mes fleurs," the melody of
which is continued by an invisible chorus of
Willis, while Ophc-lie disappears in the wa-
ters of the blue lake ; and lastly, the aria of




Hamlet, " Comme une pale fleur," the fu
neral march, and the concluding chorus of
youug girls. The role of Hamlet was sung
in Paris by Faure, those of Ophelie and of
the Queen by Mile Nilssou and Mine Guey-




Nilsson as Ophflie.

Vauthrot. Hamlet had been previously set
to music, as Amleto, by Gasparini, Rome,
1705 ; Domenico Scarlatti, ib., 1715 ; G.
Carcano, Venice, 1790 ; Andreozzi, Genoa,
1793 ; Mercadante, Milan, 1822 ; Buzzola.
Venice, 1848 ; L. Moroni, Rome, 1860 ; and
Franco Faccio, text by Boito, Genoa, 1865.
It has also been musically treated in Ger-
many by Abt Vogler, about 1791 (published
at Spires) ; by Mareczek, Briinn, 1840 ; and
by Alexander Stadtfeld, Darmstadt, 1857,
and Weimar, 1882. Lajarte, ii. 242 ; Am-
bros, Bunte Blatter, ii. 53.

HAMLET, overture for orchestra in C
minor, by Niels W. Gade, op. 37, dedicated
to F. L. HOedt. Andante, Allegro con fuoco,
Marcia fuuebre. Performed by the Phil-
harmonic Society of New York, in the sea-
son of 1868-69. Published by Breitkopf &
Hurtcl (Leipsie, 1865). Arranged for piauo-



219



HAMLET



forte by Franz Brissler. Overtures to Ham-
let, for orchestra, have been written also by
Josef Joachim, op. 4, and by George Alex-
ander Macfarreu.

HAMLET, symphonic poem for orchestra,
by Liszt, op. 4, No. 10. Written in 1859.
Date of first performance unknown.

HAMLET, symphonic poem for orchestra,
by E. A. Macdowell, first performed at
Chickering Hall, New York, Nov. 15, 1887.

HAMM, JOHANX VALENTIN, boru at
Winterhauseu, Bavaria. May 11. 1S11, died
al Wiirzburg, Dec. 21, 1875. Violinist and
pianist, pupil at the Frohlich Institute at
\Viir/.burg ; entered the theatre orchestra
there, as viola player in 1831, and became
later Couzertmeister rind music director.



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