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the more so that Gluck's new manner was
not at first appreciated by the public.
Basse's last opera, Kuggiero, was brought
out in Milan in 1774, simultaneously with
the young Mozart's Ascauio in Alba. (Mozart
was then only thirteen, and Hasse seventy-
five ; but the older composer predicted :
" This boy will throw us all into the
shade.") The remaining ten years of Basse's
life were passed in Venice. His fertility as
a composer was remarkable ; he set nearly
all of Metastasio's dramas to music, some
of them three or four times over. Works :
I. Oratorios : La virtu al pie della Croce ;
La deposizione della Croce ; La caduta di
Gerico ; Maddaleua ; II caulico de' tre fan-
ciulli ; La conversione di S. Agostino,
written for the Electoral Princess Marie-
Antoinette ; Giuseppe ricouosciuto ; I
pelleyrini al sepolcro di Nostro Signore, in
score, edited by Hiller, Leipsic ; Saut' Elena
al Calvario, two versions ; Die Busse des
Heiligeu Petrus. II. Church Music : Te
Deurn, 4 voices and orchestra, Dresden ;
do., id., ib. ; Grand Te Deurn, id., ib. ; 4th
Te Deum, Venice, 1780 ; Miserere, female
voices and strings, ib., 1727 ; Solemn mass,
4 voices and orchestra ; Missa dedicat. Tem-
pli, id. ; Solemn mass, in C ; Kyrie and
Gloria, in D ; do., in C ; Credo in F ; Li-
tanite Laurentinrc, in G, Venice, 1727 ; Li-
tanie per 2 soprani con accompagnameuto ;
Salve Kegina, soprano solo and strings ;
do., 2 soprani ; Grand Requiem for the ob-
sequies of August HI., of Poland ; About
150 motets, psalms, and anthems ; Many

airs, duets, and choruses. The following are
in the Royal Library of Berlin : Magnifi-
cat, 4 voices and orchestra ; Regiua cceli, 4
voices and instruments, in D ; Ora pro no-
bis, id., in G ; do., for contralto solo and
instruments, in G ; Salve regiua, for id., in
A ; do., for soprano solo and instruments,
in B-flat ; do., id., in G ; Solemn mass for
the electoral princess of Saxony ; Mass, 4
voices and instruments, in D minor ; do.,
id., in G ; do., id., in D ; do., id., in F ; do.,
id., in D ; do., id., in C ; do., id., in G mi-
nor ; do., id., in E-flat ; Litanies for female
voices and instruments ; Miserere for female
voices ; do., 4 voices and instruments, in
D minor ; do., 4 voices a cappella, in C mi-
nor ; Te Deum, 4 voices and orchestra, in
D ; do., id., in G ; Dixit Dominus, Confite-
bor, and Mihi autem, 4 voices and orches-
tra. III. Operas : Antigonus, Brunswick,
1723 ; Sesoslrate, Naples, 172G ; Attalo, re
di Bitinia, ib., 1728 ; Dalisa (his first opera
written for Faustina Bordoni), Venice, 1730 ;
Artascrse, ib., 1730; Arminio, Milan, 1731 ;
Cleofide, Dresden, 1731 ; Alessandro nell'
Indie, ib., 1731 ; Cajo Fabrizio, Rome, 1731,
Dresden, 1732; Demetrio, Venice, 1732;
Catoneiu Utica, Turin, 1732 ; Euristeo, War-
saw, 1733 ; Asteria, Dresden, 1734 ; Senocrita,
ib., 173G ; Atalanta, ib., 1737 ; La clemenza
di Tito, ib., 1737 ; Alfonso, ib., 1738 ; Irene,
ib., 1738 ; Demetrio, ib., 1739 ; Artaserse,
ib., 1740 ; Olimpiain Eruda, London, 1740 ;
Nnma Pompilio, Dresden, 1741 ; Lucio Pa-
pirio, ib., 1742 ; Didone abbandonata, ib.,
1743 ; L' asilo d' Amore, ib., 1743 ; Antigono,
ib., 1744 ; Iperniestra, ib., 1744 ; Arminio,
ib., 1745 ; La Spartaua, ib., 1747 ; Semi-
ramide, ib., 1747 ; Demofoonte, ib., 1748 ; H
natale di Giove, ib., 1749 ; Attilio Regolo,
ib., 1750 ; Ciro ricouosciuto, ib., 1751 ; Iper-
mestra, ib., 1751 ; Leucippo, ib., 1751 ; Soli-
manno, ib., 1752 ; Adriano in Siria, ib.,
1753 ; L' eroe cinese, ib., 1753 ; Armiuio,
ib., 1753 ; Artemisia, ib., 1754 ; II r& pas-
tore, ib., 1755 ; Ezio, ib., 1755 ; Artemisia,
ib., 1755 ; L' Olimpiade, ib., 1756 ; Nitteti,
ib., 1759 ; Achille iu Sciro, ib., 1759 ; Alcide



al bivio, cantata, Vienna, 1760 ; II trionfo
di Clelia, Dresden, 1761 ; Egeria, festa
teatrale, ib., 1762 ; Nitteti, Vienna, 1762 ;
Siroe, ib., 17C3 ;Zenobia, ib., 1763 ; Romolo
ed Ersilia, luuspruck, 1765 ; Partenopc, Vi-
euna, 1767 ; Piramo e Tisbe, intermezzo,
ib., 1769 ; Don Tabranno e Scintilla, id.,
Dresden ; H Ruggiero, Milan, 1770. IV.
Concert and Chamber Music : 5 Italian
cantatas for soprano and strings, Leipsic ;
12 clavecin sonatas (the first 6, dedicated
to the Dauphin, Paris) ; '2 quartets for vio-
lin, flute, oboe, and bassoon ; 6 concertos
for 1 or 2 flutes, clavecin and strings, op. 1,
Leipsic ; 6 sonatas for 2 flutes, or violin,
violoncello, and clavecin, op. 2, ib. ; 6 sym-

phonies for G and 8 parts, op. 3 ; 4 clavecin
sonatas, op. 4 ; Concerto for horn, London ;
Favorite concertos for clavecin, ib. Burner,
Hist., iv. 548 ; Hawkins, v. 323 ; Rielil,
Mus. Charakter-Kopfe, i. 109 : Grove ; Ft>
tis ; Mendel ; Riemanu.

HASSLER (Hasler), HANS LEO (Leon-
hard), born in Nu-
remberg in 1564
(?), died in Frank-
f o r t-on-the-Main,
June 5, 1612.
Eldest and most

noteworthy son of
Is:iac Hassler ; pu-
pil of hia father,
then for a year of
Andrea Gabrieli
in Venice, where he was a fellow-student of
the great Giovanni Gabrieli. He was the
first German composer of note who studied
in Italy. After leaving Venice, he lived for
a while at the Fuggers' house in Augsburg,
and later, several years at the court of Ru-
dolph H., in Prague, where he was ennobled.
In 1608 he entered the service of Christian
H., Elector of Saxony. He died in Frank-

fort while on n journey. Hassler's style
resembled that of both the Gabrielis, his
canzonets and madrigals reminding one of
the elaboration of Andrea, while his larger
works recall the grander polychoric style of
Giovanni. His fame during his lifetime
was very great, and he is to be regarded
as one of the fathers of German music.
Those of his works that have been pre-
served are : 24 canzouetti a 4 voci, Nurem-
berg, 1590 ; Cautiones sacra de fest. prre-
cip. totius anni, 4, 5, 8 et plurium voc.,
Augsburg, 1591 ; Madrigali a 4-8 voci,
ib., 1596 ; Concentus ecclesiastici, ib., 1596 ;
Newe teiitsche Gesang, etc., for 4-8 voices,
ib., 1596, 1604-09 ; Cantioues no vie de
tVst., etc., ib., 1597 ; Misssc, 4-8 voc., ib.,
1599 ; Lustgarten newer deutscher Gesang,
etc., 4-8 voices, 1601-05-10 ; Sacri con-
centus, 5-12 voc., 1601-12 ; Psalmen und
cliristliche Gesi'mge, 4-stimmig, fugweis,
1607 (new ed. in score, 1777) ; Kirchen-
gesange, Psalmeu und geistliche Lieder,
4-stimmig, simpliciter, 1608-37 ; Litaney
deutsch Herrn Dr. Martini Lutheri, 7 voices
in double-chorus, 1619 ; Venusgarten, oder
neue lustige liebliche Tilntze, etc., 1615 ;
Several motets in the collection, Sacrse sym-
phonic diversorum auct., 2 parts, edited by

him, 1601 ; Motets in Bodenschatz's Flori-
legium Portense, and Schad's Promptu-
arium musicum. Monatsschr. fiir Mus.-
Gesch., 1874, Beilage ; Ambros, iii. 556 ;

HASSLER (Hasler), JACOB, born at
Nuremberg in 1566, died at Hechingen.
Organist to the Count of Hoheuzollern,
and one of the great virtuosi of his time ;
brother of Hans Leo. He composed many
masses, Magnificats, psalms, and other
church music, among which the 51st psalm,
for eight voices, is especially valued. An-
other brother, Kaspar, born at Nuremberg



about 1570, died there in 1618, became or-
ganist there in 1587, and came next to his

oldest brother as a master of his instrument
and on the harpsichord. FtHis ; Mendel ;
Schilling ; W'alther.

at Erfurt, March 29,
1747, died in Mos-
cow, March 25, 1822.
Pianist, son of a cap-
maker, he learned
and long followed
his father's trade.
Nephew, and pupil
on the pianoforte
and organ, of Kittel,
who had been a pu-
pil of Johaun Sebas-
tian Bach ; at the age of fourteen became
organist in Erfurt, and while leading a
wandering apprentice's life gave concerts.
He founded winter concerts in Erfurt in
1780, and a music business, but later trav-
elled to England and Russia, became impe-
rial Kapellmeister in St.Petersburg in 1792,
and settled in Moscow as a teacher in 1794.
Works : Concertos ; Fantasias ; Sonatas, and
variations for pianoforte ; Organ music ;
Songs. Allgem. d. Biogr., xi. 20 ; Fetis ;
Mendel, iv. 487 ; Riemann.



erpool in 1809, died at Margate, Sept. 20,
1886. Almost self-taught ; settled in London
in 1832, engaged at Drury Lane Theatre in
1842 ; same year went to Vienna ; visited
America in 1848 ; director of music at Prin-
cess's Theatre. Works : The Queen of the

Dec. 15, 1877.

Thames, operetta, Drury Lane, 1844 ; Pas-
cal Bruno, opera, given at Vienna, 1844;
Music for Macbeth and Sardan-
apalus, Princess's Theatre, 1853 ;
Faust and Marguerite, overture
and entr'actes, 1854 ; King Hen-
ry VIII., 1855 ; Pizarro, 1856 ;
King Richard II, 1857 ; King
Lear, The Merchant of Venice,
and Much Ado about Nothing, 1858 ; 2 Ca-
thedral Services ; Anthems ; Rose, or Love's
Ransom, opera, Cov-
eut Garden, 1864 ;
Robin Hood, can-
tata, Bradford Musi-
cal Festival, 1856;
Books of part-songs,
and about 150 songs
(Bid me to live, etc.);
Sacred drama, Hez-
ekiah, Crystal Palace,

HAUER, HERMANN, born at Dardes-
heim, near Halberstadt, August 18, 1812,
died at Wernigerode, Aug. 16, 1888.
Organist, pupil at Quedliuburg of Liebau,
then in Berlin of Rungenhagen, Marx,
Dehn, and A. W. Bach, and in 1845 became
organist of the Jacobikirche, Berlin. He
taught in several schools and founded two
singing societies, and was made royal mu-
sic director in 1870. Works : Cantata ;
Church music ; Lieder, etc. His brother
Karl (born 1824) is an organist and teacher
in Berlin. Mendel.

at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Sept. 8, 1811,
still living, 1889. He has been director
and teacher of theory at the Frankfort Mu-
sic School since its foundation. Works :
Symphonies ; Quartets ; Motets ; Piano-
forte music, etc. He is author of Theorie
der Tonsetzkunst (Frankfort, 18C3-69).
Mendel ; Fetis, Supplement, i. 453.

at Gotha about 1755, died at Nymwegen,
May 14, 1817. Organist. After serving in
the army, he became organist of the prin-


cipal church at Nymwegen. His cantata,
De dood vim Jesus Ckristus, is his principal
work. He wrote also other cantatas, con-
certos for pianoforte and for wind instru-
ments, violin music ; 6 symphonies (Paris,
1774, 1777) ; G sextets for brass instru-
ments (ib., 1776) ; 3 Clavier trios (Brussels,
1777) ; Chorals for voices (Amsterdam,
1810), etc. Gregoir, Mus. neerlandais, 80 ;
Van der Straeten, iv. -414 ; Fi'tis.

younger, born at Nyniwegen in 1793, died
at Groniugen, Oct. 31, 1858. Organist,
son and pupil of the preceding, whom he re-
placed at the organ when twelve years old.
He became organist of a church in his
native city, and in 1818 of St. Martin's at
Grouiiigen. He frequently gave organ
concerts, and was much admired for his
talent of improvising. Works : ICO psalms ;
G preludes, etc., for organ ; G waltzes for
pianoforte ; 15 school songs, etc. Gregoir,
Mus. ueerlaudais, 86.

HAUPT, (CARL) AUGUST, born at Cu-
iiaii, Silesia, Aug. 25, 1810, still living,
1889. Virtuoso on the organ, pupil of A.
W. Bach, Klein, Dehn, and the two Schnei-
ders ; became organist of the French con-
vent, Berlin, iu 1832, of St. Elizabeth's in
1835, of St. Nicholas iu 183!), and of the
parish church, in 1849 ; and taught at the
Royal Institute for church music, of which
he became director after A. W. Bach's death
iu 1870. He was remarkable for his fine
extempore variations in the style of J. S.
Bach. Of his numerous compositions those
for the organ are still iu MS. His songs and
part-songs have been published in various
collections ; his Choralbuch (Berlin, 1869)
ranks very high among its kind. Mendel ;
Fetis; Mus. Wochenblatt, xiii. 407.

HAUPTMANN, LORENZ, born at Graf-
ensulz, Nether Austria, Jan. 15, 1802, died
in Vienna, May 25, 1870. Organist, pro-
ficient at the age of twelve ; taught school
until he was twenty-four years old ; then
went to Vienna, became organist of the
Theresianum and of the Paulauerkirche,

sition of

' and later was choir-master of an Augustine
parish church, giving also singing lessons.
He composed church, pianoforte, violin, and
organ music, and good solfeggi ami in-
structive vocal duets. His masses, gradu-
als, and other sacred compositions are still
much esteemed. Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Fe-
tis ; do., Supplement, i. 453 ; Schilling.
HAUPTMANN, MORITZ, born in Dres-
den, Oct. 13, 1792,
died in Leipsic, Jan.
4, 1868. Intended
for his father's pro-
fession, architec-
ture, he was allowed
to study music as
an accomplishment,
and became a pupil
on the violin of
Scholz, and in har-
mony and cornpo-
Morlnochi and others. When
he abandoned architecture for
music, and in 1811 he went to Gotha to
perfect himself on the violin, and to study
composition under Spohr. This was the
beginning of a firm friendship between the
two men, which lasted until Spohr's death.
In 1812 he entered the royal orchestra
at Dresden, and then the household of
Prince Repuin, the Russian governor of
Dresden, whom he followed in 1815 to Rus-
sia, spending several years at St. Peters-
burg, Moscow, Poltava, and Odessa. Re-
turning to Germany in 1822, he entered
Spohr's orchestra at Cassel, where his
remarkable talent for teaching counter-
point and composition first manifested it-
self. Among his pupils at this period are
to be noted Ferdinand David, Norbert
Burgmiiller, Curschmann, Kuft'erath, Kiel,
and many others. In 1842 he was ap-
pointed cantor and Musikdirektor at the
Thomas-Schule, and professor of counter-
point and composition at the Conservato-
rium at Leipsic, where he lived until his
death. Hauptmanu's career, like his repu-
tation, was unique. Of all contemporary



musicians bis name was the one which was
mentioned all over Germany (as it still is)
with the most loving veneration. Gifted
by nature with a musical ear of exceptional
delicacy, and with the purest musical per-
ceptions, he cultivated his talent to the
highest conceivable degree by prolonged
and arduous study and practice. The fun-
damental principle of all his teaching and
writing was that absolute unity of idea and
perfection of form were the two indispen-
sable attributes of every work of art. In
Leipsic he represented the extreme classi-
cal party in music ; but he always refrained
from attacking either the ideas or the work
of the younger generation of composers,
and, in turn, no one ever made him the ob-
ject of partisan polemical writing. As a
master of musical form he was absolute.
For perfection of style and finish of work-
manship his compositions can hardly be
surpassed. Yet he is hardly to be ac-
counted a man of great genius, and he has
always been more famous as a teacher and
theorist than as a composer. Joachim, von
Billow, Sullivan, Coweu, and many other
noted men are among his pupils. His
great work, " Die Natur der Harmouik uud
der Metrik," has had probably more influ-
ence upon the modern study of the philoso-
phy of music than any other book in exist-
ence. He died loaded with about every hon-
our that could well fall to the lot of a famous
and universally revered musician. Works :
I. Church music : Salve Eegiua for 4 voices
and organ or pianoforte, ad libitum, op. 13 ;
Ofl'ertoriurn for 4 voices and organ or pi-
anoforte, op. 15 ; Vocalmesse for soli and
chorus, op. 18 ; Mass for soli, chorus, and
orchestra, op. 30 ; 6 geistliche Gesilnge for
soli and 4-part chorus, op. 33 ; Motet, Niinm
von uns, Herr Gott, op. 34 ; 6 geistliche
Gesarige, for 2 S. and A., op. 35 ; Motets,
Komm', Heil'ger Geist, and another, op.
36 ; Cantata, Herr, Herr ! wende Dich, for
soli, chorus, organ, and 4 trombones, op. 38 ;
Hymn, Am Ciicilientage, for soli, 2 choruses,
and pianoforte, op. 39 ; 3 Motets for soli

and chorus, op. 40 ; 3 do., op. 41 ; 6 geist-
liche Gesiiuge for chorus, op. 42 ; 3 Kirch-
enstiicke for chorus and orchestra, op. 43 ;
3 geistliche Chorgesiinge, op. 44 ; Psalm
LXXXIV., for soli and chorus, op. 45 ;
Motet for soli and chorus, op. 51 ; Do.
from Psalm CXI., op. 52 ; 3 geistliche Chor-
gesiinge for mixed chorus, op. 53 ; 12 do.
for 2 S. and A. (2 books), op. 54 ; 3 do. for

5. A. T. and B., op. 56 ; Psalm, Sei inir
guiidig, Gott, for 4 solo voices, and 2 4-
part choruses, op. 57. H. Secular vocal
music : Gretcheu vor deni Bilde der Mater
Dolorosa, for voice and pianoforte (the
accompaniment scored for orchestra by
Franz von Holsteiu), op. 3 ; Auf dem See,
text by Goethe, for 4 solo voices and
chorus, op. 21 ; Songs, part-songs, and
canons, with pianoforte, op. 1, 4, 9, 11, 19,
22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 37, 46, 50 ; Part-
songs without accompaniment, op. 32, 47,
49, 55. III. Chamber music : 2 string
quartets (E-flat, C), op. 7 ; Duos concert-
ants for 2 violins, op. 2, 16, 17 ; Divertisse-
ment for violin and guitar, op. 8 ; Concerto
facile in E-flat, for pianoforte with accom-
paniment of 2 violins, viola, and violoncello,
op. 20 ; Sonatas for pianoforte and violin,
in G minor, E-flat, D, op. 5 ; do. in F, op. 6 ;
do. in B-flat, G, D minor, op. 23 ; 12 pieces
for pianoforte, op. 12. IV. Orchestral :
Overture to Mathilde, op. 60. V. Literary
works: 1. " Erlauterungen zu Johann Se-
bastian Bach's Kuust der Fuge " (Leipsic,
Peters) ; 2. " Die Natur der Harmonik uud
der Metrik " (ib., Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; 3,
" Aufgabeu f iir einfachen und doppelten Cou-
trapuukt " (ib., Senff) ; 4. "Briefe am Franz
Hauser " (ib., Breit-
kopf & Hartel); 5.

" Die Lehre von der
Harmonik" (ib., id.);

6. Briefe von Moritz

Hauptmann an Spohr und Andere, herausge-
geben von Dr. Ferdinand Hiller (ib., 1876).
Grove ; Hiller, Aus dem Touleben, iii. 79.
lin in 1825, still living, 1889. Pupil at the



Reyal Academy of Berlin ; became con- 1
ductor of orchestra of the Vorstiidtischcs
Theater in 1850, and of the Kunigsstadt-
isches Theater in 1852, in the meantime writ-
ing many operettas and farces. lu 1854-58
he studied at the Paris Conservatoire, then
was a teacher in Berlin, Basel, and Potsdam,
where he directed the Singakademie. He
has published a singing method. Mendel ;

HAUSCHKA, VINCENZ, born at Mies,
Bohemia, Jan. 21, 1760, died in Vienna,
Sept. 13, 1840. Violoncellist, son and pu-
pil of a school teacher ; he was choir boy in
the Prague Cathedral ; then studied theory
under Ziiger and the violoncello under
Christ ; became violoncellist in the chapel of
Count Joseph von Thun, in Prague ; made a
concert tour through Germany, and settled
in Vienna, where he obtained, in 17'.):}, a
government office. He was also an excellent
player on the baryton, composing much for
that instrument and the violoncello, besides
vocal music. Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Schil-
ling ; Gerber, ii. 522 ; Fetis.

HAUSEK, MORITZ, born in Berlin in
1826, died in Konigsberg, May 31, 1S57.
Sou and pupil of Franz Huuser (dramatic
singer, 17!)4 -1S70), and studied at the
Leipsic Conservatorium under Mendelssohn
and Hauptmauu. Ho was music director
of the city theatre in Konigsberg until his
early death. Works : Der Erbe von Hohe-
iieck, opera, given at Konigsberg, 1855 ; Lie-
der; Instrumental music. Mendel; Fetis.
HAUSEB, MISKA (Michael), born at
Presburg, Hungary,
in 1822, died in Vi-
enna, Dec. 8, 1887.
Violin virtuoso, pupil
of Joseph Matalay, of
Conradiu Kreutzer,
and at the Conserva-
torium in Vienna, of
Mayseder, and Sech-
ter. In 1840-48, he
made a concert tour through Germany,
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Russia ; in

1848-49 visited France and England, and on
Jan. 1, 1850, landed in New York and trav-
elled throughout the United States for three
years. From San Francisco he went to
South America in 1853, then to Australia in
1854-58, and returned via India, Egypt,
Malta, and Marseilles to Vienna. After a
tour through the larger cities of the empire,
he went to Bukharest, and in 1861 to Con-
stantinople, where he played before Abdul
Medjid. Subsequently he lived compara-
tively retired, and only seldom appeared in
public, the last time in Cologne, in 1874.
Works : Nocturne, op. 1 ; Introduction and
Rondo on Hungarian melodies, op. 2 ; Mes
adieux a Varsovie, op. 5 ; Introduction et
Variations de concert, op. 7 ; Bolero, op.
10 ; 12 Lieder ohne worte, op. 11 ; do., op.
16, op. 21, 23-28 ; La melancolie, etude de
concert, op. 17 ; La seutimeutale, do., op.
18 ; Tarentelle, op. 1!) ; Scherzo, op. 22 ;
Das Vugleiu am Baurne, op. 34 ; Fantasias,
rondos, variations, etc. He wrote also an
operetta, Der blinde Leiermanu, about
1860. Aus dem Wauderbuch eines oster-
reichischen Virtuosen (Leipsic, 1858-59) ;

mestic Struggle), German Singspiel in one
act, text adapted from the French by Cas-
telli, music by Franz Schubert, written for
the court theatre, Vienna, in 1823, but un-
performed during the composer's lifetime.
The original title was Die Verschworenen
(The Conspirators), but the licensers re-
garding it with suspicion, it was changed to
the present one. The libretto was sug-
gested by the " Lysistrata " of Aristophanes.
It was first represented, under the direction
of Herbeck, by the Musikverein, Vienna,
March 1, 1861 ; at Frankfort, Aug. 29,
1861, and then in Munich, Salzburg, and
other German cities. It was given in Paris,
at the Fantaisies Parisiennes, Feb. 3, 1868,
in a French translation by Victor Wilder,
under the title La guerre domestique, ou
les conjures, which was afterward changed
to La croisade des dames ; and in London,


at the Crystal Palace, Sydenbnra, March
2, 1872, as The Conspirators. The work
consists of an overture and eleven numbers.
Published by Spina (Vienna, 1802). Life of
Schubert, i. 309 ; Athenaeum (1872), i. 313.

See Fidelio.

HAWES, WILLIAM, born iu London in
1785, died there,
Feb. 18, 1846. He
was chorister in
the Chapel Royal
from 1793 to 1801,
violinist at Coveut
Garden in 1802,
Gentleman of the
Chapel Royal in
1805, master of
choristers and
vicar-choral at St.
Paul's in 1814, master of the children of the
Chapel Royal in 1817, and lay vicar of West-
minster Abbey in 1817-20. He was the
first promoter of the Harmonic Institution,
then a music publisher, and later director
of music at the English Opera Lyceum ;
conductor of the Madrigal Society, and or-
ganist of the German Lutheran Church in
the Savoy. He adapted many operas to the
English stage, and composed or compiled
music for many of them. Works : Glees
and madrigals ; Chants, Sauctuses, and
Responses to the Commandments. Grove.

HAYDEE, ou le secret, opera-comique
in three acts, text by Scribe, music by
Auber, first represented at the Opera Comi-
que, Paris, Dec. 28, 1847. Auber's best,
work in his third style. The libretto,
adapted trom a Russian novel translated by
Prosper Meriinee, is interesting, with poeti-
cal situations, and the music is dramatic and '
appropriate to the subject. The hero of ;
the work is Lore-dan, a young Venetian ad-
miral who returns home, after driving the
Turks from Cyprus, bringing with him
Haydee, a young Greek prisoner, who
turns out to be of royal descent, and whom
he finally marries when elevated to the

JOSEF, born at

dignity of Doge of Venice. Other charac-
ters are Andrea, sou of Donato, a man whom
Loredau has ruined at play, whom the Ad-
miral makes his heir and marries to Rafaela,
his ward, and Malipieri, a spy of the Coun-
cil of Ten. The role of Loredau was cre-
ated by Roger; the other characters were
sustained by Hermann-Leon, Audrau, Ric-
quier, and Miles Lavoye and Grimm. The
opera was given in English at the Strand
Theatre, London, April 3, 1848, and at Co-
vent Garden, Nov. 4, 1848. Atheufeum
(1848), 43 ; 1130.

Rohrau, Lower Aus-
tria, March 31 (April
1), 1732, died iu Vi-
enna, May 31, 1809.
He was the second
child of a wheel-
wright, Matthias
Haydn, and Maria
H. (born K o 1 1 e r),
daughter of Count
Harrach's cook and

Marktrichter, or steward. The family
came originally from Haiuburg, a town four
leagues from Rohrau, near the Danube.
Both Josef's parents were musical ; his
first teacher was his step-grandfather, Jo-
hann Mathias Frankh, a school-master in
Haiuburg, to whose school he was sent
when six years old. Although his mother
would have preferred him to be brought up
for the priesthood, his musical education
was, from the first, conducted with a view to

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