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his making music his profession. Frankh
was a severe but excellent teacher, and
would doubtless have brought his pupil
farther on than he did, had not Georg
Reutter, Hofcompositor, and Kapellmeister
at St. Stephen's, in Vienna, been struck with
the boy's talent and voice, while on a visit
to Haiuburg, and offered him a place as
chorister at St. Stephen's, two years after
he began his schooling. Haydn's parents
consented, and he left Hamburg and
Frankh, for Vienna, in 1740. His studies







"^-: ;

4 = -




were religion, Latin, writing, and arithme-
tic, to which were added the violin, the
clavier, and singing, probably under Gegen-
bauer and Fiusterbusch ; but nothing what-

Silhouette of Haydn.

ever was done about instruction in har-
mony, counterpoint, or composition. He
was looked upon by von Reutter (ennobled
in 1740) merely as a boy singer, and even
when it was discovered that be had been
trying to compose on his
own account, the Kapell-
meister gave him no en-
couragement or advice.
In 1745 he was joined at
the Cantorei by his broth-
er Michael, who soon sup-
planted him in the favor
of von Eeutter and Maria
Theresa, who bad previ-
ously noted his singing
with pleasure ; for about
this time his voice began to
change, and he was prac-
tically useless as a singer. A practical joke,
played by him upon a fellow-chorister, and
found out by von Rentier, brought matters
to a head, and he was dismissed the Cantorei
with a sound caning. He was now thrown
upon his own resources, but one Spangler,

chorister at St. Michael's, and a Viennese
friend who lent him 150 florins, helped him,
and he got a few pupils. He was thus
enabled to hire a little room in the old
Michaelerhaus in the Kohlmarkt. He be-
gan to study composition by himself from
the works of P. Emanuel Bach, and to such
good purpose that Bach afterward said
that he alone fully understood his writings
and knew how to use them. About this
time he wrote his first mass, in F (No. 11,
Novella's ed.), and a musical farce, Der
neue Krumme Teufel, for the Stadttheater,
the latter bringing him in a good sum of
money. It became quite famous in its way,
and was given in several German cities.
Through Metastasio he was introduced to
a Spanish family, the de Martines, and was
engaged to give lessons to Marianne, the
elder daughter. This led to his meeting
Porpora, who engaged him as accompanist,
and gave him the only regular instruction
in composition he ever had, in return for
this and other more menial services. But
he mastered by himself all the important
theoretical musical literature of the day, es-
pecially Fux's Gradus. In 1755 he wrote
his first quartet, for Karl Joseph, Edler von

Birthplace of Haydn.

Fiirnberg, whose acquaintance he had made,
and who, in 1759, recommended him as
Musikdirektor and Kammercompositor to
Count Ferdinand Maximilian Morzin, at his
country seat at Lukavec, near Pilseu. Here
he wrote his first symphony. His salary



was 200 florins, with board and lodging.
On Nov. 26, 1760, he married Anna Maria
Keller, a woman three years older than him-
self, of quarrelsome temper, who did her
best to make his life wretched. Soon after,
Count Morzin gave up his band, and Haydn
entered the service of Prince Paul Anton
Eszterhazy, as second Kapellmeister under
Werner, at Eiseustadt. He continued to
hold this post, and, after Werner's death,
that of first Kapellmeister, under Prince
Nicolaus Eszterhazy, both at Eiseustadt and
at Eszterhaz, the Prince's new summer place,
near SiittOr, on the Neusiedler-See. Here
he composed most of his operas. Except
for some visits to Vienna, either alone, or
in company with the Prince and the whole
chapel, he continued living at Eszterhaz un-
til liis patron's death, in 171)0. He retained
his title of Kapellmeister, with a yearly pen-
sion of 1,000 florins, under his successor,
Prince Anton ; but as nearly the whole
<-lmpol was disbanded, he moved to Vienna.
But the news of Prince Nicolaus' s death had
brought Salomon to Vienna, in hopes of en-
gaging Haydn for London. As Haydn was
now free, he consented, and the two set out
together, Dec. 15, 1790, going by Munich.
Bonn, and Brussels to Calais, crossing the
channel on Jan. 1, 1791, and arriving in
London without delay. Here Haydn found
himself the centre of a brilliant artistic cir-
cle, and every attention was heaped upon
him. In July he went to Oxford to receive
the honorary degree of Mus. Doc. His
symphonies, written at this period for Salo-
mon's concerts, and known as the " Salomon
symphonies," are accounted his greatest or-
chestral works. He left London in the lat-
ter part of June, 1792, returning to Vienna
by way of Bonn, where he met Beethoven
and passed judgment upon a cantata of his,
and Frankfort, and arriving at the end of
July. In December Beethoven came to Vi-
enna to study under him. On Jan. 19, 1794,
Haydn set out again for London, on the in-
vitation of Salomon to write six more sym-
phonies. His success and popularity dur-

ing this second visit quite equalled his
former experience in England, and he re-
turned home in August, 1795, with a com-
petence for the rest of his life. In January,
1797, he left his house in Vienna (now Neu-
markt, No. 2) for one he had bought in the
Mariahilf suburb (Windmiihle, 73 Kleine
Steingasse, now 19 Haydngasse), and went
to Eiseustadt only for the summer and fall.
The great works of the last ten years of his
life were Die Sclu'ipfung, and Die Jalires-

Haydn's Tomb.

zeiten. Although his health was feeble dur-
ing the last few years, he continued com-
posing almost to the end. He died during
the siege of Vienna by the French. On
June 15, Mozart's Requiem was sung in his
honour in the Schotteukirche, and he was
buried in the Hundsthurm churchyard, riot
far from his own house ; but in 1820 his
body was transferred to the upper parish
church at Eisenstadt by order of Prince
Eszterhazy. Haydn has, with justice, been
called the father of modern orchestral



music ; to him the world owes the establish-
ment of the two finest phases of the sonata-
form : the orchestral symphony and the
string quartet. However, the generally ac-
cepted story that he and Boccherini set the
standard form for the quartet nearly at the
same time, and without collusion, seenis to
be, in the main, true. (See Sam ml. Mus.
Vortriig, IV. 105-110.) In the field of oratorio
he, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn are the only
composers after Handel whose works have
lived to the present day in undiminished
favour with musicians and the public.
Works : I. Oratorios and Cantatas : Canta-
ta for the birthday of Prince Nicolans Esz-
terhazy, Eiseustadt, 1763 ; Deutschland's
Klage auf den Tod Friedrichs des Grossen ;
Applausus musicus, for the festival of a pro-
late, Vienna, 1708 ; II ritorno di Tobia, ib.,
1775 ; Arianna a Naxos, London, 1791 ;
The Storm, ib., Mar. 26, 1791 ; The In-
vocation of Neptune (composed 1795, not
completed) ; Die sieben letzten Worte,
Eisenstadt, 1797 ; Die Erwiihlung eines
Kapellmeisters, Vienna, 1797-1802 ; Die
Selwpfuny, ib., Apr. 29, 1798 ; Die Jahres-
zeiten, ib., Apr. 24, 1801. H. Church Mu-
sic : 14 masses ; 1 Stabat Mater ; 2 Te
Deum ; 13 oft'ertories ; 4 motets ; 1 Tan turn
ergo ; 4 Salve Kegina ; 1 Begina cceli ; 2
Ave Eegina ; Eesponsoria de Venerabili ; 1
cantilena pro Adventu (German) ; 6 sacred
arias ; 2 ditto, duets. III. Dramatic : Der
neue krumme Teufel, Singspiel, Vienna,
Stadttheater, 1752 ; Acide e Galatea, pas-
toral, Eisenstadt, Jan. 11, 1763 ; La can-
teriua, opera buffa, 1776 ; Lo speziale, Vi-
enna, 1769 ; II diavolo zoppo, ib., 1770 ; Le
pescatrici, dramma giocosa, 1770 ; L' infe-
deltadelusa, burletta, Eszterlulz, 1773 ; L' in-
contro improviso, dramma giocosa, 1775 ;
II mondo della Luna, do., 1777 ; La vera
costauza, Eszterhi'iz, 1779 ; La fedelta pre-
miata, ib., Nov. 18, 1779; L' infedeltfi fedele,
1780 (?) ; Orlando paladino, Eszterhaz, 1782 ;
Anuida, ib., 1784 ; L' isola disabitata, Vi-
enna, Hoftheater, 1785 ; Orfeo ed Euridice
(composed 1791, not completed) ; Die Apfel-

diebe, Berlin, 1791 ; Second act of II dis-
Iratto, Vienna, about 1794 (?) ; L' avaro, in-
termezzo, Paris, Opera Italien, Jan. 5, 1802 ;
Philemon mid Baucis, marionette opera,
Eszterhaz, 1773 ; Der Gotterrath, do. ; Der
Hexenschabbes, do. ; Genoverfa, do. ; Dido,
do., Eszterhaz, Sep. 15, 1778 ; Incidental
music to Der Zerstreute (see II </ix/r(tttu),
Die Feuersbrunst, Hamlet, Gutz von Ber-
lichingen, Konig Lear, Das abgebrannte
Haus, Alfred. IV. Miscellaneous Vocal
Works : 12 German Lieder, 1782 ; 12 do.,
1784 ; 12 separate do. (5 in BIS.) ; 6 origi-
nal canzonets, London, 1796 ; 6 do. ; The
Spirit Song (Shakespeare) ; O tuneful voice ;
3 English songs in MS. ; 2 duets ; 3 three-
part and 10 four-part songs ; 3 choruses in
MS. ; 1 do. from Alfred (Leipsic, Breitkopf
& Hiirtel) ; Golf, erhalte Franz den Kaiser,
for 1 and 4 voices ; 42 canons in 2 or more
parts ; 2 do. ; The Ten Commandments in
canons ; the same with other words, Die
zelm Gesetze tier Kunst ; Accompaniments
for pianoforte, violin, and violincello to
247 Scotch songs (London, W. Napier, 3
vols.) ; Do. to 17 ditto (some by Thomas &
Whyte, Edinburgh) ; 41 Welsh airs in 3 parts
(London, Preston, 3 vols.). V. Instru-
mental : 125 symphonies, of which the fol-
lowing are the most noteworthy. (The
greatest confusion exists in the numbering
of Haydn's symphonies ; the numbers given
here refer respectively to the editions of
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Peters, Andre, and
Eieter-Biedermann, and to the Catalogue of
the London Philharmonic Society. The
English, French, and Italian titles are current
in England and America, the German titles
are recognized in Germany. Those num-
bered 1-12 in the Loud. Philharmonic Soc.
catalogue are the so-called great " Salomon "
symphonies, written for Salomon's concerts
in London.) Mit dem Paukenwirbd, in E-flat,
1795 ? (B. & H., No. 1 ; P., No, 1 ; Phil., No.
8) ; in D, London, 1795 (B. & H., No. 2 ; P.,
No. 2 ; Phil., No. 7) ; in E-flat, Vienna, 1793
(B. & H., No. 3 ; Phil., No. 10) ; The Clock,
in D, 1794 (B. & H., No. 4 ; P., No. 3 ; Phil.,


No. 11) ; in D, London, 1791 (B. &H., No. 5,
Phil., No. 2) ; Surprixe, Mit clem Paukeu-
schlag, in G, 1791 (B. & H., No. 6 ; P., No.
4 ; Phil., No. 3) ; in C, 179- ? (B. & H.,
No. 7 ; P., No. 5 ; Phil., No. 1) ; in B-flat,
1792 ? (B. & H., No. 8 ; Phil., No. 4) ; in C
minor, 1791 (B. & H., No. 9 ; Phil., No. 5) ;
in D (B. & H., No. 10) ; Military, in G,
1794 (B. & H., No. 11 ; P., No. 7 ; Phil.,
No. 12) ; in E-flat, 1795 (B. & H., No. 12 ;
P., No. 6 ; Phil, No. 9) ; in G (15. \ H., No.

13 ; P., No. 8) ; in D, 1791 (B. & H, No.

14 ; Phil., No. 6) ; in E-flat, 1787 '?, for Paris
(Anil iv, No. 1 ; Phil., Letter T) ; L'oi/r. - , in

C, 1786? (A., No. 2) ; Trailer, in E minor,
1772? (A., No. 3; Phil., Letter I); in B
(R.-Bied, No. 1); Oxford, in G, 1788?
(R.-B., No. 2 ; P., No. 9 ; Phil, Letter Q) ;
in C, 1788 ? (R-B., No. 3 ; Phil., Letter E) ;
in E-flat (R.-B., No. 4) ; La chasse, in D
(R.-B., No. 5) ; in C minor (R.-B., No. (5) ;
in B-flat, 1780 ? (Phil., Letter A) ; Farewell,
Abschiedssinfonie, in F-sharp minor, 1772
(Phil, Letter B) ; in D, 1774 (Phil., Letter
H) ; in G, 1772 (Phil., Letter L) ; in G,
1787 ?, for Paris (Phil., Letter V) ; in F,
1787 (Phil., Letter W) ; La m'nede Franco,
in G minor, 1786 ?, for Paris (Sinirock, in
parts); j;.r,<l<ine, in C, 1777? (ib., id.);
l.i ., /<', in G minor, 178C ?, for Paris (ib.,
id.) : Maria Theresa, in C, 1773? (ib., id.) ;
l.'unl.H i, in C, 1779? ; The Schoolmaster, in
E-flat, 1774 (Sinn-nek, in parts) ; Le inn/in, in

D, 176-? ; Le wuli, in C, 17G1 ; Le goir, in
G, 176-? ; 11 ilixtr.ittn, in C, 177(5 ? ; Kimlr-
xi/iii]iJtniiif, in C, 178- ? (Andre); Hfcrt-iiri/.
in E-flat, 1772 ? ; Der phil,^< /./i. in K-ll.-n,
17(>4 ; La passione, in F minor, 1773?;
/;,,, v-Syinphonie, in A, 1774 ; Concertante,
in B-flat, London, 1792 ; Lamentation*, in
D minor, 1772 (the entire number of
symphonies, including overtures to operas,
etc., published in parts, is 94 ; 40 are pub-
lished in score, and 29 are still in MS. ) ; Die
nii-lit'i) letzten Worte, for strings, Artaria,
1785 ; 7 notturnos for lyre ; 7 marches ; 6
scherzandos ; 1 sextet ; several quintets ; 1
echo for 4 violins and 2 'celli ; several Feld-

parthien for wind instruments ; ai'rauge-
ments of pieces for barytou ; 12 collections
of minuets and allemaudes ; Divertimenti,
etc., for strings, with and without wind ;
175 pieces for baryton ; 51 concertos (19,
including divertimenti, for pianoforte, 1 for
pianoforte and violin, 9 for violin, 6 for vio-
loncello, 1 for double-bass, 5 for lyre, 3 for
barytou, 2 for flute, 3 for horn, 1 for 2 horns,

1 for clariuo, 1796) ; 6 duets for violin and
viola ; 1 do. for 2 lutes ; 35 trios for piano-
forte, violin and violoncello ; 3 do., for pi-
anoforte, flute and violoncello ; 20 do. for

2 violins and bass ; 1 do. for violin, viola
and bass ; 2 do. for flute, violin and bass ;

3 do. for 3 flutes ; 1 do. for corno di caccia,
violin and violoncello ; 2 do. for lute, violin
and violoncello ; 77 quartets for 2 violins,
viola and violoncello (Nos. 1-18 published
in 3 series, Nos. 21-74, with arrangement
of Sieben letzteu Worte, in 9 series, Nos. 20,
75-76, and 77 separately ; No. 19 is in
MS.) ; 53 sonatas and divertimenti for pi-
anoforte ; 4 do. for pianoforte and violin ;
1 do. for harp, flute and bass ; 9 smaller
pieces for pianoforte ; 1 for do., 4 hands ;
several pieces for musical clock ; 1 do. for

harmonica. For list of works spuriously or
conjecturally attributed to Haydn, see
Grove, i. 720. C. F. Pohl, Joseph Haydn
(Leipsic, Breitkopf k Hiirtel, 1875) ; C. F.
Pohl, Mozart \md Haydn in London (Vi-
enna, 18G7) ; Grove.

Rohrau, Germany, Sept. 14, 1737, died at
Salzburg, Aug. 10, 1806. Organist, broth-


er of Josef Haydn. He became chorister
.it St. Stephen's, Vienna, at eight years of
age ; and later as-
sistaiit organist;
\vas Kapellmeister
at Grosswardein in
1757, Conzertmeis-
ter and director to
Archbishop Sigis-
inuud, at Salzburg,
and organist at
Holy Trinity and
St. Peter's, Salzburg, in 1777. Having lost
his property through the destruction of
Salzburg by the French in 1800, the Em-
press asked him to compose a mass for her,
in which she sang the soprano solos, Oct.
1, 1801. Prince Eszterhazy twice offered
him the vice-Kapellmeistership of his chapel,
but he twice refused, hoping the chapel at
Salzburg would be reorganized. He was
a member of the Academy at Stockholm.
Joseph Haydn considered Michael's church
music better than his own. Works : 2
Requiems ; 24 masses ; 4 German masses ;
114 graduate ; G7 oft'ertories ; 8 Respouso-
rieu ; 3 Teuebrse, Regina Cceli, etc. ; 8 lit-
anies ; 11 vespers ; 5 Salve Regiua ; sev-
eral German sacred songs ; 50 short organ
pieces, preludes, etc. (Linz) ; 30 symphonies,
and Partitcu ; 1 sextet ; 3 quintets ; 12
minuets (Augsburg, Gombart) ; 1 violin con-
certo; quintets ; serenades ; marches ; orato-
rios ; cantatas ; opera, Andromeda e Perseo
(1770); operettas; pastoral, Die Hochzeit
auf der Aim ; four-part songs (Vienna,
1799 ; Salzburg, 1800) ; single songs, Karl
der Held, Erzherzog von Oesterreich, etc. ;
6 canons (Salzburg, 1800) ; Partitur Fun-
dament ; Autiphonarium romauum. Men-
del ; Gerber ; Schilling ; Fi'tis.

HAYES, PHILIP, born at Oxford, April,
1738, died in London, March 19, 1797. Or-
ganist, son and pupil of William Hayes ;
Mus. Bac., Oxford, 17G3 ; Gentleman of
the Chapel Royal, 17(J7 ; organist of New
College, Oxford, 1770, of Magdalen College,
and Professor of Music in the University,

1777 ; Mus. Doc., 1777 ; organist of St,
John's College, 17'JO. Works : Prophecy,
oratorio, 1781 ; Telemachus, a masque ; Ode
for St. Cecilia's Day, "Begin the Song"
(by John Oldham) ; Anthems ; Services,
psalms, glees, etc. He edited Harmouia
Wiccamica (London, 1780). Grove.

HAYES, WILLIAM, born at Gloucester
in 1707, died at Oxford, July 30, 1777. He
was chorister of Gloucester Cathedral, or-
ganist at St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, and, in
1731-34, of Worcester Cathedral. In 1734
he became organist of Magdalen College,
Oxford, where he received the degree of
Mus. Bac. in 1735. He became professor
of music at the University in 1742, and
Doctor of Music in 1749. He conducted
at the Gloucester Musical Festival in 17G3.
Works : Twelve Arietts or Ballads and Two
Cantatas (1735) ; Collins's Ode on the Pas-
sions ; Vocal and Instrumental Music, con-
taining : I. The Overture and Songs in the
Masque of Circe, H. A Sonata or Trio and
Ballads, Airs, and Cantatas, IH. An Ode,
being part of an Exercise performed for a
Bachelor's Degree in Music (1742) ; Cathe-
dral Music ; Catches, glees, canons, etc.
Grove ; Barrett, English Church Com-
posers, 130 ; Harrnonicou (1833), 141.

HAYM (Hennius), GILLES, Belgian
church composer of the 17th century.
Canon and singer in the collegiate church
of St. John, Liege ; subsequently Kapell-
meister to Ferdinand, Elector Prince-bishop
of Cologne, and finally to the Duke of Pfalz-
Neuburg. His masses, motets, hymns, etc.,
were published in Cologne and Antwerp
(1G20-1G51). -Fetis ; do., Supplement, i.
454 ; Riemanu ; Van der Straeten, i. 215.

Rome about 1G79, died in London, Aug. 11,
1729. Violoncellist, born of German par-
ents. He went in 1704 to England, and
attempted to establish Italian opera in Lon-
don ; altered operas, played in the orchestra,
and wrote many librettos. Works : Sona-
tas for two violins and bass. Grove ; Men-
del ; Fetis ; Hawkins, Hist, of Music, v. 163.


HAYOUL, BAUDOUIN, French ecclesi-
astic and church composer of the second
half of the IGth century. Maitre de mu-
sique at the church of Saiut-Nicolas-des-
Champs, Paris. He published a collection
of motets (Nuremberg, 1587). Fetis.

of American parentage in Louisville, Ken-
tucky, July 19, 1837, still living, 1889.
Composer of popular songs, the first of
which was written when he was about six-
teen years old. Since then he has pub-
lished nearly three hundred, which have
had a phenomenal sale of several millions
in the aggregate. Among the best known
are : Evangeliue ; My Southern Sunny
Home ; Write me a Letter from Home ;
\\ "e parted by the River Side ; Driven from
Home ; Shamus O'Brien ; Mollie Darling ;
The Moon is out to-night, Love ; Old-
fashioned Roses are Sweetest ; etc.

in Birmingham,
England, April 10,

1847, still living,
1889. Pianist and
conductor, studied
at Leipsie ; Men-
delssohn scholar,
18G5 ; Mus. Bac.,
Cambridge, 1871,
Mus. Doc., 1872.
Conductor of Bir-
mingham Philhar-
monic Union, of

Stafford and other Philharmonic Societies,
and of Wolverhampton Musical Festivals.
Works : The Captivity, oratorio ; The Maid
of Astolat, cantata, 1885 ; 3d Psalm, for
soli, chorus, and orchestra ; Voice of Spring,
chorus and orchestra ; Overture in F, or-
chestra, Birmingham Festival, 1879 ; do. in
C, ib., 1879 ; Sonata for clarinet and piano-
forte, 1880 ; do. for organ ; do. for violin
and pianoforte, 1884 ; Quintet for piano-
forte and wind instruments, 1882 ; Trios ;
Anthems and other sacred music ; Organ
music ; Songs, part-songs, etc.

HEBRIDEN, DIE, (The Hebrides), also
known as Fingal's HiVhle (Fingal's Cave), 2d
concert overture, in B minor, for orchestra,
by Mendelssohn, op. 26, first played by the
Philharmonic Society, London, May 14,
1832. Mendelssohn and Kliugemaun vis-
ited Staffa in 1829, and in the winter of the
following year the overture was begun in
Rome. The original score, dedicated to
Franz Hauser, is dated Rome, Dec. 1C,
1830, and entitled Die eiusame Insel (The
Lonely Isle). The MS. of this is in posses-
sion of Felix Moscheles, London. A sec-
ond setting, dated London, June 20, 1832,
in possession of the family of Sir W. Stern-
dale Bennett, differs greatly, chiefly in the
working out of the middle part. The
printed score (published by Breitkopf &
Hartel, Easter, 1834), is entitled Fiugals
H<">hle. The overture was given in New
York, by the Philharmonic Society, season
of 1852-53. Grove, i. 724.

SEPH GUSTAVE, born at Bordeaux, Aug.
22, 1803, died in 1SGG. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil of PaOr. He wrote music for
vaudevilles, and composed several operas,
of which the best are : Le bracouuier, given
at the Opera Comique, 1847, and Mariuette
et Gros-Reuu, operetta, Bouffes Parisiens,
1 >>'>( I. He was musical critic on L'lllus-
tration, the Revue et Gazette musicale,
and other Paris journals. Fetis ; Mendel.

HECUBA, concert aria for alto and or-
chestra, in G minor, text by Dr. L. Gold-
ham, music by Rubinstein, op. 92, No. 1,
dedicated to Frau Caroline Gomperz-Bet-
tleheim. Published by Bartholf Seiiff (Leip-
sic, between 18G8 and 1873), and by No-
vello, Ewer & Co. (London).

Helsdorf, near Kroustadt, Transylvania,
Aug. 5, 1802, died at Kronstadt, Jan. 8,
1849. The cantor of his native place taught
him singing and violin, and his musical
studies were finished under Drechsler and
Blumeuthal, in Vienna, where he composed
overtures and other music for the theatres.


11 EG A R

In 1840 lie became cantor ami church mu-
sic director in Kronstadt. His best works
were cantatas, motets, and songs. Mendel.

HEGAR, FBIEDBICH, bom at- Basel,
Oct. 11, 1841, still living, 1889. Violinist,
pupil at the Couservatorium, Leipsic
(1857-00), for a short time Conzertmeister
of Bilse's orchestra, then at Warsaw ; re-
turned to Leipsic to complete his studies,
and after a visit to Baden-Baden and Paris,
became director of music at Gebweiler,
Alsace. Since 18G3 he has lived at Ziirich,
where he was at first Conzertmeister, then
conductor of the subscription concerts, and
from 1868 of the Tonhalle orchestra. He
is also director of the school of music,
opened ill 187G. Of his compositions the
oratorio Manassa deserves especial notice.

(The Saviour's Last Hours), oratorio by
Spohr, text by Bochlitz, first performed at
Cassel, Good Friday, 1835. The libretto
had been previously declined by Mendels-
sohn, who was then at work on his St. Paul.
The oratorio is called Calvary in the Eng-
lish version by Edward Taylor, the first
performance of which was given, under
Spohr's own direction, at the Norwich Fes-
tival, 1839. It was given again, in Spohr's
presence, under the direction of Costa, by
the London Sacred Harmonic Society, T^x-
eter Hall, July 5, 1852. Spohr, Autobiog-
raphy, ii. 217 ; Athenaeum (1852), 756.

man national song, words by Heiurich Har-
ries, adapted to the air "God save the King."
It was written originally for the birthday of
Christian VII., King of Denmark (Harries
being a clergyman of Holstein), and pub-
lished in the Flensburg Wocheublatt, Jan.
27, 1790 ; but it was modified later (1793)
for Prussian use by B. G. Schumacher. W.
Tappert, in Musik. Wochenblatt, Aug. 31,

cantata for mezzo-soprano, chorus, and or-
chestra, or pianoforte, harp, and harmon-

ium, text by Mine Emile de Girardin, mu-
sic by Franz Liszt, op. 15G, composed in
1875. Published, score, vocal score, and
parts, by Kahut (Vienna, 187G).

HEILIGE NACHT, DIE, Couzertstiick
for alto solo, chorus, and orchestra, in A-
flat, by Niels W. Gade, op. 40. The text is
from the poem, "Die Christuadit,'' by Au-
gust von Platen. Published by Breitkopf
& Hilrtel (Leipsic, 18G3). Allgeineiiie Mu-
sikalische Zeitung (1863), 33G."

and chorus iu C major, in Mendelssohn's
A'//r/. s No. 35.

jrt'ix/t'rxinyt'r von Niirnberg.


DIE (The Blind restored to Sight), oratorio,
by Carl Loewe, for voices a cappella, a spe-
cies of oratorio composition peculiar to this
composer. Published without opus number
in 1861.

tttrn from abroad), operetta, in one act,
text by Carl Klingemaim, music by Men-
delssohn, op. 89, written for the silver wed-

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