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and orchestra ; Ruth et Booz, vocal sym-
phony ; Le salut imperial, cantata ; Le pou-
voir de 1'harmonie, do. ; Hymne a la beaute.
do. ; Pas d'orehrstre, choral operetta; Pe-
nelope, lyrical scene ; Bichat, choral scene ;
\l isses for two, tln-ce, four, and live voices,
with and without organ or orchestra ; Mo-
tets ; Symphonies; Overtures; Quintets,
quartets, and trios for string instruments ;
('lionises for male voices, etc. He was (lie
author of many theoretical and didactic
works, including: "Petit manuel d'harmo-
nie, etc." |ls:i',l) ; "Traite du contrepoint et
de la fugue" (1S40) ; '-Essai de transposi-
tion musicale " (1840) ; " Le Chantcur ac-
compagnateur"(1844) ; "L'Harinonio musi-
cale " ( IS."):!), etc. Ho wrote also " Histoire
des Concerts populaires," and "Histoire de
la Societe des Concerts du Conservatoire "
llst;0). Fetis, iii. 135; Supplement, i.
304 ; Mendel, iii. 355 ; Erganz., 07 ; Rie-
niaun ; Grove.

Orauienbaum, Anhalt-Dessau, iu 1830, still
living, 1888. Organist, pupil of his father,
of F. Schneider, and at the Leipsic Con-
servatorium of Moscheles, Dreyschock, and
Plaidy for pianoforte ; of David for violin,
and of Hauptmann for composition. He
became an organist and a teacher in Lay-
liacli in 1852. Works: Symphonies; Cham-

ber music ; Songs. Mendel ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, i. 304 ; Schuberth, 125.

of American parentage, iu Parsonstield,
Mass., Aug. 3, 1820, still living, 1888.
Conductor of many musical conventions
held throughout the United States, and
church compose!-. His first work, The
Romberg Collection (1853), was followed
by a book of Sunday-school music, The
Golden Wreath (1857), of which more than
300,000 were sold. Among his other col-
lections are : The Golden Harp (1860) ; The
Sabbath Harmony (1860) ; The Harp of
Judah (1863) ; Merry Chimes (1865) ; Ju-
bilate (IS(iG) ; Chorus Wreath.

American parentage, in Paris, Oxford Co.,
Maine, Oct. 4, 1841, still living, 1888. Pi-
anist, pupil on the pianoforte and in har-
mony of Henry S. Edwards, Portland,
Maine ; went to Europe in LSG'J and stud-
ied the pianoforte under Louis Plaidy and
Robert Papperitz ; harmony and counter-
point under Papperitz, E. F. Richter, and
Moritz Hauptmann in Leipsic, and the
pianoforte under Fritz Spindler in Dres-
den. He returned to Portland, Maine, iu
1864, removed to Boston iu 1866, and was
engaged in 1SG7 by the New England Cou-
seivatory of Music when that institution
was opened ; and on the founding of the
College of Music of Boston University, he
was appointed professor of harmony and
counterpoint, which positions he still holds.
He is assistant editor of the Musical Her-
ald. Works : Songs ; Part-songs ; String
quartets ; Sonatinas, and other music for
the pianoforte. He is the author also of
Foundation Studies in Pianoforte Playing,
and, Elements of Harmony.

EMMA DI RESBURGO, Italian opera
seria, music by Meyerbeer, represented in
Venice, 1819. Produced at a time when
Rossini was becoming famous, this work
met with good success in Italy, but it was
coolly received iu Berlin and led to Meyer-
beer's going to Paris. It was, however, after-



wards translated into German and success-
fully played under the title of Emma von

EMMERICH, ROBERT, born at Hanau,
Hesse-Nassau, July 23, 1836, still living,
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of The-
odor Stauffer and of Albert Dietrich. He
is most favourably known by his songs.
Works : Der Schwedensee, opera, given at
Weimar, 1874 ; Van Dyck, do., Stettin,
1875 ; Symphonies ; Pianoforte pieces ;
Songs and part-songs. Riemaun.

Wiirzburg, Dec. 24, 17G5, died in Vienna,
April 11, 1812. Dramatic composer, sou
of Joseph Emmert. He held an official posi-
tion in the archives of Salzburg and Vienna,
and, though not a professional musician,
wrote operas and other music. Works :
Don Silvio de Rosalba, opera, given at Ans-
pach, 1801 ; Der Sturm, do., Salzburg,
180G ; Cantata for four voices and orchestra,
ib., 1799 ; Te Deum (ib., 1797) ; 1C Ger-
man dances for pianoforte (ib., 1798) ;
Pieces for two horns and bassoon ; do. for
two clarinets, two horns, and two bassoons
(ib., 1799). Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ;

EMMERT, JOSEPH, born at Kitzingen,
Franconia, Nov. 27, 1732, died at Wiirz-
burg, Feb. 20, 1809. Dramatic composer,
appointed school rector at Schilliiigsfiirst
in 17GO, and rector of the Latin school of
St. Burkhardt and choral director of the
university in Wiirzburg in 1773. Retired,
with the title of Kapellmeister, in 1790.
Works : Semiramis, Tomyris, Eberhardt,
operas (in manuscript) ; Esther, Judith,
oratorios (do.) ; Several cantatas (do.) ;
Latin and German masses ; Vespers ; Mis-
erere ; Te Deum ; do. (Salzburg, 1797) ;
Psalmodia vespertina, etc. (Augsburg, 1766);
Choralbuch (Wiirzburg). Fctis ; Mendel ;

commonly but improperly given to Beet-
hoven's fifth pianoforte concerto iu E-flat,
op. 75.

erhalte Franz den Kaiser.

ENCHANTRESS, THE, English comic
opera in four acts, text by Alfred Bunu,
music by Balfe, represented at Drury Lane
Theatre, London, Sept. 27, 1845. The
character of the pirate queen was sustained
by Madam Anna Thillou, who sang it also
in New York, at the Astor Place Opera
House, Aug. 30, 1852.

See Le Pardon de Ploermel.

ENCKE, HEINRICH, born at Neustadt,
Bavaria, in 1811, died at Leipsic, Dec. 31,
1859. Pianist, pupil of Hummel at Wei-
mar, then lived at Jena and Leipsic, much
esteemed as a teacher. Among his com-
positions the instructive works for the pi-
anoforte may claim the greatest merit, and
his arrangements for pianoforte (4 hands)
of classical orchestral and chamber music
are of acknowledged excellence. Fctis ;

RICH, born in Celle, Aug. 28, 1799, died
in Hanover, Jan. 15, 1885. Organist,
learned several instruments from his father ;
entered a military band in 1816, and in
182G studied under Aloys Schmitt in Ber-
lin and Hanover, succeeding his teacher in
1829 as court organist and director of the
Singakademie of Hanover ; also court pi-
anist. Works : Der Savoyard, opera, Han-
over, 1832 ; Church music ; Pianoforte mu-
sic. Mendel ; Fctis ; Schilling ; Schumann,
Gesammelte Schriften, i. 296.

born in Hamburg in 1728, died in Buxte-
hude, May 26, 1793. Organist, pupil of
Pfeiffer in Hamburg ; became organist in
Buxtehude in 1746 and of the Lutheran
Church of Altona iu 1756. W'orks : Canta-
tas ; Songs. Schilling ; Mendel ; Ft-tis.

fancy of Christ), a sacred trilogy, for solo
voices, chorus, and orchestra, by Berlioz,
op. 25, first performed in Paris, at the Salle
Herz, Dec. 10, 1854, under the composer's



direction. It consists of three parts : I. Le
songe d'Hurode (Herod's Dream) ; II. La
fuite en figypte (The Flight into Egypt) ;
HI. L'arrivee a Sai's (The Arrival at Sais).
Jullien, Hector Berlioz (1881), 113 ; do.
(1NSS), 221, 378; M. J. d'Ortigue, La mu-
sique ;t 1'eglise, 196.

Son), opera in five acts, text by Scribe,
music by Auber, represented at the Aca-
demic Xationale de Musique, Paris, Dec.
6, 1850 ; in Italian, as D Prodigo, at Her
Majesty's Theatre, London, June 12, 1851.
The author of the libretto has taken so
many liberties with the Bible story that
it is scarcely recognizable. Azael, the only
son of a poor old man, leaves the paternal
roof and his betrothed Jephtele for a life of
pleasure in the city of Memphis. He is
ruined by gaming, by the courtesan Xephte,
and by the dancer Lia. He penetrates into
the temple of Isis where the mysteries are
celebrating, and the Egyptians make him
expiate the sacrilege by throwing him into
the Xile. Saved by the leader of a caravan,
he is reduced to watching the flocks, but
eventually finds his way home and is for-
given. There are some picturesque scenes
in the opera, such as the passage of the car-
avan and the procession of the bull Apis.

EXFANT TR< )UVK. L'. See F.'/i.,:

EXGEDI. See Cftmtas am Oelberg.

Neu-Kuppiu, Brandenburg, Jan. 2 2, 1S1H,
died at Merseburg, May 3, 1877. Dramatic
composer and organist, pupil of Wilke on
the organ, then at Dessau (1835-37) of
Friedrich Schneider, and at Breslau of
Adolf Hesse. After his return to Neu-Rup-
pin in 1839 he devoted himself to compo-
sition, but went in 1841 to Berlin, where
he taught music, and studied singing under
Teschner. In 1848 he was appointed or-
ganist of the cathedral at Merseburg, and
instructor of singing at the Domgymna-
sium. For his Choralbuch he received the
great gold medal for art and science, and
for his merits in general the title of royal

director of music. He was also an able
writer on his art. Works : Prinz Carneval,
comic opera, given in Berlin, 1862 ; Boui-
facius, oratorio ; many compositions for
organ and pianoforte, psalms, songs, etc.

EXGELSBERG, E. S., born at Engels-
berg, Austrian Silesia, in 1825, died at
Deutsch-Jasnik, ib., April 28, 1879. Real
name Eduard Schon. He was chief of a
department in the ministry of finances in
Vienna, and under the above pseudonym
wrote many popular choruses for male
voices, which made his name a household
word with German singing societies all
over the world.

ENGLERT, ANTON, born at Schwein-
furt, Bavaria, Nov. 4, 1674, died there after
1729. Church composer, pupil of Kiihnau,
Schade, and Strunck at Leipsic, where he
studied theology. In 1697 he became can-
tor in his native city, about 1717 co-rector
of the Gymnasium, in 17:29 rector, and at
the same time organist of the cathedral.
About 1697 he published several volumes
of his compositions, mostly religious, which
bear witness to his thorough musical knowl-
edge. Fetis ; Mendel.

ENGLISH SUITES (Ger., Euglische Sui-
teu), 6 large suites for clavier, by Johanii
Sebastian Bach. Suite I. A major; II. A
minor; HI. G minor; TV. F major; V. E
minor ; VI. D minor. Published by the
Bach-Gesellschaft, Clavierwerke, vol. ii. 1.

EXICELIUS, TOBIAS, born at Leskow,
Bohemia, about 1655, died (?). He was can-
tor in Flensburg about 1655, then went to
Timningen in the same capacity, and in
1660 to Hamburg. He composed a can-
tata and music to Opitz's Epistles. Men-
del ; Fetis ; Mattheson, Ehren-Pforte, 59.

near Saint-Queutin about 1650 or 1655,
died after 1719. Church composer, at first
chorister in the maitrise of Saint-Quentin,
and in 1680 succeeded Antoiue Gras as
choir director of Saint-Louis' chapel. Works
in manuscript in the library of the col-



legiale of Saint-Quentin, vol. i. (1709) : 8
Salve Regiua for four and six voices ; 4
Alma Redemptoris ; 4 Ave Regina ; 2 In-
violata ; 3 Regiua coali ; Pie Jesu ; Maria
mater gratife, mass for four voices ; Do-
mine, quinque taleuta, motet for do. Vol.
ii. (1714) : Requiem mass for five voices ;
Audi, benigne Christe, qui lux es et dies,
Vexilla regis, Da pacem, Lenten hymns.
Vol. iii. (1718): 15 O salutaris, for five
voices ; Four masses for four, and one mass
for three voices. Ft-tis.

ENNO, SEBASTIANO, Italian composer,
living in the middle of the 17th century.
He published Ariose cantate, libro primo
e secondo (Venice, 1655). Fetis ; Mendel ;

ian opera, music by Donizetti, represented
at the Teatro San Luca, Venice, 1818.
This, Donizetti's first opera, met with such
success that he was commissioned to write
another one for the same city.

the Lion), Italian opera, text by Hortensio
Mauro, music by Agostiuo Steft'ani, repre-
sented in Brunswick, 1689. A German ver-
sion, Heiurich der Lowe, by Fiedler, was
given in Hamburg, 1696. The subject of
the libretto is Henry the Lion, Duke of
Saxony and Bavaria and head of the House
of Guelph, Frederick Barbarossa's warlike
antagonist in the twelfth century

(Prometheus Unbound), Choruses to Her-
der's poem, by Franz Liszt. Instrumental
introduction : The symphonic poem Prome-
theus. No. 1. Chor der Oceaniden, for fe-
male voices ; No. 2. Chor der Tritonen, for
mixed voices ; No. 3. Chor der Dryaden, for
female voices ; No. 4. Chor der Schnitter,
for mixed voices ; No. 5. Chor der Winzer,
for male voices and solo ; No. 6. Chor der
Unterirdischen, for male voices ; No. 7.
Chor der Uusichtharen, do. ; No. 8. Schluss-
Chor (Chor der Musen), for mixed voices.

DIE (The Elopement from the Harem),

comic Siugspiel in three acts, text by Gottlob
Stephanie, adapted from Bretzner's Bel-
monte und Constanze, music by Mozart, first
represented at the Natioualtheater, Vienna,
July 12, 1782. This work, written when
Mozart was twenty-six years old, was the
beginning of a form of romantic opera in
which the style and aria of the Italian opera
buft'a was united with the style, Lied, and
dialogue of the German Siugspiel, a form
afterwards repeated on a grander scale in
Die Zauberfli>te. Its production led to a
paper war between the librettists Stephanie
and Bretzner, during which Andre-, the
composer of Belmoute und Constanze,

Minna Peschka-Leutner.

took the side of Stephanie, notwith-
standing that he had aided Mozart in pro-
ducing an opera which virtually supplanted
his own. Mozart's work was produced in
Paris first, at the Lycee des Arts, Sept. 26,
1798 ; again in 1801 and 1830 ; and in
French, as L'enlevement au si-rail, text by
Prosper Pascal, at the Theatre Lyrique,
May 11, 1859. It was given in English as
The Seraglio, " with additional airs by Mr.
Kramer," at Covent Garden, London, Nov.
24, 1827. The action passes in the harem
of Seliin Pacha, where are a Spanish girl
Constanze, her maid Bloudchen, and a valet
Pedrillo, all under the charge of Osmin,
guardian of the harem. Belmonte, the lover
of Constanze, penetrates into the harem in



hope of effecting his mistress's release. Pe-
clrillo tries to aid him by drugging Osmin's
wine, but the wily guardian sees through
his design and exposes the plot. The con-
spirators are about to suffer the penalty of
their acts when the Pacha discovers in Bel-
moute a citizen of Burgos who once saved
his life, and gives them all their freedom.
The original cast in Vienna was as follows :

Constauze (S.) Mile Cavalirri.

Blondchen (S.) Mile Tayber.

( (sniin (B ) M. Fischer.

Belmonte (T.) M. Adamberger.

Pedrillo (T.) M. Dauer.

A favourite Constanze of later times is Mine
Peschka-Leutner (born in Vienna, 1S:JD),
\vh. >si> portrait, is given. Hanslick, Moderne
Oper, 51; Jalm ; Naumanu (Ouselev), ii.

EN VAIN J'ESPERE. See l!n/,,rt U-

chorus in E-flat in Handel's Siiul, Part H. ;
one of the composer's most famous chor-

(Episode in the Life of an Artist), the title
of Hector Berlioz's opus 14, the first part of
which is the symphonie fantastique, and
the second, the lyric mmiodranm, Lelio, ou
le Retour a la Vie (the Return to Life).
The symphonie fantastique, in C major, the
composer's first great symphony, is a piece
of so-called programme-music descriptive of
the dream of a young composer who has
tried to poison himself with opium in a fit
of disappointed love. The beloved object
appears to him in the guise of a melody,
which Berlioz calls 1'Idee fixe (the fixed
idea), and which is treated thematically or
episodically, in each one of the five move-
ments of the symphony. This idee fixe is
interesting historically, as the first instance
in music of what Wagner afterwards termed
the Leitmotiv. The headings of the five
movements are : 1. Reveries, Passions ; 2.
Uu Bal ; 3. Scene aux Champs ; 4. Marche

au Supplice ; 5. Songe d'une Nuit de Sab-
bat. The monodrama of Lelio, a spoken
monologue with incidental music for solo
voices, chorus, and orchestra, shows us the
young composer after awaking from his
dream ; he meditates upon love and art, at
length arousing himself to seek consola-
tion in the exercise of his art. The scene
changes, and he appears at the head of a
chorus and orchestra, conducting the last
rehearsal of his own Fantaisie dramatique
sur la Tempete de Shakspeare, a cantata
for chorus and orchestra with which, and a
lust return of the Idee fixe, the work closes.
The entire Episode is but the expression of
Berlioz's love for Henrietta Smithson, whom
he afterwards married, and Camilla Moke,
afterwards Mine Pleyel. The Fantasie sur
la Tempete was first given separately at the
Paris Ojx'ra in 1829 ; the Symphonic Fan-
fastique at the Conservatoire in 1830 ; and
the entire work, with Bocage in the part of
Lelio, at the Conservatoire on Dec. 11, 1832.
The score of the Symphonie Fantastique,
and a masterly transcription by Liszt for
pianoforte solo are published by Brandus
(I'aris); the full and pianoforte scores of
Lelio, by Richault (Paris). Schumann (Hit-
ter), Music and Musicians, 1st series, 228 ;
E. Hippeau, Berlioz Intime, 244 ; Georges
Xoufllanl, Hector Berlioz, 44 ; Jullieu, Ber-
lioz (1888), 50 ; Atlantic Monthly, xli. 32.

lage Test), vaudeville in two acts, text by
Desforges, music by Gn'try, represented at
the Theatre Italien, Paris, June 24, 1784.
The subject is an episode of Theodore et
Paulin, an unsuccessful lyric comedy iu
three acts, by the same authors, given at
the Italieus, March 18, 1784. In its new
form the work proved a dramatic success.
It was revived at the Opera Comique, Paris,
in 1888.

ERBA, Don DIONIGI, Italian composer,
end of the 17th century. Lived in Milan ;
was of noble family and took holy orders.
Works : Arion, opera (with Valtellina), 1694 ;
Artemio, opera (with Besozzi and Battes-


tini), 1G95 ; and probably a Magnificat for \
two choirs, from which Handel is thought
to have borrowed several pieces in the
second part of Israel in Egypt. Grove ;
Gerber ; Chrysander, G. F. Handel, i. 168.

EKBA, GIORGIO, violinist and com-
poser. Originally from Milan, he was living
in Rome about 1730. Some of his violin
sonatas have survived. Mendel ; Fetis ;

ERBACH (Erbacher), CHRISTIAN, born
at Algesheim iu the Palatinate about 1560,
died ('?). He was organist, about 1600, to
Marcus Fugger in Augsburg, later to the
cathedral there, and in 1628 a member of the
city council. His manuscript compositions
are in the Augsburg Cathedral Library and
Berlin Royal Library. Works : Cautioues
sacrse (Augsburg, 1600, 1603, 1604, 1611) ;
Acht geistliche deutsche Lieder (ib.) ; Songs
in contemporary collections. Allgein. cl.
Biogr., vi. 184 ; Mendel ; Grove ; Ft-tis.

B minor for the alto of Coro I., with ac-
companiment of violin solo, strings com-
plete, and contiuuo, in Johaun Sebastian
Bach's Passion nach Matthiius, Part H.

Nuremberg, June 14, 1848, still living, 1888.
Pianist and violinist, first instructed by his
father and by August Raab, then at the
Couservatorium, Leipsic (1863-67), pupil of
Moscheles and Reinecke on the pianoforte,
of David and Dreyschock on the violin, and
of Hauptmann, Richter, and Reiuecke iu
theory ; finally in Dresden (1868-69) pupil
of Rietz. In 1871 he became Hof-Kapell-
meister to the Prince of Schwarzburg, at
Sondershausen, where he actively promoted
the production of the best modern compo-
sitions, and raised the already high stand-
ard of this renowned orchestra. He re-
signed his position in 1880, then lived in
Vienna, Leipsic, and Nuremberg, and in
1882 was appointed artistic director of the
Imperial Music Society, and professor at
the Conservatorium in Moscow. Works :
Priuzessin Use, Waldsage (forest legend) for

soli, chorus, and orchestra, 1870 ; Schnee-
wittcheu, for do., 1873 ; Traumkonig und
sein Lieb, for soprano, female chorus, and
small orchestra ; Des Kaiserheeres Rom-
fahrt, for male chorus and orchestra ; Over-
ture to Priuzessiu Use, for orchestra ; do. to
Brachvogel's drama Narciss ; Trio fur piano-
forte and strings ; Sonata for pianoforte and
violin ; Albumbliitter, for do. ; 5 choruses
for male voices, a cappella, op. 26 ; Reise-
bilder, for pianoforte ; Nordseebilder, for
do. (four hands); Songs. Mus. Wocheublatt
(1879), 453, 467, 478.

ERE LONG DEATH. See Puritans

EREMITA, GIULIO, born in Ferrara
about 1550, died about 1600. Organist ;
real name Giulio Giusberti, but called Ere-
mita, because he belonged to the order of
Camaldolite Eremites. Works : Prime libro
de' madrigali a 6 voci (Ferrara, 1584; Antwerp
1600) ; Madrigali a cinque, lib. i. (Venice,
1597) ; II secondo libro de' madrigali a cin-
que (ib., 1599). His madrigals are also in
Italian and Flemish collections, such as :
Melodia olympica (Pierre Philipps, Ant-
werp, 1594) ; Trioufo di Dori (Venice, 1596 ;
Antwerp, 1596, 1601, 1614) ; II Paradiso
musicale (Venice, 1595 ; Antwerp, 1596) ;
Madrigali di diversi eccellenti e famosi
autori (Antwerp, 1595) ; and in the collec-
tions of Schad, Bodenschatz, and Douifri-
dus. Fetis ; Mendel.

ERFURT, KARL, born at Magdeburg in
1807, still living, 1888. Pianist, pupil of
Miihling at Magdeburg, where for many
years he taught music, until called to Hil-
desheim as musical director. He has com-
posed more than fifty works for pianoforte,
and songs. Fetis ; Mendel.

SCHUTZ. See Ri.cmi.

SCHMACH. See Lohengrin.

ERINNYES, LES (The Furies), antique
drama in two parts, text by Lecoute de
Lisle, after the "Orestes" of /Eschylus,
music by Jules Massenet, represented at the


Odeon, Paris, Jan. 6, 1873. The incidental
music of this tragedy, as first performed,
was composed of aii introduction, two inter- J
hides, and a melodrama. On its reproduc-
tion at the Opera National, May 15, 1876,
the music was more developed, with some
additions and new instrumentation, but
the effect was not increased. Clement et
Larousse, 84.">.

Wet/lar, Jan. 6, 1807, died in Berlin, Nov.
25, 1883. Son and pupil of Adam Wil-
helm Erk (1779-1820), and pupil of J. B.
Spires. L. lit in\v;ild. and A. Andre. He
became a teacher in the seminary of Mrm-s
in 1829 ; started musical festivals at Rem-
scheid and other towns ; \\as called in 1835
to the Royal Seminary for City Si-hods in
Berlin, where he led the liturgic choir of
the cathedral in 1836, but gave it up in
1838 for want of support. In 1S3G-3S ]>
was a teacher in the family of Prince Karl
of Prussia ; in 1843 he founded a Miiiiiier-
iigverein; in 1852 a Gesaugverein for
mixed chorus ; in 1857 became musical di-
rector ; and in 1877 retired from the Ber-
lin Seminary. Besides his own compo-
sitions, he published many collections.
Works : Liederkrauz, Singvogeleiu, Deut-
scher Liedergarten, Musikalischer Jm.> ad-
freiind, Sangerhain, Siona, Sangesbluthen,
Volkskliinge, Deutscher Liederhort, Deut-
scher Liederschatz, Turiiliederbuch, and
many other collections of popular songs,
amounting to about forty, and mentioned
more fully by Mendel, some of them in
conjunction with his brother, Friedrich
Albrecht Erk, and his brother-in-law, W.
Greef. Mendel; Grove; Rieniaun; Schil-
ling. Supplement, 118.

ERKEL, FERENCZ, born at Gyula.
Hungary, Nov. 7, 1810, still living, 1888.
Pianist and dramatic composer, first in-
structed by his father, who was an able
amateur musician. When twenty-four he be-
came musical director of the opera company
at, and with it went to Buda ; at
the opening of the National Theatre at

Pesth, in 1837, he was appointed its Kapell-
meister, and afterwards received the title
of director general of music, having won
great distinction as the creator of an ex-
cellent orchestra, and as conductor and com-
poser. His numerous songs, in which the
character of national melodies is happily
blended with the requirements of the more
elevated modern style, but especially his
operas, have made him extremely popular
in Hungary. Among the latter, Hunyady
Laszlu obtained the greatest success, and
may preeminently be considered the na-
tional opera of Hungary, although Bank
Ban is probably his master work. In 18G8,
when he conducted the great Hungarian
music festival at Debreczin, he was made
honorary director for lifetime of all the

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