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singing societies of Hungary. Works
Operas : Bathory Maria, given at Pesth,
18-10 ; Hunyady Laszlo, National Theatre,
1844 ; Erzsebet, ib., 1857 ; Kunok, ib., 1858 ;
Bank Ban, ib., 18G1 ; Sarolta, ib., 1862;
1 )c'i/sa ( lyorgy, ib., 1867 ; Brankovics Gy-
orgy, ib., 1874 ; King Stephen, ib., 1874.

choral to the melody " Haupt voll Blut
und \\uiidcii," in E major, in Johanu
S, Laotian Bach's J'uasion uach Matthaus,
Part I.

ERLANdKI!, JULES, born at Weisseu-
burg, Alsace, June 25, 1830, still living, 1887.
Pupil at the Paris Conservatoire of Hale-
vy. After publishing pianoforte music and
bringing out several operettas in Paris, he
devoted himself to business. Works :
L'Arbre de Robinson, operette in one act,
Bouffes Parisiens, Oct. 19, 1857 ; Mes-
danies de cceur volant, ib., April 1C, 1859 ;
Les musiciens de 1'orchestre, opera-boutfe
in two acts (with Delibes), ib., Jan. 25,
1861 ; La servants a Nicolas, operette in
one act, ib., March 11, 1861 ; Pianoforte
music ; Songs. Fetis, Supplement, i. 305.

born in Essen, July, 25, 1657, died in Ru-
dolstadt, April 17, 1714. He received his


musical education in Paris, and was Kapell-
meister in Rudolstadt from 1G83 until his
death. Works : Chamber, organ, and vocal
music. Allgem. d. Biogr., vi. 223 ; Men-
del ; Fetis ; Schilling.

ERLKONIG, DEK (The Erl King), bal-
lad by Goethe, music by Schubert, written
in 1815 or 1816, published as op. 1 by
Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna, 1821, with a
dedication to Count Moriz von Dietrich-
stein. The original sketch, now in the
Royal Library, Berlin, differs from the
published copy in having the accompani-
ment in groups of four instead of in
triplets for the right hand. The song was
sung only at private gatherings for several
years, Schubert being unable to find a pub-
lisher, and it was not given in public until
Jan. 25, 1821, when it was sung at the Mu-
sikverein by August von Gymnich, with a
success which added materially to the com-
poser's fame. It was published the follow-
ing month by private subscription, and after
its performance by Vogl at the Kiirnthner-
thor Theater, March 7, 1821, it had a rapid
sale. Arranged by Liszt for voice and
small orchestra ; published, score and parts,
by Forberg (Leipsic). Arranged also by
Berlioz for voice and orchestra. Hellboru
(Coleridge), i. 59, 307.

king's Daughter), cantata for solo voices,
chorus, and orchestra, by Neils W. Gade,
op. 30, written in 1852. The story varies
somewhat from Goethe's poem. Sir Oluf,
on the eve of his wedding-day, is enticed
away by the Erl King's daughter, and rides
home in the morning to die at the castle

Ghent, Dec. 27, 1798, died in Paris during
the siege of 1870. Pianist, pupil at the
Paris Conservatoire under Zimmerman,
Eler, and Lesueur. He won the grand prix
de Rome, 1823, for his cantata Thisbe ; the
gold medal of the Societe des Beaux-Arts,
Ghent ; and the bronze medal in 1848 for
a national chorus for which eight hundred

musicians competed. His opera-eomique,
Le testament, was given in Liege in 1836,
and in Brussels in 1838. Author of " Sol-
fege chorale trauspositeur." Fetis, ii. 152 ;
do., Supplement, i. 306 ; Mendel.

ERMIONE, Italian opera, music by Ros-
sini, represented at the Teatro San Carlo,
Naples, in Lent, 1819. Though well sung,
it was not a success. Edwards, Life of R.,

ERNANI, tragic opera in four acts, text
by F. M. Piave, music by Verdi, first repre-
sented at the Teatro Fenice, Venice, March
9, 1844. The libretto is an adaptation of
Victor Hugo's drama, " Hernani." Before
its production in Venice the police, refus-
ing to permit the representation on the
stage of a conspiracy, caused the libretto
and parts of the music to be changed. It
was played at Her Majesty's Theatre, Lon-
don, March 8, 1845. When about to be
given in Paris, Victor Hugo objected to the
use of his drama, and to please him the
libretto was rewritten. The title was
changed to II proscritto, the scene removed
to Venice, and the bandit Ernani made into
Oldrado, an Italian corsair. In this guise
the opera, was produced at the Theatre
Italieu, Jan. 6, 1846 ; but the poet was
finally appeased, and it was given later in
its proper form. The scene is laid in Ara-
gon, time 1519. Characters represented :
Ernani (T. ) ; Don Carlos, King of Spain
(Bar.) ; Don Ruy Gomez de Silva (B.) ; El-
vira (S.) ; Johanna (M.S.) ; Don Riccardo
(T.) ; lago (B.). Ernani, son of the Duke
of Segovia, but under a ban and chief
of a baud of brigands, is in love with
Elvira, a noble lady betrothed to the
Duke de Silva, and plans to carry her
off. Don Carlos, the King, also loves her
and tries to abduct her. Her cries bring
to her rescue Ernani, who defies the King,
and Silva, who challenges him, but begs
for pardon when he discovers his iden-
titj r . The King finally carries off Elvira
and Silva challenges Ernani. The latter
refuses to fight, and induces Silva to aid


him in taking vengeance on the King, at
the same time giving him a horn and prom-
ising to take his own life whenever Silva
shall wind it. In the third act the conspir-
ators are plotting in the catacombs when
the King appears suddenly among them
and orders the nobles to execution. Er-
nani, as a noble, demands the right to share
their fate, when the King pardons all and
bestows Elvira upon Ernani. la the fourth
act, iu the midst of the festivities attending
their wedding, the fatal horn is heard and
Ernani parts from Elvira, and keeps his
word by killing himself. Among the prin-
cipal numbers are, iu the first act, Elvira's
aria, " Ernani, involarni ; " Don Carlos's
aria, ' Bella come uu primo amore ; " the
duet between them, ''Fiero sangue d' Ara-
<j"ii:i ;" and Silva's bass solo, " Infelice ! e
tu credevi." Iu the second act, the duets
between Ernani and Elvira, "Ah! morir
potessi adesso," and " La vendetta pifi tre-
meuda." In the third act the grand septet
and chorus "O sommo Carlo," well known
in its English form as "Crowned with the
Tempest." is one of the composer's best ef-
forts. In the last act the duet between Kr-
nani and Klvira, ' Cessaro i suoni," is full of
dramatic feeling. Hauslick, Moderne oper,


EI;N KLIN I>K. ri;ixri-;ssE DE NOR-

VEGE, tragic opera in three acts, text by
Poinsinet, music by Philidor, represented
at the Academic Royale de Musiijue, Paris,
Nov. 24, 17G7. The text is an adaptation
of an Italian libretto entitled Rieimero,
which was set to music by Pergolesi (Na-
ples, 1781) and by Jommelli (Rome, 1740).
Eniehnde, which is Philidor's best work,
was reproduced iu Paris, Jan. 21, 1769,
under the title of Sandomir, prince de Dane-
mark ; and again, Dec. 11, 1773, with the
text remodeled by Scdaine.

I.KNEMANN, 'MORITZ, born in Eisle-
ben in 1800, died in Breslau, Aug. 8, 1866.
Pianist, pupil in Berlin of Ludwig Berger.
He went, in 1820, with Prince Radziwill to

Poland, and lived several years in the house
of Prince Zamoiski, in Warsaw. Then he
became a teacher in the Warsaw Conserva-
tory ; resided in Breslau in 1833-36 ; and
later returned to Warsaw. Works: Piano-
forte music ; Songs.' -Mendel ; Fetis, iii.
152 ; do., Supplement, i. 306 ; Sowiuski,
Musicieus polonais, 183.

ERNST II., Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,
born at Coburg, June 21, 1818, still living,
1888. Dramatic composer, pupil of Breid-

eustein at Bonn, and of Reissiger at Dres-

den, where his musical education was much

furthered by intercourse with Mendelssohn,
Moscheles, Wagner, Liszt, and others. The
fact that his operas continue iu the reper-
tories not only of Germany, but of other
countries, seems to prove that their success
is due to something more than the com-
poser's exalted station. Works Operas :
Zaire, given at Gotha, 1846 ; Toni, about
1850; Santa Chiara, Coburg, 1854, Paris,
ls."> ; (,'asilda, Brussels, 1855; Diana von
Sol.ui'.'e^, I'obnrg, lS."iS, Dresden and Go-
tha, 1859 ; Immer Liebe, cantata, with or-
ehe-,tra; Aller Seelen, do.; Fackeltauz, for
full orchestra and brass instruments ; Die
deutsche Tricolore, hymn for male chorus
and brass instruments (prize at Music Fes-
tival, Dreux) ; Fantasia for pianoforte, vio-
loncello, and ;i olo.lion ; many other instru-
mental works, and several books of songs.

at Silberberg, Silesia, Feb. 2, 1778, died (?).
Organist, pupil iu Breslau of Neugebauer
and Beruer, became organist in 1798 at
Ohluu, where he did much towards the de-
velopment of musical life. He set to music
several psalms, and published sonatas for
the pianoforte and violin, organ music, etc.
1-Y-tis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

ERNST, FRANZ ANTON, born at Geor-
geuthal, Bohemia, Dec. 3, 1745, died iu Go-
tha, Jan. 13, 1805. Violinist, was choir-boy
iu Neuzell and later violinist to the Jesuits
in Sagau ; after studying law at Prague
University, he held an office in his native


place, but soon became secretary to Count
von Salm, and finally, on the advice of Lolli,
made concert tours. He was influenced by
Stad in Strasburg ; returned to Prague in
1773 ; and in 1778 was appointed ducal
Couzertmeister in Gotba. He devoted some
attention to improving the construction of
violins, and was an industrious composer of
violin music. Wurzbach, iv. 72 ; Mendel ;
Fetis ; Schilling ; Riemanu ; Wasielewski,
Die Violine, 214.

at Briani, Moravia,
in 1814, died in
Nice, Oct. 14, 1865.
Violinist, pupil at
the Vienna Conser-
vatorium u n d e r
Biihm for violin,
and Seyfried for
composition ; i u -
structed later by
M a y s e d e r. His
playing was greatly
influenced by Paganini. At the age of six-
teen he made his first concert tour ; studied
several years ill Paris under Charles de Bu-
riot ; and in 1834-50 travelled over almost
all Europe with wonderful success. In Hoi-
laud alone he gave two hundred concerts. In
1850 he settled in London, but latterly had
to give up playing in public, and his last
years were embittered by an incurable spinal
disease. As a violin virtuoso his playing was
marked by brilliancy, passion, mastery over
all technical difficulties, and great beauty
of tone. His compositions are effective

and extremely difficult. Works : 2 noc-
turnes; iSlegie for violin and pianoforte;

Fantasia on Rossini's Otello ; Concertino in
D ; Polonaise de Concert ; Variations on
Dutch national air ; Pirata, Cappriccio ;
Rondo Papageno ; Concerto (Allegro pathe-
tique) in F-sharp minor ; Caruaval de Ve-
uise, in imitation of Pagauini ; Erl King ;
Bolero ; Variations on Hungarian airs ; 2
quartets ; Etudes. Allgem. d. Biogr. vi.
325 ; Wurzbach, iv. 73 ; Grove ; Mendel ;
Wasielewski, Die Violine, 345 ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, i. 306 ; Hart, The Violin, 435.

ERO E LEANDRO (Hero and Leander),
opera seria, text by Arrigo Boito, music by
Giovanni Bottesiui, represented at the Royal
Theatre of Turin, Jan. 11, 1879. This work,
sung by Barbaciui, Roveri, and Mine Brus-
chi-Chiatti, had a considerable success.

EROE CINESE, L' (The Chinese Hero),
Italian opera, text by Metastasio, first set
to music by Bonno and represented at
the Imperial Theatre at SchOubrunn, 1752.
Scene near the city of Siugana (See-Ngau),
capital of the province of Chensi (Sheu-See),
China. Characters represented : Leaugo,
ruler of China ; Prince Siveuo, his supposed
son, in love with Lisiuga ; Miuteo, a man-
darin in command of the army ; and Lisiuga
and Ulauia, Tartar princesses, the one in
love with Miuteo, the other with Siveno.
The libretto has been set to music also by
Perez, Lisbon, 1753 ; Hasse, Dresden, 1753 ;
Gluck, SchOubrunn, 1754 ; Rauzzini, Mu-
nich, 1770 ; Sacchiui, Munich, 1771 ; Majo,
Naples, 1771 ; Cimarosa, Naples, 1783 ; Por-
togallo, Turin, 1788 ; Checchi, Leghorn,

EROICA. See Sinfonia Eroica.

EROSTRATE (Erostratus), opera in two
acts, text by Mury and Pacini, music by
Ernest Reyer, first represented at the
theatre of Baden, Aug. 21, 1862. In the
libretto, the story of Erostratus, who is
known to history only as the incendiary of
the temple of Diana, at Ephesus, is mingled
with much fable, in which Athenai's the
courtesan, Scopas the sculptor, and the
Venus of Milo are made to play parts.
The opera was given in Paris, at the Opera,



Oct. 16, 1871, but was withdrawn after two

EROTIKON, Liedercyclus by Adolf Jen-
seii, op. 44.



ERTEL (Ertelius), SEBASTIAN, German
composer of the early part of the 17th cen-
tury. He was a Benedictine monk at Wei-
henstephan, near Freisiug, and later in the
Convent of Gersten, Upper Austria. He
published church music. Mendel ; Fetis ;

First Walpurgis Night), ballad for solo
voices, chorus, and orchestra, poem by
Goethe, music by Mendelssohn, op. GO.
The composition was begun in April, 1831,
and was nearly finished before May. The
first version was completed in Milan, July
15th, except the overture, called by the
composer Saxon Overture, which bears the
date, Feb. 13, 1832. This first version was
brought out in Berlin in January, 1883.
Ten years later, Mendelssohn returned to
the work, making several changes, and re-
scoring the whole. This second and final
version was given with an English transla-
tion by Bartholomew, by the Philharmonic,
in London, July 8, 1844, and at the Ge-
wandhaus in Leipsic, March 1, 1845. Ber-
lioz's account of being at the last rehear-
sal for this performance (Mi-moires, 2i!:>) is
probably wrong, as Berlioz was in Leipsic
iu February, 1843, and in Paris and Vienna
in the early part of 1845 ; but his account
of the work is worth reading. The full and
pianoforte scores are published by Kistner
(Leipsic). Lampadius, 2d ed., 134 ; Allgem.
mus. Zeitung, xlviii. 165.

Strasburg about 1560, died about 1617. In
1587 he became Magister in Altdorf, in 1595
Cantor and music teacher of the Gymnasium
there, and in 1G09 rector of the Stadtschule.
His principal compositions are sacred songs.

Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber ; Schilling; Wiu-
terfeld, Der evaug. Kirchengesaug, i. 376.

ESCHBORN, KARL, born early in the
19th century. Dramatic composer, Con-
zertmeister in the court theatre orchestra
of Mannheim in 1830, music director in
Cologne in 1842, and dramatic director in
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1845. Works : Bastards
oder das Stiergefecht, opera iu three acts,
text by Wiedenfeld, given at Amsterdam,
February, 1847 ; Songs. Mendel ; Fetis.

Wintertlmr, Switzerland, April, 1826, died
in Ziirich, Oct. 27, 1882. Pianist, pupil of
Mendelssohn ; lived in Cassel until 1852,
when he settled in Ziirich as a teacher.
He composed chiefly didactic music for
pianoforte and violin. Mendel ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, i. 306 ; Riemann.

ESCI OMAI. See Nozze di Figaro.

Mfi, born iu Spain about 1510, date of
death unknown. Church composer and
learned contrapuntist ; first studied in Sala-
manca, then went to Rome, where he became
a member of the Pontifical Choir in 1536.
He was afterwards (1554) a priest in Segovia,
and was one of the judges in the musical
dispute between Viceutiui and Viuceuzo Lu-
sitauo. His motets are found in Eslava's
Lira sacro-hispana, and some of his church
music was preserved in the royal chapel at
Madrid, notably 2 Miserere and a Magni-
ficat, which were considered very fine. Fe-
tis, iii. 156 ; Hawkins, Hist., iii. 91 ; Schil-
ling ; Ambros, iii. 569.

ESCOVAE, JOAO DE, Portuguese com-
poser of the beginning of the 17th century.
His motets were published in Lisbon iu
1620. He was the author of " Arte de mu-
sica theorica y practica." Fetis ; Mendel ;

ESCRIBANO, JUAN, Spanish musician
of the 16th century. His compositions are
found in the Papal Chapel, Rome, where he
officiated as singer after having received a
musical education at Salamanca. Fetis,
Supplement, i. 307.



ES 1ST DIE GESAGT, cantata for Dom.
viii. post Trinit., by Jobanu Sebastian
Bach. Published by the Bach-Gesellschaft,
Church Cantatas (I860), vol. v., No. 45 ; and
with additional accompaniments by Robert
Franz, full and pianoforte scores (F. E. C.
Leuckhart, Breslau).

ES 1ST GENUG ! bass air of Elias in
Mendelssohn's Elias, Part II.

at Banlada, near Pampehma, Spain, Oct. 21,
1807, died in Madrid, July 23, 1878. Dra-
matic composer, first instructed in solfeggio
and singing when a choir-boy in the Ca-
thedral of Pampeluua, then pupil of Julian
Prieto on the pianoforte and the organ, and
of Francisco Seccanilla in composition. In
1828 he became maestro de capilla of the
cathedral at Ossuna, where he took orders ;
in 1832 of the Cathedral of Seville, where
he was consecrated a priest, and in 1844
of the royal chapel at Madrid. Order of
Charles HI, 1848. Works Operas : II so-
litario, given at Cadiz, 1841 ; La tregua
di Ptolemaide, ib., 1842 ; Pietro il crudele,
ib., 1843 ; Spanish operas. More than 150
church compositions, comprising masses,
psalms, hymns, motets, etc. He published
also Lira sacro-hispafia, and Museo organico
espaiiol, collections of church music by old
and new Spanish masters, and in 1862
wrote, for the Kevue de nmsique sacree
(Paris), an interesting survey of the history
of church music in Spain. Fctis ; Grove ;

ESMERALDA, opera in four acts, text
by Marzials and Randegger, after Victor
Hugo's romance " Notre-Dame de Paris,"
music by Arthur Goring Thomas, first rep-
resented at Drury Lane Theatre, London,
March 26, 1883. The work was well re-
ceived and has since been given in Ger-
many. In 1887 Mr. Thomas rewrote the
fourth act, and restored the tragic close in
accordance with the original idea of Victor
Hugo. The same subject has been treated

by Louise Angelique Bertin, Paris, 1836 ;
Mazzucato, Mantua, 1838 ; Dargomysky,
Moscow, 1847 ; Prince Poniatowski, Leg-
horn, 1847 ; William Henry Fry, Philadel-
phia, 1864 ; Wilhelm Wetterhahn, Chem-
nitz, 1866 ; Friedrich Miiller, Laibach,
1867 ; Carnpaua, St. Petersburg, 1869.
Athenaeum (1883), i. 417.

DEN, symphony in E minor, op. 67, com-
monly called the Spring symphony, by Fer-
dinand Hiller, 1840.

ESPADERO, N. RUIZ, born in Ha-
vana, Cuba, in 1835. Pianist, pupil of
Arizti ; published brilliant pianoforte mu-
sic in the style of Gottschalk. He was
Gottschalk's musical executor, and edited
the posthumous works of that composer,
published by Oliver Ditson & Co. (Boston
and New York). Works : Souvenir d'autre-
fois, op. 11 ; Chant de 1'ame, op. 13 ; Plainte
du poete, op. 14 ; Partez, ingrate, melodic,
op. 15 ; Barcarolle, op. 18 ; CautiK-ne, op.
19 ; Ballade, op. 20 ; Innocence, caprice,
op. 23 ; Tristesse, nocturne, op. 53 ; Ossian,
polka de salon ; Deuxieme ballade, op. 57 ;
Scherzo, op. 58 ; Valse ideale, op. 60 ; Chant
du Guargiro, scene caracteristique cubaine,
op. 61. Fetis, Supplement, i. 307 ; Mendel,
Ergunz., 98.

ESPENT, PIERRE, born in Marseilles,
Aug. 28, 1832, stiU living, 1888. Blind or-
ganist and composer, pupil at the institu-
tion for the blind in Paris, and received a
composition prize from Adolpli Adam. Be-
came a teacher of solfege and of the pi-
anoforte, director of a music class in a
school for the blind, in 1858, at Nancy, and
in 1865 at Marseilles, and organist at No-
tre Dame de la Garde. He has composed
overtures, masses, cantatas, orchestral mu-
sic, etc. Fetis, Supplement, i. 307 ; Men-
del, Ergiinz., 98.

and organist, born at Velilla, Spain, May
4, 1812, died in Madrid, June 24, 1882.
He wrote popular zarzuelas, and in 1842
published " La Iberia musical," the first


musical paper published in Spain. He be-
came second organist, in the royal cliapel
in 1855 ; professor of solfeggio at the Con-
servatorio ; director of the chorus at the
Koyal Theatre, 1872. Fetis, Supplement,!.
308 ; Mendel, Ergauz., 98.

ESSER, HEINKICH, born in Mannheim,
July 16, 1S18, died in Salzburg, June 3,
1872. Violinist, pupil of Franz Lachner
and of Sechter in Vienna ; became Conzert-
meisteraud theatre conductor in Mannheim,
director of the Liedertafel in Mainz in 1842,
and Kapellmeister of the theatre there in
1846 In 1847 he was called to Vienna as
Kapellmeister of the Imperial Opera, was
director of the Philharmonic concerts for
some time, and in 18G7 was appointed art-
member of the board of directors of the
Opera, but retired in 1869 on a pension.
It. was loved as a man, respected as an
artist, and some of his songs became very
popular. His widow and children were
pensioned by the Emperor. Works Op-
ens : Silas, given at, Mannheim, 1839 ;
i;!.|iiiimi, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1843; Die beiden
I'riiizen, Munich, 1844. String quartet ; 2
suites ; 3 symphonies ; about 40 books of
songs; '1 sonatas; Trio with pianoforte,
and other music, in till 81 opus numbers.
His on-hestral transcriptions of Bach's C
minor Passaraglia, and Toccata in F, have
been much played in Germany and America.
Allgein. d. Biogr., vi. 382 ; Mendel ; Grove;
Fetis. iii. 15!); Supplement, i. 308; Rie-

born in Aix-la-Chapelle aboiit 1736, died
after 1791. He became first violin of the
court orchestra of Cassel about 175(i, and in
1759 began a concert tour which listed
many years and covered nearly all Eu-
rope. The Pope made him a knight of the
Order of the Golden Spur in 1772. He
travelled in Spain in 1786. Works: Die
drei Piichter, opera, given in Gotha, 1791 ;
Violin music, much unpublished. Mendel ;
Fetis ; Schilling ; Wasielewski, Die Violiue,

ESSEX, TIMOTHY, born at Coventry,
Warwickshire, 1780, died (?). Organist;
Mus. Bac., Oxford, 1806 ; Mus. Doc., 1812.
Works : Rondos ; 6 duets for two flutes ;
Pianoforte and organ music. Fetis ; Men-

ESTE (Est, East, Easte), MICHAEL, born
in England, latter part of 16th century, died
after 1638. Organist, conjectured to have
been the son of Thomas Este (died after
1624), the most important of the eai'ly Lon-
don music publishers. He first appears in
print as the author of the five-part madrigal,
Hence, stars, too dim of light, published in
"The Triumphes of Oriana " in 1601. Be-
tween 1610 and 1618 he obtained his degree
of Mus. Bac., Cambridge ; and he became
master of choristers of Lichneld Cathedral.
Works : First set of Madrigals (London,
1604) ; Second set (ib., 1606) ; Third set of
Bookes, wherein are Pastorals, Anthems,
Xeapolitanes, Fancies, and Madrigals, to
5 and 6 parts (ib., 1610) ; Madrigals, An-
thems, etc. (ib., 1618) ; Anthems (ib., 1624) ;
Duos and Fancies for Viols (ib., 1638).
Grove ; Hawkins, History, iv. 25 ; Bur-
ney, History, iii. 133 ; Mendel.

I>TI l.l.\. SeeLes I;/,1.<.

ESTHER, oratorio in three acts, text by
Alexander Pope (?), music by Handel, first
pi rformed at Cannons, the residence of
the Duke of Chaudos, Aug. 20, 1720. The
original work, Handel's first English ora-
torio, for which he received .1,000, is in
one part of six scenes, and was probably
first called Hainan and Mordecai. It was
sung first in London, Feb. 23, 1732, by the
Children of the Chapel Royal, on Handel's
forty-seventh birthday. The success of this
private performance led to the announce-
ment of a rival representation by a specu-
lator, April 20, 1732, and this induced Han-
del to give a public performance at the
King's Theatre, May 2, 1732, when the
work was given enlarged to three acts. For
this new version the text was rearranged
liy Sunuel Humphreys, and Handel rewrote
much of the original music, composed much


new music, and borrowed freely from the
Coronation Anthems. The MS., in Buck-
ingham Palace, wants the overture and the
last page ; but two complete conducting
scores are in the same collection, and an-
other one is at Hamburg. Characters rep-
resented ; Ahasuerus, Hainan, Habdonah,
Esther, Mordecai, Chorus of Persian Sol-
diers, Chorus of Israelites. The overture,
one of the best Handel ever wrote, is also
one of the most popular, and the cho-
ruses are superb. The airs were published
by Walsh (1733), and by Arnold (1794) ;
text with pianoforte score, edited by J. J.
Maier (Leipsic, - 1858) ; full score, Handel
Society (London, 1844-45) ; original score

Online LibraryJohn Denison ChamplinCyclopedia of music and musicians (Volume 2) → online text (page 5 of 93)