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to many of the composers of that time, are
found in the Odhecatoii (Pctrucci, 15(11-
1503). Felis ; Van der Straeteu, vi. 104.

.I.VItNOYK'K. Her Giornovicchi.

JASON, dramatic cantata, by Alexander
Campbell Mackenzie, first given at the Bris-
tol (England) Festival, Oct. 17, 1SS2 ; by
the Hackney Choral Association, London,
Feb. 25, 1884. AtheiKrnm (1SS4), i. 289.

JASPAR, ANDRE, born at Liege, Dec.
18, 17D4, died at Angleur, near Liege, June
27, 18(53. Violoncellist, pupil of Harseus ;
about 1830 he was chosen to conduct the
Concerts of the Soeiete d'Kmulation, and of
the Soeiete de (livtry | ls:!l). He was mai-
tre de chapelle of the Cathedral of Liege,
1840-56. Works : Folio du Tasse, sym-
phony for orchestra; Urtour des champs,
do.; Orage, do.; Le barde eburon, do.;
Symphony, No. 6 ; Alma Redemptoris, an-
them for tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra ;
Te Deum for do.; Salve Regiua for do.; 12
motets for one and two voices ; 12 melodies
for violin, with pianoforte ; 3 books of do.



JA TAUSENDMAL TAUSEND, tenor
aria in G major, with accompaniment of
violins in unison, and continue, in Johaun
Sebastian Bach's cantata, " Gott fahret auf
mit Jauchzeu," Part I.

JAUCH, JOHANN NEPOMUK, born at
Strasburg, Jan. 25, 1793, died (?). Pianist,
pupil of Spindler. Ho was appointed in
1814 professor at the normal primary school
of Strasburg ; and in 1830 opened a school
for pianoforte which has turned out many
finished performers. Works: Concertos for
pianoforte ; Fantaisies and variations for
do. solo, or with clarinet and flute ; Sonatas
and rondos for do. ; Offertories for wind
instruments ; Collection of organ pieces,
op. 40. Fetis.

JAVAULT, LOUIS, French composer,
lived in Paris beginning of the present cen-
tury. He played different wind instru-
ments, and after having been a member of
several regimental bauds became sous-chef
of that of the Imperial Guard. Works : 20
suites de pieces for wind instruments ;
Marches and quicksteps for do.; Fantai-
sies for do.; Fanfares for three horns,
four trumpets, and trombone ; 6 sextets
for clarinet, ilutc, oboe, horn, and two bas-
soons ; Trios for clarinet, horn and bassoon ;
3 quartets for horns. Fetis.

JAVUREK (Jawurek), JOSEPH, born at
Ledecz, near Kuttenberg, Bohemia, Sept.
21, 1749, died at Prague in May, 1805.
Violinist, received his musical training
while a choir-boy in the Jesuits' seminary
at Kuttenberg, and then at St. \\". nceslaus's,
Prague. He became violinist in the Opera
orchestra and director of music at the ( 'ar-
melites, at St. Cajetau's, and St. Joseph's
on the Kleiuseite, but when these convents
were suspended, he lost all his places at
once and fell into bitter need. He com-
posed concertos, sonatas, and trios for the
violin. Dlabacz ; Wurzbach.

JEAN DE NFv'ELLE, opera-comique in
three acts, text by Edmond Gondiuet and
Phillippe Gille, music by Leo Delibes, first
represented at the Opera Comique, Paris,



JEAN



March 8, 1880. Tlie libretto deals with the
story of Jean, son of the Due de Montmo-
reucy, who abandons the flag of his father
and joins the revolted princes against Louis
XI. under the banner of the Comte de
Charolais, whose chamberlain he becomes.
Published by Heugel et fils (Paris, 1880).
Clement, Die., 916 ; Signale (1880), 369 ;
Revue et Gazette Musicale de Paris (1880),
81 ; Le Menestrel (1880), No. 15.

JEAN DE PARIS, opera-comique iu two
acts, text by Saint-Just, music by Boieldieu,
first represented at the Tlu-atre Feydeau,
Paris, April 4, 1812 ; English translation




Ellevtou as Jean de Paris.

and adaptation, by Henry R. Bishop, Lon-
don, 1814. One of Boieldieu's most popu-
lar productions. Subject : the Dauphin of
France travels as Jean, a bourgeois of Paris,
to visit incognito his betrothed bride, the
Princess of Navarre. The cavatina, "Quel
plaisir d'etre en voyage " was transferred
to this work from Boieldieu's Telemaque.
Original cast : Jean de Paris, Elleviou ; Le



Senechal, Martin ; L'Aubergiste, Juliet ;
Ollivier, Mme Gavaudiu ; La Priucesse de
Navarre, Mile Regnault ; Laurette, Mine
Alexandrine Saiut-Aubiu. Published by
Kiihnel (Leipsic, 1813 ; Peters, Leipsic ;
Schott, Mainz ; and Diabelli et Cie (Vienna,
1844). The same subject has been treated
also in Gianni di Parigi, text by Romani,
music by Morlacchi, Milan, May 30, 1818 ;
by Speranza, Naples, August, 1836 ; and by
Donizetti, Milan, Sept. 10, 1839. Pougin,
Boieldieu, 130 ; Clement et Larousse, 375 ;
Allgem. Mus. Zeitung (15), 708 ; (31), 840 ;
Neue Frei Presse (Vienna), Nov. 30, 1879.

JEANNE D'ARO, symphonic poem, by
Georges Jean Pfeiffer, op. 23.

JEANNE D'ARC, incidental music by
Gounod, to Jules Barbier's drama in 5 acts,
first performed at the Gaiete, Paris, Nov.
8, 1873. Given at St. James's Hall, Lon-
don, Feb. 7, 1874, Gounod conducting.
This drama had previously been performed
as a cantata, with music by Serpette (Paris,
1871). Athenaeum (1874), i. 233.

JEANNOT ET COLIN, opera-comique,
text by Etieune, music by Nicolo Isouard,
represented at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris,
Oct. 17, 1814. Represented in Vienna,
Nov. 9, 1815. Revived in Paris in June,
1850. Allgem. Mus. Zeituug (17), 851.

JEEP (not Jepp), JOHANN, born at
Drausfeld, near Giit-
tiugen, about 1592,
died at Ulm iu
1650 (?). One of the
best German vocal
composers of first
part of the 17th
century ; lived in
Bavaria and \Vtir-
temberg during his
youth. He was
Kapellmeister to the Count von Hohenlohe,
at Weikersheim, from about 1607-9, and
was settled at Nuremberg in 1610. Little
is known of his life ; his compositions were
especially dear to the people of Germany,
particularly students, and went through




JEKYLL



many editions, from 1607 to 1G21. Known
works : Geistliclie Psalnie uud Kirchen-
gesimge Dr. Hart in Luthers, etc. (Nurem-
berg, 1607) ; Schoene auserlesene liebliobe
Trieinia, etc. (ib., 1G10-1611) ; Studenteu-
Giirtleins erster Tbeil, etc. (ib., 1G07) ; do.,
anderer Tbeil (ib., 1009) ; Christlicb.es
Gesang-Biicblein (Ulm, 1648). The Stu-
dents' garden was republisbed sis times.
There is a copy of the first part, and oue of
the second part, bearing different dates, in
the University Library of Gottingeu. He
was honoured long after his death ; his por-
trait was painted by Ulrich in 1613. All-
gem, d. Biog., xiii. 750 ; Mouatshefte f.
Mus., viii. 31, 37 ; Mendel ; do., Ergiiuz.,
171; "\Vinterfeld, Kirchengesang, ii. 27.
,1 KKYLL, CHARLES SHERWOOD,
born in Westminster,
London, Nov. 29,
1842, still living, 1889.
Organist, pupil of
James Coward, and
Sir G. A. Macfarrcn ;
assistant organist in
Westminster Abbey,
1860-75 ; organist of
Parish c h u r c h of
Acton, 1S60, of St.

George's, Hanover Sijuare, 1861, of Chapel
Royal, St. James's Palace, and Whitehall.
1876. Works : Communion Service in C ;
Morning Services in i' and C; Evening
service in F; Do. in C, for male voices;
Anthems ; Part-songs, songs, and organ
music.

JEL1NEK, FRANZ XAVElt, born at
Kaurins, Bohemia, Dec. 3, 1818, died at
Salzburg, Feb. 7, 1880. Oboe player, edu-
cated at the Prague Conservatorium, be-
came instructor of oboe, and librarian at the
Mozarteum, and later choir director of the
cathedral of Salzburg. He composed sacred
music, choruses for men's voices, etc. Men-
del ; Riemann.

JFlLIOTTE (Jelyotte), PIERRE, born
near Toulouse in 1711, died in Paris in
1782. Tenor singer and composer, pupil




at the maitrise of the cathedral of Toulouse,
made his debut at the Opera, Paris, in 1733,
and sang there with success until 1755. Ho
composed a ballet, Zelisca, for the marriage
of the Dauphin, father of Louis XVI.
(1745) ; and many chansons which Laborde
praises.- Fetis ; Larousse ; Mendel.

JENKINS, JOHN, born at Maidstone,
Kent, in 1592, died at Kimberly, Norfolk,
Oct. 27, 1678. Virtuoso on the viola di
gamba. Was musician to Charles I. and
Charles II. Works : Twelve Sonatas for
two Violins and a Base, with a Thorough
Base for the organ or Theorbo ; The Mitter
Runt, The Fleece Tavern Rant, The Peter-
borough Rant ; The Lady Katherine Aud-
ley's Bells, or, The Five Bell Consort (1662) ;
An Elegy on the death of William Lawes
(1648) ; Songs, among others the rounds,
" A boat, a boat," and "Come, pretty maid-
ens." Fetis ; Grove ; Mendel ; Riemann.

JENNY BELL, opera-comique in three
acts, text by Scribe, music by Auber, first
represented at the Opera Coruique, Paris,
June 2, 1855. The scene is in England, the
characters are English, and Jenny Bell is
an actress. The airs "God save the King,"
and " Rule Britannia " are introduced.
JENSEN, ADOLF, born in Ki.nigsberg,
Jan. 12, 1837, died
in Baden-Baden, Jan.
23, 1879. He stud-
ied for two years un-
der Ehlert and Frie-
drich Marpurg, but
was mostly self-
taught. In 1856 he
was in Russia, was
made Kapellmeister
of the Stadttheater in
Posen in 1857, went

in 1858 to Copenhagen to spend two years
with Gade, and returned to Konigsberg in
1860. From 1866 to 1868 he taught at Tau-
sig's pianoforte school in Berlin, but ill-
health forced him to retire, first to Dresden,
then to Gratz, and finally to Baden-Baden,
where he died of lingering consumption.




830



JEPIITE



Jensen is best known as a song writer, and
as such may take rank, with some few
others, after Schumann and Robert Franz.
Works : I. Vocal : Nonnengasang, for soprano
and female chorus, with 2 horns and harp,
op. 10, No. 1 ; Brautlied, for mixed chorus,
with do., op. 10, No. 2 ; Jephthas Tochter,
for soli, chorus, and orchestra, op. 26 ;
Adonis-Feier, for do. ; Donald Caird ist
wieder da, for tenor or baritone solo, male
chorus, and orchestra, op. 54: ; 3 songs for
3-part female chorus and pianoforte, op.
63 ; 2 Marieulieder, for tenor voice, 4 -vio-
las, 2 'celli, 2 double-basses, and kettle-
drums, op. 64 ; 8 four-part songs, op. 28 ;
8 do., op. 29 ; Der Ungeuanuten, 6 love-
songs after Geibel, for voice and pianoforte,
op. 6 ; 6 Liebeslieder for a low voice and do.,
op. 13 ; Dolorosa, 6 poems by Chamisso, for
voice and do., op. 30 ; Gaudeamus, 12
songs for a bass voice and pianoforte, op.
40 ; Over 125 songs for do., op. 1, 4, 5, 9,
11, 14, 21-24, 34, 35, 39, 41, 49, 50-53, 55,
57, 58, 61, and 3 sets without opus number.
II. Instrumental : Concert ouverture in E
minor, for grand orchestra ; Der Gang der
Jiinger nach Emmaus, geistliches Tonstiick
for do., op. 27 ; 3 pieces for pianoforte, 4
hands, op. 18 ; Hochzeitsmusik, for do., op.
45 ; Abendmusik, for do., op. 59 ; Lcbens-
bilder, for do., op. 60 ; 6 Silbouetteu, for
do., op. 62 ; Liiudliche Fest-Musik, fordo.;
Inuere Stimmen, 5 pieces for pianoforte solo,
op. 2 ; Wanderbilder, 2 books, for do., op.
17 ; Sonata in F-sharp minor, for do., op.
25 ; 6 deutsche Suiten, for do., op. 36 ;
Idylleu, for do. (or 4 hands), op. 43 ; Ero-
ti/con, 1 pieces for do., op. 44 ; Wald-Idyll,
scherzo for do , op. 47 ; Scenes caruava-
lesques, fordo., op. 56 ; Other fugitive pieces
for do., op. 3, 7, 8, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 31,




WAA&H+S



32, 33, 37, 38, 42, 46, 48, 65. He left in
manuscript an opera, Turaudot, which is to



be edited by Wilhelm Kienzl. Allgern. d.
Biogr., xiii. 774 ; Futis, Supplement, ii. 25 ;
Mendel ; Mus. Wocheublatt, v. 354, 367.

JEPHTE, oratorio by Carissimi. This is
his masterpiece and contains many beauti-
ful examples of melody and modulation.
Handel has been accused of borrowing his
chorus, Hear Jacob's God, in Samson, from
the final close, Plorate colles, a pathetic air,
assigned to Jephtha's daughter, with an
echo sung by two sopranos at the end of
each phrase of the melody. The MS. is in
the National Library, Paris. Published by
Chrysauder (B. Schott's SOhueu, Mainz).
German translation by Bernard Gugler,
with organ or pianoforte accompaniment by
Immauuel Faisst. Published by Rieter-
Biedermann (Leipsic, 1878).

JEPHTHA, oratorio, text by the Rev.
Thomas Morell, D.D., music by Handel,
performed at Covent Garden, London, Feb.
26, 1752. The MS. of this, Handel's last
oratorio, in Buckingham Palace, is rich in
his annotations, showing its various stages
of composition, during which he became
blind. It was begun Jan. 21, and finished
Aug. 30, 1751. Characters represented :
Iphis, sung by Giulia Frasi ; Storge, Sig-
nora Galli ; Jephtha, John Beard ; Hamor,
Mr. Brent ; Zebul, Mr. Wass ; and the
Angel, by a boy. It contains nine choruses,
recitatives, and arias, including the tenor
solo, Waft her, Angels, in Part HI. This
oratorio was performed seven times during
Handel's life, once with additions and alter-
ations on March 1, 1758. It was first sung
in Berlin by the Singakademie May 3, 18211.
Revived by the Sacred Harmonic Society of
London, April 7, 1841 ; and Feb. 12, 1869,
with additional accompaniments by Arthur
Sullivan. First sung in Boston by the Han-
del and Haydn Society, Feb. 17, 1867. Pub-
lished first by Walsh ; with pianoforte ar-
rangement by J. F. von Mosel (Hasliuger,
Vienna, 1831) ; full score and pianoforte ar-
rangement by George A. Macfarren (Cra-
mer & Co., London, 1855). Rockstro, Han-
del, 308 ; Schcelcher, 320 ; Allgem. mus.



sai



JEPHTHA



Zeitung (31), 309, (33), C17, 037 ; Athen-
feuin (18C9), i. 248.

JEPHTHA AND HIS DAUGHTER, ora-
torio, text from the Bible, music by Carl
Heiuthaler, performed at St. Martin's Hall,
London, April 1C, 185(5. Published by
Ewer A: Co. (London, 1857). Athenaeum
(1857), 1523.

JEPHTH AS T O C H T E R (Jephtha's
Daughter), cantata, by Adolf Jensen, op.
20, on Byron's poem. Published by Peters
(Lcipsic, 1805). Allgem. mus. Zeitung
(1805), 511.

JERONYMO, FRANCESCO DE SAM,
born at Evora, Portugal, March 4, 101t:i,
died (?). Monk and church composer,
inestre cle capella of his convent at Belem ;
was distinguished for his skill in writing
for a great number of voices. Works (all
in MS.) : Respousorios d:is Matinas de S.
Jerouymo, for 4 choirs, with various in-
struments; Do., for 4 voices in plain chant ;
lirsponsorios for Holy week ; Responsorios
d is Matinas do Evaugelista S. Joilo ; Mass
for 8 voices obligate ; Te Deum ; Hymns of
the Holy Ghost, S. Jerome, (lie Martyrs,
etc., for 4 voices ; Psalms for Vespers and
Compline; Motets and Vilhancicos. Fetis;
< I. rbcr ; Vasconcellos.

JERUM, JERUM. See .l/.'/W. /.-//(;// von
X iir n berg.

JERUSALEM, oratorio in three parts,
text by W. Saucroft Holmes after the Bible,
music by Henry H. Pierson, written for the
Norwich Festival, and lirst performed there,
Sept. 23, 1852. Repeated by the Harmonic
Union at Exeter Hall, London, May 18,
1853 ; Witrzburg, 1802. Published by J.
Sehuberth & Co. (Leipsic, 1875). Athe-
iKeum (1852), 1039 ; London Musical Times,
Sept, 1, 1852.

JERUSALEM, French grand opera iu
four acts, text by Alphonse Royer and
Waez, music by Verdi, represented in
Paris, Nov. 20, 1847. The work is a re-
arrangement of I Lombardi alia prima cro-
ciata. The greater part of the music re-
mains unchanged, but Verdi has added



several numbers. Published by Ricordi
(Milan, 1848). Clement et Larousse, 378.

JERUSALEM ! JERUSALEM ! soprano
aria in B-flat major, in Mendelssohn's Pau-
lus, Part I. (No. 7).

JESSONDA, grand German opera in
three acts, text by Eduard Gehe, music
by Spohr, op. 03, first represented in Cassel
with great success, July 28, 1823, the Elec-
tor's birthday. The overture, the duet be-
t \\een Amazili and Nadori, and an air of
Jessonda sung by Spohr's daughter, Emilia,
were performed in Cassel in 1822. The




Mathilde Mallinger.

was performed in London, June
18, 1840 ; Paris, April 28, 1842 ; and at
('"vent Garden, London, Aug. 0, 1853.
The plot is from La veuve du Malabar, the
subject an Indian widow rescued by Portu-
guese soldiers from sacrifice at the tomb of
her husband. Characters represented :
Jessonda and Amazili (S.) ; Nadori and Lo-
pez (T.) ; Tristan (Bar.) ; Dandau (B.). This
opera, one of Spohr's best compositions,
was conducted by him at the 50th anniver-
sary of the Prague Conservatorium, in 1858,
his last appearance in public. Potpourri
in A-Hat on airs from Jessonda for violin,
violoncello, and orchestra, op. 04, and Pot-
pourri in A minor for violin and orchestra,
op. GO, by the composer (Peters, Leipsic,
1835). Revived in Stuttgart, March 0, 1882,
with Frau Schruder-Haufstangel in the title-



JE



role. It is a favorite part also with Ma-
thikle Mallinger. Spohr, Autobiography,
ii. 148 ; Clement et Larousse, 379 ; Athen-
,-euin (1853), 9G9 ; Allgein. mus. Zeitung
(25), 629 ; (33), 484.

JE SUIS DE VOUS TRES-MECON-
TENTE. See Ami do la Maison.

JESU, BEUGE DOCK MEIN HERZE,
bass aria in E-flat major, with accompani-
ment of oboe, violin, and continue, in Jo-
Laun Sebastian Bach's cantata, " Wer sich
selbst erhuhet, dersoll eruiedriget werden."

JESU, DEINE GNADENBLICKE, so-
prano aria in G major, with accompaniment
of 2 flutes in unison, oboe, and violins, and
viola in unison, in Johann Sebastian Bach's
cantata, " Lob/'t Gott in seinen Reicheu."

JESU MEINE FREUDE, choral by Jo-
haun Criiger, published with his other cho-
rals for four voices and two instruments,
under the title of " Praxis Pietatis, oder
Kirchenmelodien iiber D. Luthers und au-
dere Gesilnge " (Leipsic, 1649 ; 30th ed.,
Berlin, 1703). Edition arranged by C. G.
Langbecker, published by G. Eichler (Ber-
lin, 1839). Allgem. mus. Zeitung (41), 382.

JESU HEINE ZUVERSICHT, choral
by Johann Criiger, contained in the collec-
tion Praxis Pietatis.

JESUS, ANTONIO DE, born at Lisbon,
died at Coimbra, April 15, 1C82. Monk and
church composer ; taught in the University
of Coimbra from 1C3G till his death ; was
much esteemed by Dom Joiio IV., in whose
library his MSS. were preserved. Works :
Mass for 10 voices ; do. for 12 voices ; 2
masses for 8 voices ; Dixit Dominus for 12
voices. Vasconcellos ; Fetis ; Gerber.

JESUS (Sena), BERNARDINO DE, born
at Lisbon in 1599, died there, April 10,
1G69. Church composer and Franciscan
monk in the convent of Vianna, which he
entered in 1015 as a choir-singer, and where
he became definitor in 1650. He was much
esteemed by Dom Joao IV. on account of
his fine voice and his thorough musical
knowledge. His works remain in MS. Fe-
tis ; Gerber.



JESUS, Padre GABRIEL DE, born at
Leiria in 1650, died ill 1708. Organ-
ist and harp player, Cistercian monk in
the monastery at Alcobaya, in Estremadura.
His principal work is a collection of 15 mo-
tets, which remain in MS. Vasconcellos ;
Fctis ; Mendel.

JESUS DE NAZARETH, song by Gou-
nod, sung by M. Lherie, at Mine Viardot's
student's concert, Paris, June 2, 1882.

JESUS SUR LE LAC DE TIBERIADE,
scene for baritone, chorus, and orchestra, by
Gounod (Paris, 1876).

JE T'AI TROMPE, JE FUS COUPABLE.
See Robert le Diable.

JEUNE FEMME COLERE, LA, opera-
comique, text by Clapari-de, founded on a
comedy by Etieuue, music by Boieldieu,
written in Russia, first represented at the
Theatre of the Hermitage, April 18, 1805,
and at the Grand Theatre, April 24, St.
Petersburg. It was given at the Tlu'atre
Feydeau, Paris, Oct. 12, 1812. Pougin,
Boieldieu, 142.

JEUNE HENRI, LE, opera-comique in
two acts, text by Bouilly, music by Mi'hul,
represented at the Theatre Favart, Paris,
May 1, 1797. Henri IV. of France is the
subject. Ch'ment et Larousse, 380.

JEUNESSE D'HERCULE, LA (The
Youth of Hercules), symphonic poem for
orchestra, by Saint-Saeus, op. 50, written
in 1875. Published by Duraud et Schoe-
newerk (Paris, 1878). Arranged for piano-
forte for four hands by E. Guiraud, for
two pianofortes for four hands by the com-
poser. Signale (1878), 625.

JEWSON, FREDERICK BOWEN, born
in Edinburgh, July 26, 1823, still living,
1889. Pianist, pupil at the Royal Academy
of Music, where he became King's Scholar,
1837, and is now professor of pianoforte.
Works : Overtures for orchestra ; Sonatas
for pianoforte ; Concertos for do. and or-
chestra ; Pianoforte music ; Songs, etc.

JIMENEZ, UGALDE (CIRIACO), born
at Pampeluna, Feb. 5, 1828, still living, 1889.
Organist and church composer, first in-



333



JOACHIM




structed by his father in solfeggio, then
pupil of Jose Guelbenzu on the pianoforte,
!ii ul at the Conservatorio, Madrid, of Hila-
riou Eslava on the organ. Became maestro
de capilla of the cathedral of Jaca in 1857,
of the metropolitan church of Valencia,
18G1, and of the primatial church of Toledo,
1865. Works : Masses ; Motets ; Psalms,
etc. Fetis, Supplement, ii. 26.
JOACHIM, JOSEPH, born at Kittsee,
near Presburg, June 28,
1831, still living, 1889.
He began to play the vio-
lin at the age of five, and
took lessons of Szerva-
csinski, Couzertmeister
of the Opera at Pesth.
His first appearance in
public was in ] 838, when
he played a duet with his
master with great success. In 1841 he
studied under BOhm in Vienna ; in 1843
he went to Leipsic, where he staid several
years, studying the violin together with the
greatest works for that instrument by Bach,
Beethoven, Spohr, and Mendelssohn. His
regular teacher was Ferdinand David, but
lie was also largely under the influence of
Mendelssohn, in whom his talent excited
enthusiasm. At first he appeared but little
in public, devoting his time rather to the
serious study of his art, than to making him-
self a virtuoso. The wisdom of this course
has ever been felt in Joachim's public
career. He is probably the only great vio-
linist on record who has never swerved
from a fixed purpose to devote his excep-
tional talents solely to the interpretation of
music of the highest class. As an execu-
tant he stands at the head of living vio-
linists, but his intellectual superiority in the
fineness and cultivation of his artistic sense,
is infinitely more striking. As a player of
classic violin music, especially as a quartet
player, he is now the unquestioned model.
He visited London for the first time in 1844,
and returned in 1847, '49, '52, '58, '59, '62 ;
since then his annual appearance there has



been looked on as a matter of course. He
for some time divided the post of Conzert-
meister of the Gewandhaus concerts at
Leipsic with David, but in 1849 he accepted
a similar position at Weimar, in the grand-
ducal orchestra, of which Liszt was then
conductor. But it proved impossible for
Joachim, who had been brought up under
the influence of Mendelssohn and Schumann,
to get on well with Liszt, with whose revo-
lutionary tendencies he had no sympathy.
In 1854 he accepted the position of con-
ductor of concerts and solo-violinist to the
King of Hanover, which post he held until
18G6, marrying Cornelia Weiss, a notable
contralto singer, in 1863. In 1868 he went
to Berlin, as head of the Hochschule fiir
ausiibende Tonkuust, a then recently es-
tablished department of the Royal Academy
| of Arts. This school of music owes well-
nigh all its fame and influence to Joachim.
In 1877 the University of Cambridge (Eng-
land) bestowed upon him the honorary de-
gree of Doctor of Music, and he has been
awarded many other honorary degrees in
his own country, besides orders of knight-
hood from several reigning princes. As a
composer he follows Schumann more than
Mendelssohn. His music is always noble
in aim, and generally grave and even som-
bre. His most important work as yet is the
Hungarian Concerto for violin and orches-
tra. His friendship for and admiration of
Johannes Brahms has been noted for some
time, and he may now be accounted the
leading " Brahmsianer " in Germany. His
opposition to Robert Franz in the contro-
versy on the " additional accompaniment "
question, is probably the only step he ever
took which the conservatively disposed
music-lover will be inclined to regret.

Works : L Orchestra : Overture to Ham-
let, op. 4 ; do. to Schiller's Demetrius (MS.),
op. 6; do. to Henry IV. (MS.), op. 7; do.
to a play of Gozzi's (MS.), op. 8 ; do. in com-
memoration of Kleist, op. 13 ; Two marches,
in C and D, with trios.

IL Violin : Audautiuo ed allegro scher-



334



JOAO



zoso, with orchestra, op. 1 ; 3 Stiickc (Ro-
mauze, Fautasiestiick, Friihliugsfantasie)
for violin and pianoforte, op. 2 ; Concerto
in one movement, in G minor, with orches-
tra, op. 3 ; 3 Stiicke (Liudenrauschen, Abend-
glocken, Ballade) for violin and pianoforte,
op. 5 ; Hebriiische Melodien, for violin and
pianoforte, op. 9 ; Variations on an original
theme, for viola and pianoforte, op. 10 ;
Conzert in ungarischer Weise, in D minor,
op. 11 ; Notturno, with orchestra, op. 12 ;
3 cadenzas to Beethoven's violin concerto.

HI. Vocal : Scena der Marfa (from
Schiller's Demetrius), for contralto voice
and orchestra, op. 14 ; Song, Ich hab' im



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