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Trauni geweinet, for voice and pianoforte.
Mendel ; Riemaun ; Fetis ; do., Supple-
ment, ii. 27 ; Wurzbach, x. 217 ; Hart,
The Violin, 439; Mus. Wochenblatt. ii.
377.

JOAO IV., King of Portugal, born at
Villa- Vicosa, March 19, 1604, died at Lis-
bon, Nov. 6, 1G56. Church composer, and
theoretical writer on music. Although he
lived in the midst of great political struggles,
he gave much time to scientific researches,
and especially to the study of music. He
collected an immense musical library, known
as Bibliotheca Real de Musica, largely com-
posed of the most valuable MSS. and of rare
works gathered at great expense from every
country. It was entirely destroyed in 1755,
during the great earthquake in Lisbon.
The first volume of the catalogue of this
library, in the National Library, Paris, gives
a good idea of the value of the collection.
Of his compositions, three only of his mo-
tets survive, one of which is in Georges
Schmitt's Anthologie Uuiverselle de Mu-
sique Sacree (Paris, 18G9). He wrote four
works on music, two of which were pub-
lished, and are now very rare ; the others
were left in MS. at his death, with directions
for their publication to his successor, but
never were given to the world. Vasconcel-
los ; Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 784 ; Ger-
ber ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Van der Straeten,
vii. 467.



JOCELYN, opera in four acts, text by
Armaud Silvestre and Victor Capoul, music
by Benjamin Godard, first represented at
the Theatre de la Mouuaie, Brussels, Feb.
25, 1888 ; first time in Paris, at the Theatre
Lyrique National, Oct. 13, 1888.

JOCONDE, ou les coureurs d'aveutures,
opera-comique in three acts, text by Etieune,
music by Nicolo Isouard, first represented
at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris, Feb. 28,
1814. It is one of Isouard's best operas,
and was regarded as the masterpiece of
French opera-comique until Auber's works
were produced. The couplets, "Et Ton
revient toujours a ses premieres amours,"
and their refrain were very popular. The
opera was revived at the Opera Comique,
Paris, 1857. Performed by Carl Rosa's
English opera company, translation by Saut-
ley, at the Lyceum, London, Oct. 25, 1876.
A revision by Grandaur, entitled Minue-
fahrten, was represented in Munich in 1870.
Clement et Larousse, 381 ; Allgem. mus.
Zeitung (16), 804 ; Athenreum (1876), ii. 568.

JODOCUS PRATENSIS. See Despres,
Josquin.

JOHANN ERNST, Prince of Saxe-Wei-
mar, born Dec. 29, 1696, died at Frankfort,
Aug. 1, 1715. Violinist and pianist, pupil
of his geutlemau-in-waiting Gregor Chris-
toph Eylenstein, on the violin, and of Wal-
ther on the pianoforte and in composition.
This master testifies that after nine months'
tuition he was able to compose the six con-
certos which were published under his
name. He was starting on a journey un-
dertaken for the study of music when his
early death took place. Walther, 331 ;
Gerber ; Fetis.

JOHANNES DER TAUFER, oratorio,
by Carl Loewe, written in 1862.

JOHN GILPIN, cantata, text after Cow-
per's poem, music by Thomas Anderton,
first performed by the Festival Choral So-
ciety of Birmingham, England, Dec. 8, 1875,
the composer conducting. The part of John
Gilpin was sung by Mr. Lloyd, that of Mrs.
Gilpiu by Mrs. Lemmens.



335






JOHNS



JOHNS, CLAYTON, born of American
parentage in New Castle, Delaware, Nov.
24, 1857, still living, 1889. Pianist, pupil
in theory of J. K. Paine, and on the piano-
forte of William H. Sherwood, Boston. In
1882 he went to Europe and studied com-
position in Berlin under Friedrich Kiel,
and the pianoforte under Grabau, Hummel,
and Ilaif. Returning in 1884 he settled in
Boston, where he has since resided, appear-
ing occasionally in concerts. Works : 7
Songs by Ludwig Uhland ; 3 English Songs
by Austen Dobson ; Song of Four Seasons ;
4 Songs by Ada Chresten ; Songs : No Lo-
tus Flower on Ganges floats ; Deep in a
Rose's glowing Heart ; etc. ; Romance and
Scherzino for violin and pianoforte ; Im-
promptu capriccietto, pianoforte.

JOHNSON, EDWARD, one of the com-
posers who harmonized the tunes forEste's
Whole Booke of Psalms (1792). He contri-
buted the madrigal, Come, blessed bird, to
the Triumphes of Oriana (1001). Another
madrigal by him, Ah, silly John, is preserved
in the MSS. of the Sacred Harmonic Society
Library, London. Grove ; Buruey, His-
tory, iii. 101.

JOHXSt )N, ROBERT, born in latter half
of 16th century, died after 1(125. Lutist, in
the service of Sir T. Kyston, of Heugrave
Hall, Suffolk ; later went to London and
composed music for the theatres. He was
in the service of Prince Henry in 1C11.
Works : Music to the dramas, The Witch,
1610, Shakspeare's Tempest, 1612, Valen-
tinian, and The Mad Lover, 1617, and
Masque of the Gipsies, 1621 ; Contributions
to "Leighton's Teares"; Songs, madrigals,
etc. Grove.

JOHOHOE! TRAFTIHR DAS SCHIFF.
See Fin'iji'inlc Hollander.

JOLIE FILLE DE GAND, LA (The Fair
Maid of Ghent), Ballet-pantomime in three
acts and nine tableaux, text by Saint-
Georges, music by Adolphe Adam, first rep-
resented at the Opera, Paris, June 22, 1842.

JOLIE FILLE DE PERTH, LA (The
Fair Maid of Perth), opera-comique in four




acts, text by J. Adeuis and Saint-Georges,
music by Georges Bizet, represented at the
Theatre Lyrique, Paris, Dec. 26, 1867.
JOMMELLI, NICCOLO, born at Aversa,
near Naples,
Sept. 11, 1714,
died in Naples,
Aug. 28, 1774.
First studied uu-
der a canon
named Mozzillo,
then at the Cou-
servatorio di San
Ouofrio, Naples,
under Durante ;

but soon left that institution for La Pieta
de' Turchini, where he studied singing
under Prato and Mancini, and composi-
tion under Feo and Leo. His first com-
positions were ballets ; his next cantatas, a
form of composition far better suited to his
talent, and in which he was so successful as
to elicit from Leo the most brilliant prophe-
cies for his future. Piccinni writes that Jom-
melli so dreaded the popular judgment upon
his first opera, L' errore amoroso, that he
had it brought out (Naples, 1737) under the
name of Valentino, an obscure Neapolitan
musician ; the work, however, met with much
success. In 1740 the Cardinal Duke of
York summoned him to Rome, where two
of his operas. II Ricimero and L' Astianasse,
were brought out. He went next to Bo-
Icigna, where he formed a firm friendship
with the great Padre Martini, whose influ-
ence upon him was probably considerable.
After a brilliant career at Bologna, he went
to Vienna in 1745, where he wrote Achilla
in Sciro and Didone, and formed a friend-
ship with Metastasio. But, though it is
highly improbable that the poet's influence
had anything to do with the change in Jom-
melli's style of composition, as some writers
have asserted, the fondness for more fre-
quent modulation and a richer orchestration
which he evinced at one time, was undoubt-
edly due to his becoming acquainted with
the works of German composers, and dates



336



"TEE NET? YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY!



MIT
TILC.



JOMMELLI



from his sojourn in Stuttgart, nine years
later. In 1740 be returned to Naples, where
his Eumeue had a positive triumph. Me-
rope excited quite as much enthusiasm at
Venice in 1747. The Council of Ten ap-
pointed him director of the Scuola degl'
Incurabili, and he began seriously to apply
himself to sacred composition, a path he
had always been ambitious to pursue, and
to his success in which he owed the better
part of his fame. An 8-voice Laudate for
two choruses, belonging to his Venetian
period, although never published, is one of
his most admired works. In 1748 he was
recalled to Koine to write his opera of Ar-
taserse, and the Cardinal Alessandro Albani
procured him in 1649 the post of maestro
di cappella at St. Peter's. In 1754 he, sent
in his resignation, and went to Stuttgart
to become maestro di cappella and court-
composer to the Duke of Wiirtemberg. Ho
returned to Naples in 1771, to find that the
Italian public had completely forgotten him.
His Arrnida met with little success, for
although one of his best works, its German
style was not to the public taste. His Ifi-
genia (1773) made even a more decided
failure. This sudden lack of popular suc-
cess threw the sensitive composer into a
melancholy and brought on a stroke of
apoplexy, which prevented his fulfilling a
commission from the King of Portugal to
write two operas and a cantata. On his re-
covery he wrote a cantata in honor of the
birth of the Prince of Naples, and a Miser-
ere for two voices, which wondrously beau-
tiful composition was his swan-song, as well
as his most famous work. He died very
shortly after writing it ; a funeral service in
his honor was conducted with much pomp
on Nov. 11, 1774. Jommelli belongs dis-
tinctly to the " great " period of Italian
opera, which began with Alessandro Scar-
latti, and may be said to represent the cul-
minating point of this period. Although
not the superior of his great predecessors,
Scarlatti, Leo, and Vinci, either in original
genius or in musical learning and skill, he



was more careful than they to respect the
natural dramatic proprieties in operatic
writing. He gave up the Da Capo form of
the aria, which Scarlatti had established, and
let the often extended musical development
of his airs and concerted pieces go, as far
as possible, hand in hand with the develop-
ment of the dramatic situation. He has
been called the Italian Gluck.

Works. I. Operas : L' errore amoroso,
Naples, 1737 ; Odoardo, ib., 1738 ; Kicimero,
Rome, 1740 ; Astianasse, ib., 1741 ; Ezio,
Bologna, 1741 ; Merope, Venice, 1741 ; Don
Trastullo, intermezzo ; II Creso, 1743 ;
Giro ricouosciuto, 1744 ; Didone, ib., 1745 ;
Eumeue, Naples, 1746 ; Achille in Sciro,
Vienna, 1745 ; L' Amore in maschera, ib.,
1746 ; Sofouisba, Venice, Teatro San Gio-
vanni Crisostomo, 1746 ; La critica, farsa,
1747 ; Ezio (new music), Naples, 1748 ;
L' iucantato, Rome, 1749 ; Artaserse, ib.,
Teatro Argentina, 1749 ; Ifigenia in Tau-
ride, ib., 1751 ; Talestri, ib., 1752 ; Attilio
Regolo, ib., 1752 ; Sernirarnide, Piacenza,

1752 ; L' Tpermcftlra, Spoleto, 1752 ; Baja-
zette, Turin, 1753 (?) ; Demetrio, Parma,

1753 (?) ; Penelope, Stuttgart, 1754 ; Enea
nelLazio, ib., 1755; II re pastore, ib., 1755 ;
Didone (new music), ibid., 1756 ; Alessandro
nelT Indie, ib., 1757 ; Nitteti, ib., 1757 ;
Temistocle, Naples, Teatro San Carlo, 1757 ;
II trionfo di Clelia, ib., 1757 ; La clemenza
di Tito, Stuttgart, 1758 (?) ; Demofoonte, ib.,
1760 (?) ; II Fedonte, ib., 1761 (?) ; L' isola
disabitata, ib., 1762 (?) ; Endimione, ib.,
1763 (?) ; Vologeso, ib., 1764 (?) ; L' Olim-
piade, ib., 1765 (?) ; La schiava liberata, ib.,
1766 (?) ; L' asilo d' amore, ib., 1767 (?) ;
La pastorella illustre, ib., 1768 (?) ; II cac-
ciator deluso, ib., 1769 (?) ; II matrimonio
perconcorso, ib., 1770 (?) ; Armida, Naples,
1771 ; Ezio (third opera on this subject,
written for the birthday of Joao I. of Portu-

;al), Lisbon (?), 1771 ; Armida, Naples, Tea-
tro San Carlo, 1771 ; Demofoonte (new mu-
sic), ib., 1772 ; Cerere placata, f esta teatrale,
ib., 1772 ; Ifigenia in Aulide, ib., 1773 ;
Cajo Marzio, ib., 1773 (?).



337



JONAS



II. Cantatas : Perdono, amata Nice, for
a single voice and instruments ; Giusti
numi, id. ; E quaudo sara mai, id. ; Partir
couviene, id. ; Cantata for 2 sopranos.

TTT. Oratorios : La passioue di Gesti
Cristo, for 4 voices, chorus, and orchestra ;
Isacco, figura del Redeutore, id. ; Bftulia
liberata, id. ; Santa Elena al Calvario, id.

IV. Church music : Dixit a 4 voci ; In
convertendo, salmo a 2 voci ed orchestra ;
Responsorj per la Settimana Santa, a 4 voci ;
Dixit a 8 voci in 2 cori ; Miserere a 8 voci
e 2 cori ; 5 Misse a 4 voci, orchestra ed
organo ; Missa de' defonti (Requiem) a 4
voci, orchestra ed organo ; Confitebor, a 3
voci ; Laudate, a 4 soprani e 2 cori ; In
convertendo, a G voci concertauti e 2 cori ;
Magnificat (called dell' eco), a 4 e 8 voci ;
Inuo di San Pietro, concertato, a 2 cori ;
Dixit, a 8 voci ; Graduale, a 4 voci ; Veni,
Sancte Spiritus, a 4 voci ; Ltetatus sum,
id. ; Confitebor, id. ; Beatus vir, id. ; Con-
iirina hoc, Deus, a 5 voci ed orchestra ;
Miserere, a 4 voci ; Yirtiina- paschali, a G
voci ; Miserere, a 5 voci ; Te Deum, a 4 voci
ed orchestra ; Regnum mundi, a 4 voci ;
Veui, spousa Christi, per soprano, coro ed
orchestra; Victims paschali, a 4 voci;
Credidi, a 4 voci ; Graduale, a 3 voci, per
la festadellaSta. Vergine ; Discerne causam
meam, gradualc a 4 voci ; Domiue Deus, in
simplicitate, offertorio a 4 voci ; Justus ut
pahna tlorebit, graduate a 4 voci; Cantata
a 3 voci per la Nativita della Sta. Vergine ;
Salve Regina, per soprano ed orchestra ;
Miserere, a 2 soprani ed orch. ; Several




Misse a 3 e 5 voci ed orch. ; Responsorj per
il inercoledi, il giovedl ed il venerdi della
Settimana Santa. Alfieri, Notizie biogra-
fiche di NiccoL'i Jommelli (Rome, 1845) ;
Biogi-afia degli Italiani illustri del secolo
XVIII, Vol. 1 (Venice, 1835); Frtis.

JONAS, oratorio by Carissimi. The MS.
is in the National Library, Paris. First



performed in English at St. James's Hall,
London, March 15, 1872, text adapted by
Henry Leslie. Joseph Maas sang the part
of Jonah. The air Just art Thou, oh Lord,
my God, is dramatic and full of devotional
feeling. The score was edited by Henry
Leslie and published by Cocks & Co. (Lon-
don). Atheureum (1872), i. 375.

JONAS, EMILE, born in Paris, March
5, 1827, still living, 1889. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil of Lecoupey and Carafa at
the Conservatoire, where he received the 2d
prize for harmony in 1846, the 1st in 1847,
and the 2d grand prix for his cantata An-
tonio in 1849 ; was professor of Solfcge at
the Conservatoire in 1847-66 ; instructor in
harmony of a class arranged for the pupils
from the military bands in 1859-70 ; at the
same time chef de musique of a subdivis-
ion in the National Guard and director of
music at the Portuguese synagogue. In
1867 he was appointed secretary of the
committee for the organization of military
festivals at the Palais de 1'Iudustrie, and in
recognition of his services received the
cross of the Legion of Honour. Works :
Antonio, cantata, 1849 ; Overture (2), 1851
and 1852 ; Le duel de Benjamin, opera,
given at the Bouffes Parisieus, 1855 ; La
parade, operetta, ib., 1856 ; Le roi boit,
! do., ib., 1857 ; Les petits prodiges, do., ib.,
1 1857 ; Job et son chien, do., ib., 1863 ; Le
manoir des La Benardiere, do., ib., 1864 ;
Avnnt la noce, do., ib., 1SG5 ; Les deux
arlequins, do., Fantaisies Parisiennes, 18G5 ;
Malbrough s'eu va-t-eu guerre, do. (with
Bizet, Delibes, and Legouix), Athe-
nee, 1867 ; Le canard a trois bees,
do., Folies Dramatiques, 18G9 ;
Desire, Sire de Champ i guy,
do., Bouffes Parisieus, 1869 ; Javotte, do.,
Athunue, 1871 (written for and given at the
Gaiety Theatre, London, as Cinderella the
Younger, a few months earlier) ; Le chi-
gnon d'or, do., Brussels, 1874 ; La poularde
de Caux, do. (with Bazille, Clapisson, and
others), Theatre du Palais-Royal ; La prin-
cesse Kelebella ; Miss Robinson ; La bonne



JOlSTClfiEES




aveuture, 1882 ; Le premier baiser, 1883.
Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 28 ; Riemaun.

JONCIERES, (FELIX LUDGER, called)
YICTORINDE.born
in Paris, April 12,
1839, still living,
1889. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil at the
Conservatoire of El-
wart in harmony, and
of Leborue in coun-
terpoint and fugue,
but left his class ab-
ruptly on account of
a discussion with Leborne on Wagner's mu-
sic, which Joucieres admires. He is musical
critic of La Liberte. Works : Le Sicilien,
ou 1" Amour peiutre, opera-comique, Ecole
Lyrique, Paris, 1859 ; Sardanapale, opera,
Theatre Lyrique, 18G7 ; Le dernier jour de
Pompei, do., ib., 18C9 ; Dimtiri, do., ib.,
1876 ; Bordeaux, 1883 ; La reine Berthe,
do., Opera, 1878 ; Le chevalier Jean, 1S85 ;
Music to Hamlet, 1864 ; Symphonic ro-
mantique, Concert national, 1870 ; La nier,
choral symphony ; Concert overture ; Hun-
garian serenade ; Concerto for violin ; Pi-
anoforte music, and romances. Fetis, Sup-
plement, ii. 28 ; Mendel ; Riemann.

JONES, JOHN, born in England about
1730, died in London, Feb. 17, 1790. Be-
came organist of the Middle Temple in
1749, of the Charterhouse in 1753, and of
St. Paul's Cathedral in 1755. He held the
three places at the time of his death.
Haydu heard and was deeply moved by one
of his chants in 1791. Works : Sixty
chants Single and Double (1785). Grove ;
Barrett, English Church Composers, 137.

JONES, ROBERT, composer and lutist,
lived in London in the beginning of the
17th century. Works : The First Booke of
Ayres (1601) ; The Second Booke of Songs
and Ayres (1601) ; The First Set of Madri-
gals (1607) ; Ultimum Vale, or Third Book
of Ayres (1G08) ; A Musicall Dreame, or
the Fourth Booke of Ayres (1609); The
Muse's Garden for delight, or the Fifth



Booke of Ayres (1611) ; "Faire Oriana, seem-
ing to wink at folly," madrigal for 6 voices,
in Triumphes of Oriana ; Other madrigals
and pieces published in Leighton's Teares,
Smith's Musica Autiqua, etc. Grove ; Fe-
tis ; Mendel ; Schilling.

JONES, Rev. WILLIAM, born at Lowick,
Northamptonshire, England, July 30, 1726,
died at Nayland, Suffolk, Jan. 6, 1800.
Church composer, educated at Oxford ; be-
came vicar of Bethersden, Kent, in 1764,
and later rector of Pluckley and of Paston,
Northamptonshire, and curate of Nayland,
1784. Works: A Treatise on the Art of
Music (1784, 2d ed., 1827) ; 10 pieces for
the organ, with 4 anthems in score (1789) ;
Double chant ; and other sacred music.
Grove ; Fetis.

JORDAN, CHARLES WARWICK, born
at Clifton (Bristol), England, Dec. 28, 1840,
still living, 1889. Organist of St. Paul's,
Bunhill Row, of St. Luke's, West Holloway
(I860), of St. Stephen's, Lewisham (I860),
honorary organist of London Gregorian
Church Association, and conductor of sev-
eral musical societies. He is fellow of the
College of Organists, and Mus. Bac., Oxford,
1869. Works : Blow ye the trumpet in
Ziou, cantata ; Services, including a Com-
munion Service in E, with brass instru-
ments ; Anthems ; Organ music ; Songs,
etc. He has published also 150 Harmo-
nies for Gregorian Tones.

JOSEFFY, RAFAEL, born at Miskolcz,
Hungary, in 1853,
still living, 1889, in
New York. Pianist,
pupil of Moscheles
audofTausig. Won
reputation on his
first concert tour in
Holland and Ger-
many ; and has since
played with success
throughout Europe
and the United
States. Works : Ungarisches Album, 6 pieces
for pianoforte, op. 11 ; Yalse caprice, op. 22 ;




339



JOSEPH



Die Miible, op. 23 ; Idylle, op. 25 ; Ciacon-
netta, op. 26 ; Perles d'Allemagne, waltz,
op. 27 ; Danse ties roses, mazourka, op.
29 ; Dause negre, op. 31 ; Serenade for vio-
lin with pianoforte, op. 31 ; "VViegenlied, for
do.; Marehe turque, grand morceau de con-
cert, for pianoforte ; Conzert-Studien nach
Chopin ; Barcarolles, berceuses, gavottes,
Liindler, Polkas nobles, etc. for pianoforte ;
Songs.

JOSEPH, opera in three acts, text by
Alexandra Duval, music by Melml, first rep-
resented at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris,
Feb. 17, 1807. The subject is from the
Bible. This opera, Melnil's masterpiece,
has much dramatic power. Original cast :

Joseph M. Elleviou.

Jaeob M. Solic.

Simeon M. Gavaudan.

Benjamin Mine ( lavaudau.

Among the chief numbers are : Joseph's
grand aria, " Vainement Pharaon, dans sa
reconnaissance;" Joseph's romance, "A
peiue au sortir de 1'enfance ; " the prayer,
" Dieu d'Israel, pore de la nature ; " Benja-
min's romance, "Ah! lorsque la mort, trup
cruelle;" the trio, " Deg chants lointains
out frappe mon oreille ; " and the duet " O
toi le digne appui d'un pi-re." Published
by Meysenbnrg (Paris, 1807). It was given
in New York in February, 1863 ; revived in
1'iris, .Tune. ISS'J. Clement et Larousse,
382 ; Hanslick, Moderne Oper, 89 ; Le
Menestrel (1881-82), 210, 219.

JOSEPH, oratorio in three acts, text by
the Rev. James Miller, music by Handel,
first performed at Covent Garden, London,
March 2, 1744, and sung four times during
that year. This, Handel's eighth English
oratorio, is dedicated to the Duke of Mon-
tague. The original score in Buckingham
Palace is dated at the end of the first part.
Aug. 26, 1743, and at the end of the sec-
ond, Sept, 12, 1743 ; the last date is not
given. Various alterations in the music
were made, several by Handel, probably
after 1700. The air, " The Peasant tastes



the sweets of life," written in C, appears in
Schmidt's edition in B-flat, and Guarducci
sang it in D. The air, Powerful Guardians,
was taken from Alc.mn/l/'i- Balus, and the
music of the final chorus from the DctHii-
i/i'n Anthem. This oratorio has seldom
been sung since Handel's death. The parts
of Joseph and Benjamin are marked " boy,"
and were originally sung by choristers. Jo-
seph was afterward sung by Guarducci.
The conducting score contains the names :
Asenath, Signora Frasi, later Mrs. Pinto ;
Phauor, Siguora Galli (who made her debut
in this oratorio), Passerini, Mrs. Scott ; High
Priest, Mrs. Scott, Passerini ; Judah, Beard.
The other characters are Pharaoh, bass ; and
Simeon and Reuben, tenors. Published by
Walsh ; Chrysander's edition (Breitkopf &
Hiirtel, Leipsic, 1883). Rockstro, Handel,
278 ; Schcelcher, 285.

JOSEPH, oratorio in two parts, text se-
lected from the Bible by Dr. Edwin George
Monk, music by George Alexander Macfar-
ren, produced at the Leeds festival, Sept.
21, 1877. Athenreum (1877), ii. 379.

JOSEPH (Josephi), GEORG, German
composer of the 2d half of the 17th cent-
ury. He was Kapellmeister to the bishop
of Breslau ; wrote the music for a collec-
tion of canticles : Heilige Seeleulust, etc.
(Breslau, 1668), which was held in great
esteem. Mendel ; Fetis ; Wiuterfeld, Kir-
chengesang, ii. 509.

JOSEPHSON, JACOB AXEL, born in
Stockholm, March 27, 1818, died at Upsal,
March 29, 1880. Vocal composer, pupil at
the Leipsic Conservatorium, and in 1848
director of music at the University of Up-
sal. He devoted much time to the cultiva-
tion of music in that city, which in conse-
quence became one of the musical centres
of Sweden. He was director of the Stu-
dent's Singing Society, the Students' Chapel,
and the Philharmonic Society. His songs,
ballads, romances (Stockholm, Leipsic) are
very popular. Mendel.

JOSHUA, oratorio in three parts, text by
Dr. Thomas Morell, music by Handel, first



340



JOSQULN



performed at Coverit Garden, London,
March 19, 1748. This, Handel's fourteenth
English oratorio, was begun July 19, 1747.
The MS., preserved in Buckingham palace,
is dated at the end of the first part July 30,
1747, at the second, Aug. 8, 1747, and at
the third, Aug. 10, 1747. The work was
performed seven times during Handel's life,
was first sung in Berlin, Jan. 13, 1833, and 1
was revived by the Sacred Harmonic So-
ciety of London, June 19, 1839. It con-
tains many reminiscences of the composer's
early Italian works. The trio and chorus,
" See the conquering hero comes," was
transferred after the first season to Judas
Maccabams. Haydn heard Joshua at the
Antieut Concerts, London, and declared that
only one inspired author ever did, or would,
pen so sublime a composition as "The na-
tions tremble." Characters represented :
Joshua (T.) ; Caleb (B.) ; Othniel (C.) ; Achsah
(S.), and an Angel (S.). Joshua was sung
first in Boston by the Handel and Haydn
Society, April 16, 1876. Published first by
Walsh ; edited by Chrysander (Breitkopf &
Hiirtel, Leipsic, 1864). Rockstro, Handel,
288 ; Schoslcher, 309.

JOSQUIN. See Despres.

JOSSE, JEAN MAEIE, born at Toulouse,
Feb. 23, 1815, died at Asnieres, near Paris,
June, 1884. Dramatic composer, pupil at
the maitrise of the Cathedral of Toulouse ;
when twelve years old, went to Bordeaux,
where he studied harmony and composi-
tion under Massin (Turina) ; in 1832 en-
tered the Paris Conservatoire, as pupil of
Reicha in fugue, and of Lesueur in compo-
sition. In 1836 he became connected with
the orchestra of the Theatre Nautique as
second violin, then as viola at the Opera
Comique, where he afterwards was sous-
chef d'orchestre. lu 1850 he went to St.
Petersburg as conductor of orchestra at the
Michel Theatre ; returned to France in 1861,
and settled in Marseilles. Works : La ten-
tation, oratorio, Paris, 1848 ; Le talisman,
opera-comique, ib., 1849 ; La lega, opera,
Milan, Scala, 1876 ; Many compositions for



orchestra. Fetis, Supplement, ii. 30 ; Men-
del, Ergiinz., 174.

JOTA ARAGONESA, LA, a national
dance of northern Spain, a species of waltz
in 3-time. Transcription for orchestra by



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