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duos for bassoons ; Concertos for violin,
with orchestra or quartet, and other violin
music. Mendel ; FOtis.

KUMMER, KASPAR, born at Brian,
Prussian Saxony, Dec. 10, 1795, died at
Coburg, May 21, 1870. Virtuoso on the
flute, pupil of Neumeister, city musician at
Schleusingen, and of the Cantor Staps ; be-
came flutist iu the ducal chapel, Coburg, in
1813, and afterwards Musikdirektor. He
published concertos, trios, duos, rondos,
variations, etudes, etc., for flute ; Quintets,
quartets, and trios for flute and strings ;
Cantatas and church music. Mendel ; Fc-
tis.

KUNC, ALOYS MARTIN, born at Cinte-
gabelle (Haute- Garonne), France, Jan. 1,



405



KUXDIXGER



1832, still living, 1889. Church composer ;
was a choir boy iu the Cathedral of Toulouse,
then studied organ and composition under
Hommey while attending the Esquile Semi-
nary, where he became a teacher iu 1849.
He was organist of Notre Dame at Loin-
bez, in the diocese of Auch, iu 1852-57, and
maitre de chapelle of the Cathedral of Audi
iu 1857. He took part in the Congress held
iu Paris for the revival of the French choral
service, 1860, and was seut in 18G1, iu this
behalf, to Borne, where he was elected
member of the St. Cecilia Society. He was
appointed professor and maitre de chapelle
of the Jesuit College, Toulouse, and organist
of Saint-Aubin, ib., iu 1863, organist and
maitro de chapelle of the Church of Jesus
iu 1865, and of the Cathedral of Toulouse
in 1870 ; at the same time he became pro-
fessor at the Conservatoire and the Nor-
mal School. He received the orders of St.
Sylvester and of the Golden Spur from the
Pope in 1SI!S, and obtained a prize from
Rome for some of his didactic works in
1S70. Works : 2 masses ; 15 motets for
festivals; 32 canticles to the Holy Virgin ;
Corona sacra, collection of 100 religious
pieces ; Ghauts de la milice du Pape ; Krrin
de I'Organiste ; Pianoforte music; Songs.
Among his didactic works are : Le plain-
chant liturgique dans I'arohidioci'se d'Auch
(1858) ; Mi'moire sur le nouveau chant li-
turgique de Toulouse (1860); Essai sur le
rhythme qui convieut an plain-chant (ib.) ;
Ls plain-chant remain et le nouveau chant
liturgique de Toulouse (1861). Fetis ; do.,
Supplement, ii. 5-4 ; Mendel.

KUNDINGER, AUGUST, born at Kit-
ziugen, Bavaria, Feb. 13, 1S27, still living,
1889. Violinist, son of Georg Kiindinger,
pupil of the court musician Hom, and the
court organist Ett in Munich, and in 1S42
of Bohrn and Preyer at the Vienna Conser-
vatorium. In 1845 he travelled through
Germany as violinist, lived in Jena for two
years, and in 1852 went to St. Petersburg,
where he became violinist of the Imperial
orchestra. He composed concertos for vio-



lin, a symphony, overtures, mazurkas for
pianoforte, songs, etc. Mendel ; Viotta.

KUNDINGER, GEORG (WILHELM),
born at IvOuigshofen, Bavaria, Nov. 28,
1800, still living, 1889. Church composer,
studied singing, pianoforte, and organ in
the convent of Heilbroim, and (1816) at the
teachers' seminary of Nuremberg, where he
was a pupil of the Cantor Zusinger ; be-
came Cantor at "Windsheim iu 1819, and
Cantor and organist at Kitziugeu iu 1820.
He then studied theory under Frohlich and
Kiiffiier, at Wiirzburg, 1825-31, and often
appeared iu concerts as a pianist there,
and at Nuremberg, Frankfort, etc. In 1831
he went as Cantor and Musikdirektor to
Nordlingeu, and in 1838 to Nuremberg,
where he conducted several singing socie-
ties. He afterwards retired to Fiirth, where
he taught music. He composed church can-
tatas, hymns, etc., and instrumental music.
Mendel ; Fctis.

KUNDINGER, RUDOLF, born at Nord-
lingeu, May 2, 1832, still living, 1889. Pi-
anist, son and pupil of Georg Kiiudinger on
the pianoforte and organ, and of Blumriider
in harmony and counterpoint ; went as
private tutor to St. Petersburg, where he
appeared iu the concerts of the Imperial
Music Society, and in 1860 became instruc-
tor to the children of the Grand Duke Cou-
stantine; since then he has confined him-
self to instruction at the imperial court. In
1879-80 he was professor at the Conserva-
toriuiu. Of his compositions only a trio
for pianoforte and strings, and some salon
pieces, have been published. Mendel; Rie-
niann.

KUNKEL, FRANZ JOSEPH, born at
Dieburg, Hesse, Aug. 20, 1804, died at
Frankfort, Dec. 31, 1880. After learning
several instruments and studying compo-
sition, he became a school teacher at Hep-
peuheim in 1824, rector of the Btirger-
schule at Beusheim in 1828, and from 1834
taught vocal music at the Gymnasium, and
later also at the Seminary there. He was
pensioned in 1854, and retired to Frank-



1(11!



KUNST



fort. Works : Der Tod Jesu, cantata ; Ger-
man mass ; Psalms and motets ; Choruses
and songs ; 12 choral preludes ; 9 festival
pieces, and many fugues for organ ; Kath-
olisches Choralbuch ; Musical articles and
pamphlets. Mendel ; Fetis.

KUNST DER FUGE, DIE (The Art of
Fugue), for the clavier, by Johann Sebastian
Bach, consisting of separate fugues, de-
veloped from, the same theme through in-
tricate devices of counterpoint and inver-
sion, and forming one large fugue. The
greater part was engraved under Bach's
supervision ; but, through the ignorance of
the editors, it was first published in much
disorder, many sketches, completed move-
ments, and two fugues for two claviers be-
ing interpolated by mistake. After their
excision the work contains 15 fugues and 4
canons ; but how Bach intended to com-
bine these is not known. The autograph is
in the Kuuigliche Bibliothek, Berlin. It
was published by Emauuel Bach's order
(Marburg, Berlin, 1752), but only 30 copies
were printed, and on Sept. 14, 1766, Bach
offered the 60 plates for sale. The score
was edited by Carl Maria von Weber (Nii-
geli, Zurich, 1803) ; and by Czeruy (Peters,
Leipsic, 1839). The latter contains the Ri-
cerca and the Thema regium from Bach's
Musikalisches Opfer, to which was prefixed
Moritz Hauptrnanu's Erliiuteruugen (pub-
lished separately by Peters, Leipsic, 1841).
An analysis of the Art of Fugue was read,
by James Higgs, before the Musical Asso-
ciation of London, and published in its
proceedings in 1876-77. An unfinished
clavier fugue of colossal dimensions, on
three themes, the last being the name
Bach, was published by mistake in the orig-
inal edition of the Art of Fugue. An
edition of the Kunst der Fuge, by Dr. Wil-
helni Rust, is published by the Bach-Gesell-
schaft, vol. xxv. (Leipsic, 1875). Spitta,
Bach, ii. 671, 684 ; Poole, Bach, 116 ; Cii-
cilia (24), 17.

KUNTZ (Kuuz), THOMAS ANTON,
born in Prague, Dec. 21, 175G, still living



there in 1830. Pianist, inventor of the
orchestrion and perfecter of the Bogeu-
clavier, or flute-pianoforte. Works : Die
Bezauberten, opera, given in Prague, 1779 ;
Music to the drama Konig Wenzel ; Pyg-
malion, cantata (1781) ; Other operas, can-
tatas, several overtures ; Pianoforte music,
and many songs. Gerber ; Wurzbach ; Fe-
tis ; Schilling.

KUNTZE, KARL, born in Treves, May
17, died at Delitzsch, Sept. 7, 1883. Pian-
ist and organist, pupil of his father, and at
Magdeburg of A. Miihliug ; then at the
Royal Institute for Church Music, Berlin,
pupil of A. W. Bach, Marx, and Ruugen-
hageu. He became Cantor and organist at
Pritzwalk, and in 1852 was made royal Mu-
sikdirektor, in 1858 organist at Aschersle-
ben, and in 1873 musical instructor at the
seminary in Delitzsch. He conducted sev-
eral musical festivals, and was especially
popular as the composer of humorous and
comic quartets for male voices. Works :
Im Gebirge, operetta, given at Dessau,
1875 ; Motets, Ave Maria, and other church
music ; Overtures for full orchestra, and
for wind instruments ; Marches, dances, etc. ;
Many choruses, quartets, duets, and songs.
Mendel ; Fetis, Supplement, ii. 54.

KUNZ, KONRAD MAX, born at Schwan-
dorf, Bavaria, Dec. 30, 1812, died in Mu-
nich, Aug. 3, 1875. He studied music
while in the Gymnasium at Ainberg ; and
while studying medicine subsequently, in
Munich, supported himself by teaching the
pianoforte, and became a pupil of Hart-
maun Stuutz. He conducted afterwards
several singing societies, among others the
Liedertafel, which he helped to found, and
for which he wrote a number of choruses
that became widely popular. His best
known work is a collection of 200 canons,
op. 14, a supplement to every pianoforte
method, which went through several Ger-
man and foreign editions. Allgern. d.
Biogr., xvii. 399 ; Fetis ; Mendel.

KUNZEN, ADOLPH KARL, born at Wit-
tenberg, Sept. 22, 1720, died at Liibeck



407



KTXZEN



in 1781. Organist anil harpsichord player,
sou of Johauii Paul Kuuzeii, with whom he
made a concert tour to Holland and Eng-
land at the age of eight ; in London he was
a favourite of Dr. Pepusch. From 1729 he
lived in Hamburg, and nothing is known
of him until 1750, when he became Kapell-
meister at Schweriu. In 1757 he succeeded
to his father's position as organist iu Lii-
beck. His hand having become useless
from paralysis in 1772, his pupil Kuuigs-
li)\ve was assigned him as adjunct. He
was greatly honoured as organist and pian-
ist. Works : Die gOttliche Berufung des
Glaubens Abrahams, oratorio; Passion
oratorio; Symphonies; 21 concertos for
violin ; 8 do. for flute ; G do. for oboe ;
Motets, cantatas, etc., none of which were
published. Much of this music is now iu
the library of the Conservatoire, Brussels.
A few of his sonatas were published in
London, and some of his music is to be
found in Cramer's collection entitled Flora.
Mendel; 1'Vtis; Gerbcr ; Schilling; Bur-
n< \ . Hist., iv. li.VJ.

KUNZEN, FRIEDRICH LVD "WIG
.EMILIUS. born in Liibeck, Sept. 21. 17til.
died iii Copenhagen, -Jan. 28, 1817. Dra-
matic composer, son and pupil of Adolph
Karl Kunzeu ; studied harmony in Ham-
burg, and in 1784 entered the Vniversity
of Kiel. In 1787 he went to Copenhagen,
where he taught music and won success
with his first opera ; in 1790 he went to
Berlin, and with Reichardt founded the
Miisikalisehes "Wochenblatt (1791), and Mu-
sikalische Mouatsschrift (1792). For a short
time Kapellmeister of the theatres at Frank-
fort and at Prague, he became, iu 17'.i.~>,
court Kapelmester in Copenhagen. Royal
professor ; Order of Dauebrog ; member of
Stockholm Academy. "Works Operas: Hol-
gerDauske (Oberoii), given at Copenhagen,
1789 ; Das Fest der Winzer, oder die AVein-
lese, Prague, 1795 ; Hemmeligheden (The
Secret), Copenhagen, 1796 ; Dragedukkeu,
ib., 1797 ; Jokeyen, ib., 1797 ; Erik Ejegad.
ib., 1798; Miu bedstemoder, ib., 1799;



Ossian's Harfe (not given) ; Naturens RiJst
(The Voice of Nature), ib., 1799 ; Hjemkom-
steu (Return home), ib., 1802 ; Husarerne
jiaa Frieri (The Hussars a-wooiug), 1813 ;
Music to the dramas Eropolis, 1803, Hussi-
teriie, 1SOG, and Gyrithe, 1807. Oratorios
and cantatas : Die Auferstehung, 179G ; Das
Hallelujah der Schopfung, 1798 ; Der Ero-
berer uud der Friedeusfiirst, 1802 ; Trauer-
cautata on the death of J. A. P. Schulz,
1800 ; Hymne auf Gott, 1800 ; Overtures,
pianoforte music, songs, etc. Allgem. d.
Biogr., xvii. 403 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xvii.
65 ; xix. 185 ; Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; do.,
Ergiinz., 201 ; Schilling.

KVXZEN, JOHAXX PAUL, born at
Leisuig, Saxony, Aug. 30, 1696, died at Lii-
beck in 1770. Organist ; went to Torgau
when nine years old, then to Freiberg, and
finally to Leipsic (1716), where he taught
music to support himself, and through his
teachers Rau and Kuhnau obtained lucra-
tive patronage and a position as violinist in
the theatre and concert orchestras ; he also
sang in opera and was assistant organist at
the Nicolai Church. In 1718 he became
Kapellmeister at Zerbst, but went to Wit-
tenberg in 1719, where he founded the
public concerts. In 1723 he went to Ham-
burg, and brought out some of his operas,
travelled iu Holland and England with his
eight year old son Adolph Karl in 1728-29,
and was organist in Liibeck in 1732-57.
Mattheson calls him one of the best com-
posers of his time, but his Passion music,
his vocal works, etc., were never published
and are all forgotten. His oratorio, Belsa-
zar, was considered his best work. Gerber ;
Schilling ; Mendel ; Fetis.

KITSCH, KARL GVSTAV, born in
Berlin, Feb. 24, 1807, died at Naumburg,
July 30, 1846. Dramatic composer, pupil
of Berger on the pianoforte, of A. W. Bach
on the organ, of Ritz on the violin, of Be-
uelli in singing, and of Zelter and Beruhard
Klein in composition ; became organist of
the Werder Church, Berlin, in 1825, and
founded a music school on Logier's system.



408



KUHPIXSKI



After living in Leipsic and Dresden lie went
to Liibeek as musical director of the Stadt-
theater ; thence, in 1838, to Eotterdam as
director and professor of the Singing Acad-
emy, and orchestral conductor of the Eru-
ditio Musica concert society. Returuiug to
Germany in 1845, he was musical director
of the theatre at Freiburg im Breisgau, and
in 184(5 at Naumburg. He was Schumann's
teacher in theory for a short time. Works :
Fridolin, opera, about 1840 ; Music to Wal-
leustein's Tod, and to the pantomime, Der
Zauberkessel ; Pianoforte pieces ; Songs.
Mendel; FiHis.

KURPINSKI, KARL (KASIMIR), born
at Luschwitz, Posen, March 5, 1785, died
at Warsaw, Sept. 18, 1857. Dramatic com-
poser, entered the orchestra of the Starosty
Felix Polauowski in Galicia ; was made as-
sistant conductor at the National Theatre
in Warsaw about 1810 ; appointed court
Kapellmeister to Emperor Alexander I. in
1819, and decorated with the order of St.
Stanislaus iu 1823 ; he then visited Ger-
many, France, and Italy, to study the con-
dition of music in those countries, returned
in 1824, and retired to private life in 1841.
Works Operas : Dwie Chatki (Two Huts),
1811 ; Palac Lucyfera (Lucifer's Palace),
1811 ; Martynowa w Seraju (Martin's Wife
in the Harem), 1812 ; Ruiny Babilonu (The
Ruins of Babylon), Szarlatan (The Char-
latan), 1814 ; Laska Imperatora (The Em-
peror's Favour), 1814 ; Jadwiga (Hedvig),

1814 ; Agar ua puszczy (Hagar in the Des-
ert), 1814; Alexander i Apelles, 1815;
Obl^zenie Gdanska (The Siege of Dantzic),

1815 ; Nadgroda (Recompense), 1815 ; Mala
Szkota Ojc6w (Father's bad Example), 1816 ;
Nowe Krakowiaki, 1816 ; Dziadek, 1816 ;
Ero i Leander, 1816 ; Jan Kochanowski,
1817 ; Baterya o jeduym zotniezu (Battery
served by a single soldier), 1817 ; Czaro-
rnys'l, 1818 ; Zamek na Czorstynie (The
Castle of Czorstyn), 1819 ; Le forestier,
1819 ; Kalmora, 1820 ; Casimir le grand ;
Nasze przebiegi ; Cecile de Piasczezno ; Mu-
sic to the tragedy Zbiguiew, 1819. Ballets:



Le bourgeois gentilhomme, Terpsichore sur
la Vistule, Mars et Flore, etc. Masses ; Can-
tatas ; Symphonies ; Nocturnes ; Fugues ;
Music for strings, for pianoforte, and for
wind instruments. Futis ; Mendel ; Schil-
ling ; Sowiriski, 353.

KURZINGER, PAUL, born at Wiirzburg
in 1760, was living in Vienna in 1807. Dra-
matic and church composer, son and pupil
of Ignaz Franz Xaver Ktirziuger, who was
Kapellmeister at Mergentheim about 1750.
Destined to the law by his father, he finally
adopted music as a profession, and became
violinist iu the Elector's orchestra in Mu-
nich ; afterwards lived again at Wiirzburg,
but soon went to Ratisbon, where he entered
the service of the Prince of Thurn und
Taxis ; was called to Vienna by Joseph II.
and made director of music in a school iu
Vienna. Works : Die Gnifin, opera, given
iu Munich, 1773 ; Die Illumination, Vienna,
1792 ; Robert und Calliste, ib., 1794 ;
Church music ; Songs, dances, etc. Fetis ;
Mendel ; Schilling.

KUSSER. See Cousser.

KUSTER, HERMANN, born at Templin,
Brandenburg, July 14, 1817, died at Her-
ford, Westphalia, March 17, 1878. Organ-
ist, pupil of the Cantor Christian Koch on
the pianoforte and organ, then, at the Acad-
emy and at the Royal Institute for Church
Music iu Berlin, pupil of A. W. Bach, Lud-
wig Berger, Ruugenhageu, and Marx. He
was Musikdirektor at Saarbriicken in 1845
-52, then taught in Berlin, where he found-
ed the Tonkiinstlervereiu, and in 1857 suc-
ceeded Grell as court and cathedral organ-
ist and royal Musikdirektor. He was made
professor in 1874. Works Oratorios :
Judith ; Julian der Abtriiuuige ; Die Er-
scheinuugdesKreuzes ; Johannes der Evan-
gelist ; Das Wort des Herrn ; Die ewige
Heimath ; Hermann der Deutsche. Church
and orchestral music, songs, etc. More im-
portant are his writings : Populiire Vortnige
iiber Bildung und Begriindung eiues mu-
sikalischen Urtheils (Leipsic, 1870-77) ;
Ueber Handel's Israel in Aegypten (1854) ;



409



KUTTXOIIORSKY



TJeber die Formen in der Musik (1872) ; etc.
AllgeiiJ. d. Biogr., xvii. 436 ; Meudel ;
Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 54.

KUTTNOHORSKY, JOHANN NEPO-
Ml'Iv, boru ill Prague about 1735, died
there iu 1781. Tenor singer, pupil of bis
father ; became tenor in the Metropolitan
Church, then iu St. Maria de Victoria, choir-
director at the castle, and in the Benedic-
tine church on the Hradschin. He was
one of the best singers of his time and a
favourite composer, though none of his mu-
sic, among which are 2 masses and 8 sym-
phonies, was ever published. Mendel ;
Schilling ; Wurzbach.

K.UZZI, ANTON JOSEPH, lived iu St.
Petersburg in 1796. Dramatic composer,
pupil of Dittersdorf. Among his operas
was Belmonte und Constan/.e. He com-
posed also symphonies, concertos, and Ger-
man and Italiau arias. Mendel ; Gerber ;
Schilling.



LA I , VRRE, LOUIS JULIEN CASTELS
DE, born in Paris, March 24, 1771,
died (V). Violinist, pupil of Viotti,
later at the Conservatorio dell Pieta, Naples,
of Sala. He returned to France in 17'.i:'.,
and studied composition and counterpoint
with Mehul ; was for two years lirst violin-
ist at the Theatre de Moliere, then from
17'.r> at the Opera, which he left for a po-
sition in the family of the Emperor Napo-
leon. Works : Les epoux de seize aus,
opera, given in Paris, Theatre de Moliere,
1798 ; Scene from Les adieux du Cid ii, Chi-
meiie ; 2 collections of romances ; Duets,
caprices, and airs varies for violin. Fetis ;
Mendel.

LABARRE, MICHEL DE, boru in Paris
about 1675, died there in 1743. Flutist
and dramatic composer. Works : Pvyina-
liou, opera, and Le triomphe des arts, opera-
ballet, given at the Academic Royale de Mu-
sique, 1700 ; La Veuitieuue, couiedie-ballet,
ib., 1705 ; Duos and trios for the flute. Fe-
tis ; "Mendel.



LABARRE, THEODORE, born in Paris,
March 5, 1805, died there, March 9, 1870.
Harpist, pupil of Cousiueau, Bochsa, Nader-
man, and at the Conservatoire of Dourlen,
Eler, Fetis, and Boieldieu. He visited Eng-
land in 1824, and then lived alternately in
London and in Paris, where he became chef
d'orchestre at the Opera Comique in 1847-
49. He went again to London, but returned
to Paris ill 1851 to direct for Napoleon III.
Later he was appointed professor of harp at
the Conservatoire. Works Operas : Les
deux families, given in Paris, Opera Comique,
1831 ; L'aspirant de marine, ib., 1834 ; Le
meuetrier, ou les deux duchesses, ib., 1845 ;
Pantagruel, Opera, 1855. Ballets: La re-
volte an serail, Opera, 1833 ; Jovita, on les
boucauiers, ib., 1853 ; La Fonti, ib., 1855 ;
Gra/iosa, ib., 1861 ; Le roi d'Yvetot, ib.,
1865. Duos for harp and violin ; Duos for
harp and pianoforte ; Trios and duos for harp
and wind instruments ; Numerous pieces,
and a Methode complete for harp. Futis ;
do., Supplement, ii. 56 ; Mendel ; Riemaun.

LABAT, JEAN BAPTLSTE, boru at Ver-
dun, France, June 17, 1802, died at Laga-
rosse (Taru-et-Garonne), Jan. 6, 1875. Or-
ganist, pupil of Jacques Causse in Toulouse,
and of Beuoist and Fetis at the Paris Con-
servatoire. He was organist in his native
city, then organist and maitre de chapelle at
Montauban, where he founded a philhar-
monic society and established a course on
harmony, from which issued many able pu-
pils. Works : Grand opera (unpublished) ;
Noel, La Sybille, oratorios ; Messe soleu-
nelle with orchestra, and two short masses
with organ ; Grand Magnificat ; 2 collections
of motets ; Collection of cantatas ; do. of
canticles ; do. of fugues for the organ ; 2
anthems, alia Palestrina, for six voices ; Le
siege de Montauban, overture for grand or-
chestra ; Leyous d'harmouie and Lecons de
coutrepoiut, after the system of Fetis ; Pi-
anoforte music and many songs. Fetis ;
do., Supplement, ii. 5(1 ; Mendel.

LABITZKY (Labitski), JOSEPH, born at
Schdufeld, Bohemia, July 4, 1802, died at



410



LA BOCCA




Carlsbad, Aug. IS, 1881. Violinist, pupil of
Veit at Petsehau, and of Winter ill Munich in
composition ; played
in the orchestra at
Marienbad in 1820,
at Carlsbad in 1821 ;
then formed an or-
chestra of his own
and made concert
tours. He settled at
Carlsbad as director
of orchestra in 1835,
visited St. Peters-
burg in 1839, London in 1850, and as-
sociated his son August with him in direct-
ing his orchestra. His numerous compo-
sitions shared the popularity of those of
Strauss and Lanner. Works : Waltzes, pol-
kas, galops, quadrilles, marches ; String quar-
tets ; Concertos ; Divertissements and vari-
ations for different instruments. Allgem. d.
Biogr., xvii. 407 ; Wurzbach ; Mendel ; Rie-
mann ; Fetis ; Schilling, Supplement, 258.

LA BOCCA VAGA, alto aria of Ruggiero,
in E major, with accompaniment of strings
complete and continue, in Handel's Alcina,
Act I., Scene 12. Published separately, in
filled-out pianoforte score, by Otto Dresel
(Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel).

LABORDE (de la Borde), JEAN BEN-
JAMIN DE, born in Paris, Sept. 5, 1734,
died there, July 22, 1794. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil of Dauvergne on the violin,
and of Rameau in composition. An atten-
dant of Louis XV., he became one of the
Compagnie des Fermiers Generaux ; but
after the death of the king he retired
from court life and devoted himself to
composition and study. He was one of the
victims of the Revolution. Works Op-
eras : Gilles, garon-peintre, given at the
Theatre de la Foire-Saint-Germain, 1758 ;
Les epreuves de 1'amour, ib., 1759 ; Les
bous amis, Opera Comique, 17G1 ; Annette
et Lubiu, private theatre of Richelieu, 1762 ;
Isnu'ne et Ismenias, ou la fete de Jupiter,
given at court, 17C3, and in the Academe
Royale de Musique, 1770 ; L'anneau perdu



et retrouvo, Comodie Italienne, 17G4 ; Les
amours de Gonesse, Nouveau Theatre Ita-
lien, 17G5 ; Amphion, Opera, 17l>7 ; La cin-
quantaine, ib., 1771 ; Adele de Pouthieu, ib.,
1772 ; Trois deesses rivales ; Collection of
songs. Fetis ; Mendel ; Gerber.

LA BRISE EST MUETTE. See Le
Prophile.

LA CALUNNIA E UN VENTICELLO.
See II Jlarbien; di Siviglia, Rossini.

LAC DES FEES, LE, opera in five acts,
text by Scribe and Melesville, music by
Auber, first represented at the Academic
Royale de Musique, Paris, April 1, 1839.
The overture alone survives. Published by
Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1840). Same
subject, Italian opera, by Carlo Coccia, Tu-
rin, 1841 ; by Cesare Doniiuiceti, text by
Zanardini, Naples, May 18, 1878.

LA CHAlNE DE L'HYMEN M'E-
TONNE. See Armide et Renaud.

LACKER, JOSEPH, born at Haunstetten,
near Augsburg, Nov. 5, 1739, died at Kemp-
ten, Bavaria, about 1804. Virtuoso on the
oboe, the clarinet, and the English horn,
first instructed by his father, but mostly
self-taught. After having served several
years in Bavarian military bands, he made
concert tours in Switzerland and Germany,
and afterwards became Kapellmeister to
the Prince Abbot of Kempten. Works :
A duodrama, Emma und Edgar ; Octets,
quintets, quartets, and concertos for differ-
ent instruments. Mendel ; Fetis.

LACHNER, FRANZ, born at Rain, Ba-
varia, April 2, 1804,
still living, 1889.
Pupil of his father, a
poor organist, then
at Neuburg pupil of
Eisenhofer, becoming
proficient on the pi-
anoforte, organ, and
violoncello. After
deciding to make
music his profession,
he went to Munich, earned his living by
teaching and playing in an orchestra, and




411



LACIIXER



received iustructiou from Ett. In 1822 he
made his way to Vienna, long the goal of
his desires, secured a situation as organist
of the Protestant Church, and studied com-
position and counterpoint under Stadler
and Sechter. He became very intimate
with Schubert, and his talent was recog-
nized by Beethoven. In 1826 he was made
Vice-Kapellmeister, in 1828 first Kapell-
meister, at the Kiirntlmerthor Theater, and
during all his residence in Vienna he was
an industrious composer. Summoned to
Mannheim in 1834, to conduct the opera, he
was induced, in 1836, to accept the appoint-
ment as court Kapellmeister in Munich. He



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