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improved considerably. He played with
much success iu his country and in Berlin,
where he appeared iu 1784. Works : 7
works of quintets, quartets, and duos for
violin, flute, and violoncello, each containing
G pieces ; Andante with variations and other
pieces for pianoforte ; Music for violon-
cello. Fetis ; Mendel ; Wurzbach ; Gerber ;

LIDON, JOSE, bora at Bejar, Salamanca,
Spain, in 1752, died in Madrid, Feb. 11,
1827. Organist, church composer, and di-
dactic writer, pupil of the choristers' school
in Madrid, and at the age of sixteen organ-
ist at the Cathedral of Malaga ; later he was
organist at the royal chapel iu Madrid, and
from 1808 its maestro de capilla. Among
his pupils were his two nephews, Andres
Lidon, organist at the Cathedral of Cordova,
and Alfonso Lidon, organist at the royal
chapel in Madrid. Works: Glauca y Corio-
lauo, lyric drama, given in Madrid, Teatro
del Principe ; Te Deum ; Salve Regiua ;
Ave maris Stella ; 4 masses ; 2 Miserere ; 3
hymns ; 32 lamentations ; Litanies ; Mo-
tets ; Psalms and other church music ; So-
natas and fugues for organ ; Treatise on
organ-accompaniment ; Do. on fugue, and
on modulation. Fetis, Supplement, ii. 110 ;

born at Wickerode, Prussian Saxony, Nov.

14, 1802, died in Quedlinburg, June 27,
1843. Organist and pianist, pupil in 1821-
22 of Hummel at Weimar on the piano-
forte, the organ, and in composition ; after-
wards organist at the Church of St. Bene-
dict at Quedlinburg. Works : Die Pfade
zur Gottheit, oratorio, given at Stockholm,
1837 ; Die Reue des Petrus, do., Quedlin-
burg ; La fete de la musique, cantata ; 2
psalms with orchestra ; Motets ; Quintet for
pianoforte, 2 flutes, 2 violins, and violoncello
ad libitum ; Quartets for pianoforte and
strings ; Sonatas, variations, and other pieces
for pianoforte ; Songs. Fetis ; Mendel.

iu the Country), German Singspiel in three
acts, text by Christian Friedrich Weisse,
music by Johann Adam Hiller, first per-
formed iu Leipsic, 17C8. Same title, opera
by Eiotte, Vienna, 1838.

Magdeburg, Nov. 19, 1819, still living, 1889.
Pianist and instrumental and vocal com-
poser, pupil of Carl Schwarz, August Miihl-
iug, and Wachsmanu ; later, in Cassel, of
Spohr in composition and Baldewein in
counterpoint. He became music director at
Cobleutz in 1844, at Worms in 1840, lived
at Strasburg in 1850-50, teaching music,
and settled finally in London. Works :
Die Braut von Azola, opera, given in Carls-
ruhe, 1808 ; Johannes, oratorio ; Sympho-
nies ; Overtures ; Masses ; Psalms ; Cho-
ruses for men's voices ; Ballads for bass
voice ; Pianoforte music ; Songs. His
daughter, Therese Liebe (bom at Worms,
in 1848), an excellent violinist, obtained con-
siderable success at a very tender age, and
on her concert tours, which she undertook
with her father, after 18GO. Fetis ; Men-
del ; Riemann.

time), twelve poems from F. Riickert's Lie-
besfriihling, for voices with pianoforte, by
Robert and Clara Schumann, op. 37 and 12,
composed in 1840. Part I. 1. Der Himmel
hat eine Thraue geweint (in A-flat) ; 2. Er
ist gekommen in Sturm uud Regen (iu F


minor) ; 3. O ihr Herrcn, o ihr wertheu (iu
A-tlat) ; 4. Liebst du um Schouheit (in
D-flat) ; 5. Ich hab' in mich gesogeu (in F) ;
C. Liebste, was kauu deuu uns scheiden,
two voices (in A-flat) ; 7. Schou ist das Fest
des Lenzes, soprano and tenor (in A-tlat).
Part II. 8. Fliigel! Fliigel ! nni zu fliegeu
(iu B, G minor, and F-sliarp minor) ; 9.
Hose, Meer und Soune siuu eiu Bild (in R) :
10. O Sonn', o Mccr, o Hose (in 13) ; 11.
Warum willst du And'rc frageii ? (in A-flat) ;
1'J. So wabr die Soune scheme!, soprano,
tenor or baritone (in E-tiat). Xos. 2, 4,
and 11 are by Clara Schumann, op. 12.
Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leipsie,

Love), fur four voices with pianoforte ac-
companiment for four hand*, text from the
' Polvdora " of Daunier, music by Brahms,
op. 52. Ill Landler tempo. I. Rede M;id-
chen, allzu liebcs ; II. Am (lesteine ran-. -lit
die Fluth ; HI. O die Fianen ; IV. Wie des
Abends seh'.ne Rothe ; V. Die griino Hop-
fenranke ; VI. Kin Kleiner htib'scher Vogel
nahm den Flug ; VII. Wohl schoii bo\\andt
\\ai- es ; VIII. Wenn so lind deiu Auge mir;
l\. \m Donaustrande ; X. O wie sauft die
(,)iielle. ; XI. Xein cs ist nicht auszukommen ;

XII. Sehlosser, auf nnd niaehe Sfhlosser :

XIII. Vuglein durchrauscht die Lnft ; XIV.
Sieh' wie ist die. Welle klar ; XV. Xachtigall
sie singt so schon ; XVI. Ein dunkler
Schacht ist Liebe ; XVII. Nicht wandle,
mc'iii Licht ; XVIII. Es bebet das Ge-
straiiche. Published by Simroek (l!ei-lin,
between ]S<!8 and 1ST:!); in French, trans-
1'ited !>v Vietor Wilder, Brandus & Cie
(Paris, issti). Arranged for pianoforte, for
two and four hands ; for the pianoforte,
violin, ami llute ; and for the pianoforte,
violin, and violoncello. Walzer fur the pi-
anoforte, for four hands, after the Liebeslie-
dern, l>v lirahms, op. 52a.

stiick for orchestra, by Philipp Scharwenka,
op. 40, published \>\ Praeger \ Meier (Bre-
men, 1882). Mus. Wocheublatt (1882), 2GG.

LIEBESVERBOT, DAS, comic opera in
two acts, text and music by Wagner, first
represented at Magdeburg, March 29, 183G,
as Die Novize vou Palermo. The libretto,
which is founded oil Shakespeare's " Meas-
ure for Measure," was written in the sum-
mer of 1834, and the score was finished in
the winter of 183G. The autograph was
\\ned by Ludwig II., King of Bavaria.
The Carnevalslied from this opera was
printed in Lewald's " Europa " (1837, re-
printed at Brunswick, 1885). Wagner, Ge-
samnielte Schriften, i. 25; Glaseuapp, Rich-
ard Wagner's Leben nnd Wirken, i. 62.

born at Frankenberg, Saxony, July 22,
1672, died at Schleiz, Saxony, June 1, 1727.
Church composer, pupil of his father, the
cantor at Frankenberg. He cultivated mu-
sic during his stay at the college of Bau-
tzen and the University of Jena, and finally
gave up his study of medicine to devote
himself to it. He went to Dresden, where
his line tenor voice obtained for him em-
ployment as a singer in churches, and in
1G95 he was appointed secretary and Ka-
pelldirektor to the Count von Reuss, at
Schleiz. Works : Yearbook of motets on
the Gospels, for voice, 2 violins, 2 violas,
and bass ; do., for 4 voices and various in-
struments. Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Schil-

LIEBLING, EMIL, born, of German and
Russian parentage,
in Pless, Silesia,
April 12, 1851, still
living, 1889. Pia-
nist, pupil in Berlin
of Ehrlich and Kul-
lak, and in Vienna
of Dachs, and in
composit ion of
Heinrich Dorn in
Berlin. In 1867 he
went to America,

and until 1871 taught music in a seminary
iu Kentucky. In 1874 he revisited Europe
and spent the summer of 187G with Liszt



at Weimar ; then returned to Chicago,
where he still resides as a teacher of the
pianoforte. He has frequently played in
New York, Chicago, and other cities, and
has made concert tours with Wilhelmj, Miss
Kellogg, Miss Gary, and others. Works :
Meteor Galop, Album-Blatt, Feu-Follet,
Florence, valse de concert, Gavotte moderne,
for pianoforte ; Adieu, song, etc.

EN, soprano aria in E minor, with accom-
paniment of oboe, strings complete, and
continue, in Johanu Sebastian Bach's can-
tata ("Dialogus ") for Doin. I. post Epiph.,
of the same title (Bachgesellschaft, No. 32).
Published separately, edited by Robert
Franz, Leipsic, Whistling.

Bell), cantata for orchestra, soli, and chorus,
by Max Bruch, after Schiller's poem, first
performed in Cologne under the composer's
direction, May 12, 1878. It was sung at
the Birmingham (England) Festival, Aug.
2G, 1879, Bruch conducting, by Mme Tre-
belli, Mme Lemmens-Sherrington, Mr.
Vernou Rigby, and Mr. Heuschel. Given
at the Gewaudhaus, Leipsic, Nov. G, 1879.
Athenfeum (1879), ii. 251.

LIEDERKREIS (Cyclus of Songs), 9
songs for voice with pianoforte, by Robert
Schumann, op. 24, from the Licderkreis of
Heine, composed in 1810, and dedicated to
Pauline Garcia. I. Morgens steh' ich auf
und frage (in D) ; II. Es treibt mich bin,
es treibt mich her (in B minor) ; III. Ich
wandelte miter den Baiimen (in B) ; IV.
Lieb' Liebchen, leg's Hiindchen auf's Herze
mein (in E minor) ; V. Sehone Wiege meiuer
Leiden (in E) ; VI. Warte, warte, wilder
Schiffmann (in E) ; VH. Berg' uud Burgen
schau'n herunter (in A) ; VIII. Aufangs
wollt' ich fast verzageu (in D minor) ; IX.
Mil Myrthen uud Rosen, lieblich und hold
(in D). Published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel
(Leipsic, 1840).

LIEDERKREIS, 12 songs with piano-
forte, from the Liederkreis of J. von
Eichendorff, music by Schumann, op. 39.

I. In der Fremde : Aus der Heimath liin-
ter den Blitzen (in F-sharp minor) ; H.
Intermezzo : Dein Bilduiss wuuderselig (in
A) ; IH. Waldesgesprach : Es ist schon
spiit, est ist schon kalt (in E) ; IV. Die
Stille : Es weiss und riith es doch Kcincr
(in G) ; V. Moudnacht : Es war, als hiltt' der
Himmel (in E) ; VI. Schone Fremde : Es
rauschen die Wipfel und schauern (in B) ;
VH. Auf einer Burg : Eingeschlafen auf der
Lauer (in A minor) ; VEIL In der Fremde :
Ich hiir' die Biichlein rAiischeu (in A minor) ;
IX. Wehmnth : Ich kanu wohl manchmal
singen (in E); X. Zwiclicht : Damm'rung will
die Fliigel spreiten (in E minor) ; XI. Ini
Walde : Es zog eine Hochzeit den Berg ent-
lang (in A) ; XII. Friihlingsnacht : Ueber'm
Garten durch die Liifte (in F-sharp). Pub-
lished by C. Haslinger (Vienna, 1842),
F. Whistling (Leipsic, 1842), and Gustav
Heiuze (Leipsic, 1842). Also in Peters's
Schumann-Album with op. 42 and 48.
Beethoven seems to have been the first to
use this term. See An die feme Geliebte.
Reissmann, Schumann, 81, 90 ; Allgem.
Mus. Zeitung (44), 33, 58.

out Words), name given by Mendelssohn
to short pieces for the pianoforte. The title
first appears in a letter of Fanny Mendels-
sohn's, Dec. 8, 1828. They were first called
Instrumentallieder fur Clavier, and the
autograph of the first book, owned by Paul
Mendelssohn, bears the words, " Six Songs
for the Pianoforte alone." The first book,
op. 19, was published by Novello, under the
title of " Original Melodies for the Piano-
forte " (London, 1832) ; by Simrock as
" Sechs Lieder ohne Worte," etc., op. 19
(Berlin, 1832). There are eight books in all,
six numbers each ; the seventh and eighth
books are posthumous. In some editions all
the songs have titles, but only the following
are authentic : Venetianisches Gondellied,
Bk. I, No. G, Bk. II., No. 6, Bk. V., No. 5 ;
Duetto, Bk. in., No. G ; Volkslied, Bk. IV,
No. 5 ; Friihlingslied, Bk. V., No. G. The
one in C, Bk. VI., No. 4, generally known



as The Spinning Song, was called by Men-
delssolm Difi Bienenhochzeit, but this title
was never published. Breitkopf & Hiirtel,
Mendelssohn Werke, Series 11, No. 75-82.
Lied ohne Worte for violoncello and piano-
forte (in D), op. 108 ; (Posthumous work,
38) ; and Albumblutt for pianoforte (in E
minor), op. 117 (Posthumous work, 46).
Schumann, Gcsaminelte Sehriften, i. 99,
227; Hensel, Die Familie, Mendelssohn i.
163, 26C; Grove, ii. 135.


LIFT THINE EYES. See Hebe deine
Au^eii auf.

See Oberon.

LIGHT OF ASIA, THE, cantata in four
parts, text adapted by the composer from
E-lwin Arnold's poem of the same title, mu-
sic by Dudley Buck, first performed (with-
out orchestra) by the Choral Society, Wash-
ington, May (i, 1SSG ; in London, by the
Novello Choir, March 19. 1SS9. Part I. Pro-
logue ; II. The Renunciation and Tempta-
tion ; in. The Return ; IV. Epilogue and
Finale. Published first in England. Up-
ton, Standard Cantatas, 117; Atliciiieum
(1889), i. 383 ; Academy (Isx'.M, i. 212.

LIGHT OF THE WORLD, oratorio in
two parts, text from the Bible, music by Sir
Arthur Sullivan, written for and first given
at the Birmingham (England) Festival, Aug.
27, 1S73. It was sun- by Mile Tietjens,
Mine Trebelli-Bettini, Sims Reeves, and
Charles Santley. Subject, the human as-
pects of the life of Christ. The first part
has four scenes, entitled, respectively : Beth-
lehem ; Nazareth ; Lazarus ; and The Way
to Jerusalem. The scene of the second
part is entirely in Jerusalem. It is the
composer's second oratorio. Published by
Cramer & Co. (London, 1873). Athena-urn
(1873), ii. 280 ; Upton, Standard Oratorios,

LIGOU, PIERRE, born in Avignon in
1749, died at Alais ((lard) after 1822. Or-
ganist, dramatic and church composer ;

studied music in the seminary and the
choir of the Cathedral of Avignon ; became
organist at Alais in 17G9. Works Operas :
L'argent fait tout, Paris, about 1780 ; Les
deux aveugles de Francouville, ib., 1780 ;
Armide (MS.) ; Samson, do. ; Te Deurn ;
Masses ; Motets. Fc-tis ; Mendel.

LTLLIBURLERO, an English revolution-
ary song, words attributed to Lord Whar-
ton, music by Henry Purcell. The ballad
refers to King James's nomination, in 1G8G,
to the lieutenancy of Ireland of General
Talbot, then just created Earl of Tyrconnel,
who had recommended himself to the king
by his arbitrary treatment of Protestants
when he was lieutenant-general. The air
was long popular in the British Army, but
was discontinued as a march in the last
century to avoid giving offence to Irish Ro-
man Catholic soldiers. The only copy ex-
tant of the march and quickstep is con-
tained in " The Delightful Companion ; or,
Choice New Lessons for the Recorder or
Flute " (2d ed., London, 1G8G). The tune,
which is often referred to by dramatists
and other writers, is given in Grove, iii.
138. Variations on the air, for two piano-
fortes, by Theodore Gouvy, op. 62, are pub-
lished by Senfl' (Leipsic, 1878). Cumming's
Purcell, 45 ; Percy's Reliques, ii. 358 ; Chap-
pell, Music of Olden Time, ii. 5G8.

LILLO, GIUSEPPE, born at Galatina,
Naples, Feb. 26, 1814, died, Feb. 4, 1863.
Dramatic composer, pupil at Naples Con-
servatorio of Lanza, Furno, and Zingarelli ;
taught pianoforte in Naples, where he after-
wards became professor in the Conserva-
torio. Though his later operas were un-
successful, and he had few of the qualities
necessary for dramatic composition, he still
persisted, and in 1861 became insane. He
was restored sufficiently to resume teaching
for several mouths, but was then struck
with paralysis and never recovered. Works
Operas : La moglie per 24 ore ; II Gioi-
ello, Naples, 1836 ; Odda di Bernauer, il>.,
1837 ; Rosamuuda, Venice, and Alisia di
Rieux, Rome, 1S3S ; II coute di Chalais,



Naples, La modista, Florence, 1840 ; L' os-
teria ili Andujar, and Cristina di Scozia,
Naples, 1841 ; Lara, ib., 1843 ; II mulatto,
Turin, 184G ; Caterina Howard, Naples,
1849 ; Delfina, ib., 1850 ; II sogno d' una
notte estiva, ossia la gioventu di Shake-
speare, ib., 1851 ; Ser Babbeo, ib., 1853 ; II
figlio della sclriava, ib., 1853. Masses, lit-
anies, and other church music ; Overture
for orchestra ; Funeral symphony ; Trio and
two quartets ; Pianoforte and vocal music.
Fetis; do., Supplement, ii. Ill ; Mendel ;
do., Ergiinz., 215.

three acts, text by John Oxenford, founded
on Boucicault's " Colleen Bawn," music by
Jules Benedict, first represented at the
Royal English Opera, Covent Garden, Lon-
don, Feb. 8, 18G2. AthenEeum (1802),

Ghent, May 22, 1814, still living, 1889.
Dramatic and church composer, pupil at
Saint-Aclieul, near Amiens, of Cornette,
and in 1828-35 in the Jesuits' college at
Freiburg, Switzerland, of Pure Louis Lam-
billotte. After his return to Belgium he
founded and conducted at Mechlin an ama-
teur symphonic society, to which he added
a choral section in 1838, which in 1841
took the name of Reunion Lyrique. About
this time he took a course in composition
under Fetis, and in 1847, settled in Paris.
Works Operas : Les Montenegrins, given
in Paris, Opera Comique, 1849 ; Le chateau
de la Barbe-Bleue, ib., 1851 ; Yvonne, ib.,
1859 ; Le maitre chauteur, Opera, 1853.
Scenes druidiques, lyric poem ; La fin des
moissons, symphony ; Cantatas ; Te Deum ;
Stabat Mater, with orchestra ; Requiem, with
organ ; Quartet for strings ; Sonata for pi-
anoforte and violoncello ; Many choruses.
Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 112 ; Mendel ;

in three acts, text by Gaetauo Rossi, music
by Donizetti, first represented at the

Karnthnerthor Theater, Vienna, May 19,
1842. The subject is from the vaudeville
La grace de Dieu, performed at the Theatre
de la Gaite, Paris. Scene, in Switzerland.
Linda, daughter of Antonio, a farmer of
Chamounix, loves Carlo, an artist, but is
pursued by the attentions of the Marquis
de Boisfleury, brother of the Marquise
de Sirval, who owns Antonio's farm. By
the advice of the Prefet, Antonio sends
Linda to Paris in charge of Pierotto the
Savoyard. She lo.-ses him and is found by
Carlo, who discloses to her that he is the
Viconite de Sirval, sou of the Marquise.

Annie Louise Can/.

' Carlo wishes to marry her, but the Mar-
quise forbids, and Linda becomes in-
sane. Linda is taken back to Chamounix
by Pierotto, recovers her reason when Car-
lo sings a familiar song to her, and the
Marquise relenting, the two are united.
Among the best of the numbers are : Linda's
polacca, " O luce di quest' anima ; " " Per

| sua madre," sung by Pierotto ; " A conso-
larmi affrettisi," duet between Linda and
Carlo ; " Ah ! bel destiu che atteudevi," duet
between Linda and Pierotto ; " Va, sciagu-
rata," sung by Antonio; " E, la voce che
primiera," by Carlo ; and the duet between
Linda and Carlo, " Ah ! di tue pene sparve il



sogno," which closes the opera. Original
cast :

Linda Mme Persiani.

Pierotto Mme Brambilla.

Carlo Signor Mario.

Antonio Signor Tamburiui.

Manpiis Signor F. Lablache.

I'n'l'et Signor Luigi Lablache.

This opera was represented in Paris, Nov.
17, 1842, and at Her Majesty's, London, in
June, 1843, with the same cast except An-
tonio, sung by Signor Fornasari. It was
first given in New York at Palmo's Theatre,
Jan. 4, 1847. Among Auuie Louise Can's
best impersonations is that of the faithful
Pierotto. Clement et Larousse, 40:5 ; Up-
ton, Standard Operas, 86.

at Lofvingsborg, near Stockholm, in 1804,
died there, Aug. 23, 1878. Pupil of Zelter
in Berlin ; about 1835 he returned to Stock-
holm, where he spent the rest of his life.
Jenny Lind, who was his pupil, introduced
his songs into Germany. Works : Fr<>n-
denriTiia, opera ; Symphony in C, Ir-ipsie,
ls:','.l ; Duo for pianoforte and violin ; Vocal
duets, ter/.ets, and quartets ; Many songs
for single voice, with pianoforte.- Mendel ;
Grove ; Fetis ; Riemann.

LINDEN M . LKOPOLD, born in Ham-
burg in 180G, died there in is.")'.). Violin-
ist, pupil of Spohr, and a friend, from early
youth, of Mendelssohn ; acquired more than
local reputation by his able orchestral com-
positions and songs.

LINDLEY. ROBERT, born at Rother-
ham, Yorkshire, England, March 4, 1777,
died in London, June 13, IS.")."). Virtuoso
on the violoncello, pupil of Curvet to ; after
having been a member of the theatre or-
chestra at Brighton, he succeeded Sporati
as first violoncellist at the Royal Opera in
London in 1794, and acted in the same
capacity at the Concerts of Antient Music
and those of the Philharmonic Society.
Works: 4 concertos for violoncello with
orchestra ; Trios for bassoon, viola, and vio-

loncello ; Grand trio for violin, viola, and
bass ; Duos for violin and violoncello ; do.
for 2 violoncellos ; Solos for violoncello ;
Several works of airs varies, and pots-pour-
ris, for do. Fetis ; Mendel.

uitz about 1540, died at Nuremberg, be-
iuning of the 17th century. In early youth
he was made a member of the electoral
chapel in Dresden on account of his won-
derful voice, and later, at Anspach, of the
chapel of Markgraf Georg Friedrich ; ap-
pointed in 1574 cantor at the Church of St.
Afgidius at Nuremberg. Works : Canti-
ones sacrse, 2 books (1585-88) ; Masses for
5 voices (1591) ; Gemma musicalis, 2 col-
lections of madrigals, for 4-6 voices, con-
taining also works of other masters, mostly
Italian (1588-90) ; Corollarium cantionum
sacrarum, motets for 5-8 and more voices,
do. ( 1.590). Allgein. d. Biogr., xviii. 7(':'>;
Fetis ; Gerber ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schil-

sau, July 5, 1798, died there, Aug. 1, IS 16.
Virtuoso on the violin and the clarinet ;
began to study music at the age of five,
later pupil of Moser in Berlin, where he
joined the royal orchestra in 1815 as clari-
net player ; was appointed iu 1S17 chamber
musician to the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau,
studied composition in 1S21 under Fried-
rich Schneider, and in 1827 became Con-
/.rtiiieistor. Works: Concertos and over-
tures for grand orchestra (MS.) ; Polonaise
for violin and orchestra ; Dances for orches-
tra ; Quintet for wind instruments ; Quar-
tets for strings ; Duos for violins ; Piano-
forte music ; Songs. His son, Roderick
August Lindner (born at Dessau, Oct. 29,
is-JD, died at Hanover, June 15, 1878), was
an excellent violoncellist, pupil of Drechs-
ler, and in composition of Schneider. He
became in 1837 a member of the royal
chapel at Hanover ; and left concert
pieces for violoncello, and many songs.
Fetis; Mendel; Gerber; Riemauu ^Schil-



VON, born at Coblentz, Dec. 8, 1791, died
at Nonuenhorn, on
the Lake of Con-
stance, Aug. 21,
1856. Dramatic
composer, sou of a
tenor singer in the
service of the Elec-
tor of Treves, who
followed his prince
to Augsburg when
the electorate was
overrun by the French. Young Lindpaint-
ner began his education at Augsburg, taking
violin lessons of Pliidterl and studying the
pianoforte and harmony under Witzka.
The talent he exhibited determined the
elector to send him to Munich to finish his
musical education with Winter, under
whose direction he wrote his first opera,
Dcmophoon, a mass, raid a To Deum, which
were brought out with success in 1811. The
death of the elector in 1812 forced him to
accept the position of Kapellmeister at the
new Isarthor Theater, which he held until
1819. The success of several of liis com-
positions led him to neglect his studies
during this period ; but the advice of a
friend induced him to study counterpoint
thoroughly under Joseph Griitz. In 1819
he accepted the post of Court Kapellmeis-
ter at Stuttgart, which he continued to
hold until his death, which occurred dimu n '

' O

a summer vacation. He was buried at
Wasserburg. He was universally esteemed,
and was a member of almost every musical
institution on the Continent. As a con-
ductor he was pre-eminent, and raised the
Stuttgart orchestra to a very high position
among the great orchestras of Germany.
As a composer he shone rather by his well-
ordered, clear, and brilliant style than by
any of the higher attributes of genius. His
best known works are his operas Der Vara-
pyr and Lichtenstein, his ballet Joco, and
his overture to Faust. Several of his songs
enjoyed an immense popularity at one time,

notably The Standard-Bearer, written for
Pischek. In 1853 he visited London to
conduct the New Philharmonic Concerts,
and bring out his oratorio, Der Jiingling
von Nain. He had already received a medal
from Queen Victoria for the dedication to
her of his oratorio of Abraham in 1818.
Works :

I. Operas : Demoplioon, Munich, 1811 ;
Alexander in Ephesus, ib., 1811 (?) ; Der
bliude Gartner, oder die bliihende Aloe,
1819 (?) ; Die Pflegekinder, 1819 (?) ; Der
Vampyr, Vienna, 1829 ; Timantes (new ver-
sion of Demophoou), Stuttgart, 1829 (?) ;
Der Bergkonig, Berlin, 1830 ; Die Princes-
sin von Cacambo, Stuttgart, 1830 (?) ; Hans
Max Giesbrecht von Humpenburg, ib.,
1830 (?) ; Pervonte, oder die Wiinsche, ib.,
1830 (?) ; Sulmona, ib., 1830 (?) ; Die Ama-
zone, oder der Frauen und der Liebe Sieg,
ib., 1831 ; Die Biirgschaft, ib., 1832 ; Die
Sternenkonigin, ib., 1835 (?); Kunstsinn und
Liebe, ib., 1835 (?) ; Die Macht des Liedes,
ib., July, 183G ; Die Genueserin, Vienna, De-

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