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Paris, 1871 ; Hi'loise et Abelard, ib., 1872 ;
La belle au bois dormant, and La fiancee
(In roi de Garbe, ib., 187-1 ; La Mandragore,
Brussels, 1876 ; Les Templiers, ib., 1886 ;
L'escadron volant de la reiue, Paris, 1888.
Ruth et Booz, oratorio, 1869 ; Symphony-
concertos for pianoforte and orchestra ;
Manmilien Robespien-e, op. 55, and other
overtures for orchestra ; Violin concerto,
Eroica ; Trios for pianoforte and strings ;
Funeral March for Meyerbeer ; Pianoforte
music, and many songs. Futis ; do., Sup-
plement, ii. 117 ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Va-
pereau, Coutemporaius, 1174 ; Bitard, 828.
LITTA, Conte GIULIO, born in Milan
in 1822, still living, 1889. Amateur dra-
matic composer, second son of the Duke
Pompeo Litta, a great art patron ; from
early youth he showed eminent talent for
music, wrote his first opera at the age of
twenty, and soon won a steadily increasing
fame. Works Operas : Bianca di Sauta-
fiera, given in Milan, Couservatorio, 1843 ;
Maria Giovanna, Turin, Teatro Carignan ;
Editta di Lormo, Genoa, Teatro Carlo Felice,
1853 ; Sardanapalo ; Don Giovanni di Por-
togallo ; n viandante, lyric scene, Teatro
Milanese, 1873 ; Raggio d' amore, Milan,
Teatro Manzoni, 1879 ; II sogno dei fiori ;
II violino di Cremona. La Passione, ora-
torio, Turin, Philharmonic Academy ; Vo-

cal melodies. Futis, Supplement, ii. 119 ;

logna in 1772, died in Italy after 1817.
Dramatic singer and composer, pupil of the
brothers Tibaldi for the elements of music,
and at the age of fourteen of Abbate Mat-
tei in composition and of Lorenzo Gibelli
in singing. In early youth noted as a
singer in churches and concerts, he became
first tenor at the Italian theatre in Barcelona
in 1792, and afterwards in Madrid ; was
called to Potsdam, to conduct the royal
opera, and in 1800 became director of the
theatre orchestra in Prague. In 1804 he
went to Trieste, and in 1805 to Vienna,
where he lived as vocal instructor, in close
intercourse with Haydn, Beethoven, and
Salicri, till 1814, when he was appointed
composer to the royal theatre in London.
He returned to Italy in 1817. Works Op-
eras : II divertimento in campagna, given
in Bologna, 1790 ; Enea in Cartagine, Vi-
enna, 1796 ; La prova geuerale, Vienna,
1799 ; II couvito degli dei, Vienna, 1799 ;
La presa d' Egea, Vienna, 1800 ; Davidde,
Vienna. 1802 ; II maestro di musica, Tri-
este, 1804 ; II maestro fanatico, Trieste,
1804, Vienna, 1805 ; I selvaggi, London,

1814 ; II trionfo di Cesare, ib., 1814 ; Gas-
tone e Bojardo, Gli amauti fanatici, ib.,

1815 ; II trionfo d' Albione, ib., 1816. Ora-
torios : Die sieben Worte Jesu am Kreuze ;
L' adorazione dei pastori. Cantatas : II tri-
onfo d' Ausouia, Miltiade, and several others.
Requiem for four voices, with orchestra ;
Masses ; Psalms ; Quartets for strings ; Mu-
sic for violoncello ; Part-songs ; Terzets ;
Duets ; Arias, romances, and songs. Ft'tis ;
Mendel ; Riemann.

at Thorubury, Gloucestershire, England,
Oct. 16, 1849, still living, 1889. Organist,
church and vocal composer ; was appointed
organist of Gloucester Cathedral in 1876,
and conducted the Gloucester Triennial
Festival in 1877 and 1880. He is also di-
rector of the Gloucester Choral Society and



the Gloucester Philharmonic Society, and
in 1883 became organist of Christ Church,
Oxford. Works Cantatas : Hero and Le-
aiider, Worcester, 1884 ; Song of Balder,
Hereford, 1885 ; Andromeda. Full Cathe-
dral Service in E-tlat (Novello) ; Magnificat
and Nuuc dimittis, for soli, chorus, and
orchestra ; 8-part anthems ; Sonata for or-
gan ; Part-songs and songs. Brown.

LOB, OTTO, born at Liiidlar, Rhenish
Prussia, Dec. 25, 1837, still living, 1889.
After having received a thorough musical
education he went to America, in 1864, and
settled in Chicago, to teach music. He
founded the two musical societies of that
city, Germauia and Concordia, and is con-
ductor of the latter. Works: Choruses;
Songs. Mendd.

Weimar, May 30,
1797, died in Leip-
sic, July 27, 1881.
Dramatic composer,
pupil of August Rie-
luauii on the flute
and violin, later of
A. E. M filler ; ap-
peared as solo llut-
ist at the (lewand-
haus, Leipsic, in
1811 ; for many years tlutist, and afterwards
viola player in the court orchestra at \\Yi-
mar, he received the title of professor and
founded a music school in 1S42, removed
to Leipsic in 1840, and edited the, Allge-
meiue musikalische Zeitung until 1848.
He also taught music, and devoted himself
to theoretical writings, published the Flie-
gende Blatter fur Musik in 1853-57, edited
the musical department of the Leipsic D-
lustrirte Zeitung, and contributed to other
periodicals. Works Operas : Wittekind,
Herzog der Sachseu, Weimar, 1822 ; Der
Wuudergiirtel (LSii7) ; Die Flibustier, ib.,
1829 ; Die Fiirstin von Granada, oder der
Zauberblick, ib., 1833 ; Der rothe Do-
mino, ib., ls:!7 ; Kiinig mid Paehter, ib.,
1844. 2 symphonies ; Several overtures,

concertos, variations, solos for flute ; Quar-
tets for pianoforte and strings. Didactic
works : Die Lehre von der thematischeu Ar-
beit (Weimar, 184G) ; Lehrbuch der musi-
kalischeu Kompositiou (Leipsic, 1850-G7) ;
Katechismus der Musik (ib., 1851, 21st ed.,
1881) ; Musikalische Briefe eiues Wohlbe-
kauuten (ib., 1852, 2d ed., 18GO) ; Flie-
geude Blatter fiir Musik (ib., 1853-57) ;
Aus dem Lebeu eiues Musikers (ib., 1859) ;
Vereiufachte Harmouielehre (ib., 18G1) ;
Katechismus der Kompositionslehre (1872,
3d ed., 1876) ; Konsouauzeu imd Disso-
uauzen (1869). AlJgem. d. Biogr., siv. 24 ;
Kiemann ; Mendel ; Fetis ; Schilling.

cantata, (" Oratorium") Festo Asceusionis
Christi, for soli and chorus, with accompa-
niment of 3 trumpets, drums, 2 flutes, '2
oboes, strings complete, and continue, by
Johann Sebastian Bach (Bachgesellschaft,
No. 11, Leipsic, 1852). Published also
with additional accompaniments by Robert
Franz, Breslau, Leuckart. The autograph
is in the Kouigliehe Bibliothek, Berlin.

LOB( ! KSANG (Hymn of Praise), Siufonie-
( 'nutate ill three parts, for orchestra and
chorus, by Mendelssohn, op. 52, written at
Leipsic in 1840 for the fourth centennial
celebration of the art of printing ; and lirst
given at St. Thomas's Church, Leipsic, June
25, 1840. After its second performance,
which took place at Birmingham (England),
Sept. 23, 1840, Mendelssohn conducting, it
was considerably changed, the scene of the
\Vatchmaii being added, and it was again
performed in Leipsic, Dec. 3, 1840. The
work is dedicated to Friedrich August H.,
King of Saxony. The title was suggested
by Karl Kliugemann. L Siufonia, Maes-
toso con uioto, Allegro, ill B-flat ; Allegretto
un poco agitato, in G minor ; Adagio reli-
gioso, iii D ; H. Chorus, Alles was Odem
hat lobe den Herrii ; HL Recitative and
tenor aria, Er ziihlet uus're Thraiien in der
Zeit der Noth ; IV. Chorus, Sagt es, die ihr
erloset von dem Herru aus aller Triibsal ;
V. Soprano solo, Ich harretc des Herrn


uud er ueigte sieh zu mir ; VI. Tenor solo,
Stricke des Todes hatteu uus umfangen ;
VII. Chorus, Die Nucht ist vergaugen ; VIII.
Choral, Nun dauket Alle Gott niit Herzen ;
Chorus, Lob, Ehr, uud Preis sei Gott ; IX.
Tenor solo, Drum sing' ich niit rueiuem
Liede ewig den Lob ; X. Chorus, Ilir VOlker,
briugt. Published by Breitkopf & Hilrtel
(Leipsic, 1841). English adaptation by
Jolm A. Novello, authorized by Mendels-
sohn, performed by the Sacred Harmonic
Society, London, March 10, 1843. Breit-
kopf & Hilrtel, Mendelssohn Werke, Serie
14, No. 93. Rockstro, Mendelssohn, 74 ;
Schumann, Gesammelto Schrii'teu, ii. 100 ;
Neue Zeitschrift filr Musik (1G), 193 ; Up-
ton, Standard Oratorios 213.

for two violins, viola, and violoncello, in F,
G, D, E minor, A, and B-flat, by Beetho-
ven, op. 18, written between 1795 and 1800,
and dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz, Herzog
YOU Piaudnitz. Published by T. Mollo (Vi-
enna, 1801 and 1802). Breitkopf & Hilr-
tel, Beethoven Werke, Serie G, No. 1-G.
Thayer, Verzeichniss, 3(5 ; Lenz, Beetho-
ven, vol. i., part i., 1G8 ; Marx, Beethoven,
i. 192 ; Grove, ii. 154.

LOBMANN, FRANZ, born at Volschau
in Nether Lusatia in 1809, still living,
1889. Violinist, pupil of his father (town
musician and organist at Muskau, Silesia)
on several instruments, and of Leopold
Schefer in harmony and counterpoint. In
172G he joined the orchestra of the K<>-
nigstadter Theater, Berlin, continuing his
studies under the chamber musician Dam,
and S. W. Dehu ; entered the royal orches-
tra in 1833, and soon after was called to
lliga, as chorus-master and Conzertmeister
at the theatre. He left this position, about
1S47, to devote himself to teaching, compo-
sition, and the conducting of the concerts
of the Singing Society, in which ho appeared
also as violinist till about 1SGO. Works:
Der Kilfig, comic opera ; Psalm CXXL,
chorus for men's voices, with orchestra,
performed in lliga, 1847 ; Solos for violin,

with orchestra ; Concert overture ; Quar-
tet for strings. Fetis ; Mendel.

LOBO, Dom AFFONSO, Portuguese
composer, born about 1555, died in Toledo.
Church composer, first mestre de capella
in Lisbon, then at the Cathedral of Toledo.
He is designated by Lope de Vega as one
of the greatest artists of his time. Works :
Book of Motets, from which the Magnificat
for 8 voices is inserted in Hilarion Eslava's
Lyra sacro-hispaua (Madrid, 1855 to 18G9) ;
Masses and other church music. Fetis ;

LOCATELLI, PIETPvO, born at Bergamo
in 1G93, died in Amsterdam in 17G4. Vio-
linist, pupil of Corelli in Home ; travelled
much, and settled in Amsterdam, where ho
established public concerts. He was a very
original player, first devised some wonder-
ful feats of execution, and Pagauiui is
thought to have taken hints from him.
Works : 12 concert! grossi, op. 1 ; Sonatas
for flute, with bass, op. 2 ; L' Arte del vio-
liuo, with 12 concertos and 24 caprices for
2 violins, viola, violoncello, and bass, op. 3 ;
G concertos, op. 4 ; G trios for 2 violins and
violoncello, op. 5 ; 12 violin sonatas, op. G ;
G coucerti a quattro, op. 7 ; Trios, op. 8 ; L'
Arte di uuova modulazione, in later editions
as Caprices euigniatiques, op. 9 ; Contrast* >
armonico, coucerti a quattro, op. 10. Fe-
tis ; Eiemann ; Schilling ; Wasielewski, Die
Violine, 53 ; Dubourg, The Violin, G3 ;
Hart, do., 219.

LOCCHINI, ANTONIO, born in Apulia,
Italy, in 1740, died, probably before 1787.
Dramatic composer, pupil and later in-
structor at the Conservatorio del Ospeda-
letto, Naples. Works Operas : Tutti quan-
ti sono pazzi, given in Naples, Teatro dei
Fioreutiui, 17GG ; Scipioue in Cartagiue,
Parma, about 1780. Fetis ; Mendel.

LOCHABEll NO MORE, a Scottish or
Irish air, probably of the 17th century.
There are several versions, of which the
Scottish ones are traced to the old ballad,
"Lord Ronald (or Randal, according to
Scott), my Sou." The verses, Farewell to



Lochaber, were written by Allan Ramsay
(1686-1758). In Ireland the air is called
Limerick's Lamentation, and is associated
with the capitulation of Limerick in 1690,
when the Irish soldiery were cruelly separ-
ated from their wives and children arid em-
barked at Cork for France. The several
tunes are given in Grove.

LOCK, MATTHEW, born at Exeter,
England, died
in London, Au-
gust, 1677. He
was a chorister
of Exeter Ca-
t hedra 1 , and
later became a
pupil of Edward
Gibbons and of
AVake. His suc-
cess in compos-
ing the music for the progress of Charles
II. through London the day before his cor-
onation, in 1661, gained for him the place of
composer in ordinary to the King. He is
believed to have become a Catholic, since
he was afterwards appointed organist to the
queen. In 1672 he had a very lively liter-
ary controversy with Thomas Salmon, who
had devised a srheme of writing all sorts of
imisir in one universal character, an inno-
vation that never amounted to anything.
AVorks : Music to Shirley's masque, Cupid
and Death (with Gibbons), 165:5 ; Little
Consort of Three Parts, for viols or violins
(1656) ; Music to Stapylton's comedy, The
Stepmother, 1(164 ; Instrumental music to
l>r\deii and Davenant's alteration of The
Tempest, 1670 ; Music to Davenant's altera-
tion of Jlm-bi'lh, 1672, ascribed to him by
tradition ; Music to Shadwell's Psyche, 1673,
which was published with the Tempest mu-
sic as The English Opera (1675) ; Melathesia,
or Certain General llules for playing upon
a Continued Bass (1673), said to be the
first book of the kind published in England ;
Many instrumental pieces, anthems, hymns,
and songs in various collections ; Consort
of lYoure Parts, for viols, comprising six


suites, in MS. He was author also of a few
controversial writings of great asperity.
Grove ; Fetis ; Rieruaim ; North, Memoirs
of Musick, 95 ; Hawkins, Hist., iv. 417 ;
Harmonicou (1829), 1.

Bath, England, iu
1813, died iu Lon-
don, April 5 ,
1865. Dramatic
composer, pupil of
Ferdinand Hies iu
Frankfort in 1826;
returned to Eng-
land in 1828, but
once more went to
Germany to study
under the same
teacher ; was for several years conductor at
the Princess's Theatre, London, and after-
wards at Manchester. AA'orks : Nourjahad,
opera, 1834 ; The Night Dancers, do., 1846 ;
Puck, ballad opera, additions to The Sul-
tan, The Young Guard, 1848; Raymond
and Agnes, 1855 ; Music for Oxenford's
Dice of Death, 1835 ; Twelve Sacred Songs ;
Various songs made into an opera, Francis
I., 1838 ; The Island of Calypso, cantata,
1S51 ; Several unpublished operas; String
quartets ; Songs, including The Old House
at Home, The Brave Old Oak, and Invoca-
tion to the Deep. Grove ; Eiemann ; Men-
del, Ergiinz., 244 ; Fetis, Supplement, ii.

LODER, KATE FANNY, born at Bath,
England, Aug. 22, 1826, still living, 1SS9.
Pianist, pupil of Henry Field, and at the
Royal Academy of Music (1839-44) of Mrs.
Lucy Anderson and Charles Lucas ; won the
King's scholarship in 1839, and was re-
elected, 1841. She appeared in concerts at
Bath and at the Royal Academy in 1840,
was appointed professor of harmony iu 1844,
and made her appearance at the Philhar-
monic Society, first in 1847, and last in
1854. She was married to Sir Henry
Thompson, the eminent surgeou, in 1851.
She has composed an opera, an overture, 2



string quartets, a trio for pianoforte and
strings, a sonata for pianoforte and violin,
sonatas and other music for pianoforte, and
songs. Grove.

LODI, ANGELO, born at Fiume, Friuli,
May 10, 1777, died there, Feb. 11, 1839.
Pianist, organist, and instrumental com-
poser, pupil of Briggio Petrucci, and at
Bologna of Padre Mattel in counterpoint.
On returning to his native town he became
second maestro di cappella at the cathe-
dral. He was inspector and instructor
of the town-guard music baud, member of
the Philharmonic Academies of Ferrara,
Bologna, and Rovigo, of the Odeon in Ven-
ice, the Philharmonic Society in Modena,
aud the Athenaeum in Forli. Works : Sym-
phonies for orchestra ; Masses ; Pianoforte
music ; Canzonets. FtHis.

LODOISKA, comc'die-lu'roTque in three
acts, text by Fillette-Loreaux, after Lou-

Anna Maria Crouch.

vet's romance, Le chevalier de Faublas,
music by Cherubim, first represented at
the Feydeau, Paris, July 18, 1791. Lodoi-
ska, who has been seized by Dourlinskl
aud imprisoned in his castle in Poland, to
force her acceptance of his hand, is rescued
by her lover Floreski with the aid of Ti-
tzikau, leader of the Tartars. Cherubim's
success in Paris dates from this opera,

which was received with great enthusiasm.
The work was severely criticised, for Che-
rubiui substituted in it for the prevailing
Italian method new dramatic and instru-
mental effects, anticipating somewhat the
modern German cult. Lodoiska paved the
way for the operas of Mi'hul, Lesueur,
and Spontini. Mine Scio made her di'but
at the Feydeau as Lodoiska. The opera
was represented in Dresden, Aug. 7, 1801,
and again, July 13, 1817 ; aud in Berlin,
Aug. 3, 1818. Published by Imbault
(Paris) and by Breitkopf & Hiirtel (Leip-
sic). The autograph MS. is lost. Same
subject, Lodoiska, on les Tartares, coim'die
in three acts, text by Dejaure, music by
Kreutzer, first represented at the Italiens,
Paris, Aug. 1, 1791. It contains some of
Kreutzer's best work. A translation of Lo-
doiska by John Kemble, with music selected
from Cherubim's and Kreutzer's operas by
Storace, who added several melodies of his
own, was given at Drury Lane, London,
June 19, 1794, with Mrs. Crouch as Lodo'i-
ska, and Michael Kelly as Florestan. Bel-
lasis, Cherubini, 44 ; La Mara, Musikalische
Studienkopfe, ii. 16 ; Weber, Weber, iii. 1 53 ;
Les Spectacles de Paris (1792), 248 ; Moritz
Hauptmann, Briefe an Franz Hauser, ii.
127 ; Le Munestrel (1880-81), 385 (Pou-
giu) ; Clayton, Queens of Song, i. 201.

Ghent, second half of the 17th century, died
in London in 1728. Virtuoso on the flute,
pianist, and instrumental composer ; studied
music in his native town, then from 1702 in
Paris ; settled in London in 1705, entered
the opera orchestra there, and from 1710
gave weekly concerts in his house. He was
much sought as an instructor. Works : 4
works of sonatas for flute ; Sonatas for 2
flutes ; Trios for flutes ; 6 sonatas for vari-
ous instruments ; 12 suites of lessons for
the harpsichord. FOtis ; Mendel.

FRIED), born at Lobejiiu, between Kuthen
and Halle, Nov. 30, 1790, died at Kiel, April
20, 18G9. The twelfth and youngest child


of a cantor and schoolmaster, from whom
he received his first musical instruction.
In 1809 he entered
the gymnasium of
the Franke Institu-
tion at Halle, where
he studied composi-
tion under Turk, an
annuity of three
hundred thalers,
given him by King
Jerome, allowing
him to devote his
time to music. When the war of 1812-
13 broke out, the flight of King Jerome
left Loewe without any income, but on
the recommendation of Niermeyer (chancel-
lor of the Gymnasium) he obtained admis-
sion to the University of Halle as theologi-
cal student under Miehaelis. Turk died in
1814, but his successor, Naue, emulating
the example of Zelter at Berlin, founded a
Singakademie, which Loewe joined, thus
making the acquaintance of Julie von Jacob,
whom he afterwards married (Sept. 7, 1821).
His first ballads date from the year 1818.
Daring the next two years he visited Dres-
den, Weimar, and Jena, making the ac-
quaintance of \on \\Yb(-r. Hummel, and
Goethe. In 1820 he went on invitation to
Stettin, where, after passing a rigorous ex-
amination, he was installed professor at the
gymnasium and seminary, and cantor.
Next year he was made Musikdirektor to
the municipality, and organist at the St.
Jacobuskircho. He made a good reputa-
tion in the exercise of these functions, and
in 1837 was elected member of the Akadc-
mie at Berlin. He travelled a good deal,
visiting Hamburg, Liibeck, Bremen, Diis-
seldorf, and Mainz (for the Gutenberg
Commemoration) in 1837, Vienna in ls|j.
London in 1847, Sweden and Norway in
1851, and Paris in 1857. In 1864 he fell
into a trance which lasted six weeks, and
in I860 the Stettin authorities asked him
to resign. He consequently left Stettin for
Kiel, where he remained until his death,

which occurred after a second trance. His
heart was buried near his organ in St. Ja-
cobus at Stettin. Loewe was a voluminous
composer. Among his oratorios the best
known are Die Zerstorung von Jerusalem
and Die sieben Schlafer. His Die Apostel
von Philippi (for voices without orchestra)
has been considered a model of style. He
was less successful on the stage, his opera
Die drei Wiinsche, given at Berlin in 1834
under Spontini's direction, being about his
only work in this form that made much
mark. But his high reputation rests chiefly
on his ballads, of which he wrote a great
number. After Zumsteeg, whose mantle
may be said to have fallen upon his shoul-
ders, he was the ballad writer par excellence
of Germany. His power of expression and
of musical characterization was unique.
He was a tolerable pianist and an excellent
singer ; ho and his second wife (Auguste
Lange, of Kmigsberg) used often to sing
together in his oratorios.

Works I. Oratorios and cantatas : Die
Fest/eiten ; Die Zerxiiirninj von Jerusalem,
Stettin, 1829 ; Die siehe.n Schlafer, 1833 ;
Die eherne Schlange, for unaccompanied
voices, Jena, 1834 ; Die Apostel von Philippi,
id., ib., 1835 ; Gutenberg, Mainz, 183(5 ;
Pdestrina (MS.), 1841; Johann IIn*.<, I'.er-
lin, 1842 ; Hioli, MS., 1848 ; Der Jlf,;.-l,-r
von Avis (MS.) ; Das Siihtmji/'cr das neucn
I'.undes (MS.) ; Das linlte Lied Salomonis
I MS.) ; />/;/.< von Atella (MS.) ; Die IL-ilmi,,
des Blindgeborenen, for unaccompanied
voices, 18G1 ; Johnm*-* der Tiiufer (MS.),
id., 18G2 ; Die Auferweckung des Laz-
arus, id., 18G3 ; Der Segen von Assisi, un-
finished ; Die erste Walpurgisnacht, ballad
by Goethe, for solos, chorus, and orchestra,
op. 25, Berlin, Schlesinger ; Cantatas for all
church festivals, three years complete.

H. Dramatic works : Die Alpeuhiitte,
operetta in one act ; Rudolph, der deutsche
Herr, romantic opera in three acts, 1825 ;
Malek Adhel, tragic opera in three acts, not,
performed, but given as concert music in
Stettin, 1X32 ; Die drei Wiinsche, opera,



Berlin, Hofoper, 1834 ; Emmy, do., Berlin ;
Neckereien, comic opera, Weimar ; Cho-
ruses and entr'actes to Eaupach's Traumer-
ziihlung ; Overture, clioruses, and entr'actes
to Eaupach's Themisto.

III. Vocal chamber music : 3 ballads by
Herder, Uhland, and Goethe, op. 1, Berlin,
Schlcsinger ; Das Gebet des Herrn, und die
Einsetzungsworte des heiligen Abendmahls,
op. 2, Halle, Kummel ; 3 ballads by Kor-
ner, Herder, and Willibald Alexis, ib. ; 3 do.
by Herder and Uhland, op. 3, ib. ; G songs
by Bvron (to Theremin's translation), op. 4,
ib. ; Other ballads, separate or in collec-
tions, op. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 1C, 17,
20, 21, 23, 29, ib. ; G songs for 4 or 5 male
voices, op. 19, Berlin, Wagenf (ihr ; 5 sacred
4-part songs for male voices, op. 22.

IV. Instrumental works : 3 string quar-
tets, op. 24, Berlin, Wagenfflhr ; Sacred
quartet, op. 20, ib., Trautweiu ; Grand trio
for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, op.
12 ; Grand duo for pianoforte for 4 hands,
op. 18, ib. ; Grand sonata in E, for piano-
forte, op. 16, ib., Wagenfiihr ; Fantasie for
do., op. 11, ib. ; Mazeppa, musical poem
after Byron, for do., op. 27 ; Elegische So-
nate for do., ib. ; Der mitleidige Bruder,
musical poem for do., op. 28, ib. ; Sympho-
nies, overtures, pianoforte concertos, etc.,
in MS.

V. Literary works : Gesanglehre, prak-
tisch uud theoretisch fur Gymnasie'n, Se-
minarien und Biirgersclm-

len entworfen (Stettin,

1826 ; 2cl eel., enlarged

and corrected, Berlin, Lo-

gier, 1828 ; 3d ed., Stettin, 1834) ; Mus-

ikalischer Gottesdienst, me-

thodische Anweisung zum

Kirchengesange und Orgel-

spiel, etc. (Stettin, 1851, 4

editions) ; Commentar zum

zweiten Theile des Goethe-

'schen Faust (Berlin, 1834).

Ambros, Culturhistorische

Bilder, 97 ; Eeissmann, Geschichte des

deutscheu Liedes, 266-269 ; Karl Loewe's

Selbstbiographio, ed. by Bitter (Berlin,
1870) ; Max Eunze, Bilder aus Loewe's
Leben (in Goldstein's Musikwelt, Nos. 24,
25, 2G, 28, 29, 46, Berlin, 1881) ; do. in
Samml. mus. Vortriige, v. 325 ; N. Zeitsclir.
f. Mus., iii. 97, 101 ; Gumprecht, N. mus.
Charakterbilder, 103 ; Wellmer, Mus. Skiz-
zen u. Studien ; Allgem. d. Biogr., xix. 300.
in Cassel, Feb. 9,
1777, died near Dub-
lin, July 27, 1846.
He went to England
when about ten years
old, entered a mili-
tary band as flutist,
and accompanied
the regiment to Ire-
land ; in 1796 he
was occupied in
teaching the pianoforte and instructing
military bands ; later became organist at
Westport, Ireland. He there invented the
chiroplast, a machine for forming a correct
position of the hands in pianoforte playing,
and also a new method of instruction, in
which he made several pupils play at the
same time, on as many pianofortes. He then
lived in Dublin, and afterwards in Lon-
don ; invited by the Prussian government
to teach his system, he spent three years in
Berlin for that purpose, and after his return,
in 182G, settled at Dublin. The system ex-

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