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when, his parents being unable to afford
him a better teacher, his studies were inter-
rupted for a year, though he soon began to
compose little pieces. He sang in a church
choir at Bautzen until his voice changed.
His regular studies in music began under
Schicht in L"ipsic, whither he went in
IMii to study law. Rochlitz advised him
to make music a profession ; in 1817 he ac-
companied Count Thaddeus von Amadee, a
Hungarian noble, to Presburg and Vienna,
where he came under the notice of Beetho-
ven, who advised him to try his hand at
composition iu the sonata-form for practice.
In Presburg he wrote Der Kyffhiiuserberg
and Heiurich IV., the latter of which Weber
produced at Dresden. The success of this
work led to the appointment of Marschner
as joint conductor of the German and Ital-




ian operas, with Weber and Morlacchi, in
1823. This post he resigned on Weber's
death, in 1826, and went to Leipsic in 1827
as Kapellmeister at the theatre there. The
year before, he had married Mariano
Wohlbriick, a singer, whose brother after-
wards furnished him with several opera
texts. In 1831 Marschner was appointed
court Kapellmeister at Hanover, where he
produced Hans Heiling, which has always
been considered his masterpiece. In 183(>
he went to Copenhagen to bring this opera
out there, and was offered the post of Gen-
eral Director of Music in Denmark, which
honour, however, he declined, preferring to
retain his position at Hanover. After Hans
Heiling he wrote but little for the stage.
Marschuer ranks next to Weber and Spohr
among the dramatic composers in Germany
of his day. Rossini's universal success is
said to have had some influence upon his
style, but Weber's influence upon him will
always be recognized as far more marked.
Indeed, the only flaw in Marschner's claim
to originality is that both his melodies and
his general treatment of them smack so un-
mistakably of Weber. He was a facilo
composer and worked very rapidly, but his
scores abound in elaborate writing, and
show the hand of an accomplished master.
Besides his operas, he wrote a good deal of
music in various forms, little, if any, of
which has lived ; but his Vampyr, Templer
und Jiidin and Hans Heiliug are still stand-
ard works in the repertory of German op-
era-houses.

Works I. Dramatic : Der Kyffhiiuser-
berg, written iu Presburg, 1817, not per-
formed ; Saidor, three acts, Presbivrg, 1MII ;
Heinrich IV. und d'Aubigne, Dresden,
1820 ; Der Hohdieb, one act, ib., 182."> ;
Lucretia, Dantzic, 182G ; Der Vampi/r, two
acts, Leipsic, March 28, 1828 ; Der Templer
und die Jtidiu, three acts, Leipsic, ib., 1829 ;
Des Falhiers Braut, ib., 1832 ; Hans Hei-
liug, tlrree acts, Berlin, 1833 ; Das Schloss
am Aetna, three acts, Hanover, June 5,
1836 ; Der Biibu, ib., 1837 ; Kaiser Adolf



:,-. I



MARSEILLAISE



von Nass.au, four acts, ib., 18-43 ; Austin,
ib., 1851 ; Hjarne tier Sangerkonig (posthu-
mous), Prankfort-on-the-Main, 1803, and
Munich, as KOnig Hjarne uud das Tyrfing-
scliwert, 1883 ; Music to Kleist's Piinz
Friedrich von Homburg ; do. to Kind's
Sclum Elleu ; do. to Hell's All Baba ; do. to
Eodenberg's Waldmliller's Margret ; do. to
Mosenthal's Goldsclimied von Ulm.

II. Vocal : About 10 sets of four part
songs for male voices (Leipsic, Hanover) ;
About 20 sets of songs, etc., for a single
voice and pianoforte (Leipsic, Homburg,
Magdeburg, Brunswick, Hanover).

III. Instrumental : Quartet for pianoforte
and strings, op. 3G (Lc-ipsic, Hofmeister) ;
Trios for do., op. 29 (Leipsic, Probst), op.
50 (Hofmeister) ; Divertissements, polo-
naises, marches for pianoforte, 4 hands, op.
7, 13, 1C, 28 ; Sonatas for pianoforte solo,
op. 6, 24, 33, 38, 39, 40 ; Rondos and fan-



^~ l *^*l / fts(r<>*+y<h*v




tasias for do., op. 10, 11, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21,
22, 23, 25, 31, 33, 37, 49, 57, 58, 59, C4, 71.
74 ; Variations for do., op. 48, G9. Men-
del ; Fetis ; Riemann ; Grove.

MARSEILLAISE, LA, popular French
hymn, words and music by Rouget de
Lisle, composed during the night of April
24, 1792, in Strasburg, where the author, a
captain of engineers, was quartered. It
was written in a moment of enthusiasm,
and was first sung on April 25, at the house
of Dietrich, Mayor of Strasburg. It was
copied and arranged for a military band
on the following day, and first performed
by the Garde Natiouale at a review on Sun-
day, April 29, 1792. It was first published
under the title " Chant de guerre pour 1'ar-



ruce du Rhin, dt'du' au Man'ehal Luckner,"
(Dannbach, Strasburg, 1792). Mireur sang
it, June 25, 1792, at a civic banquet at Mar-
seilles, with such effect that it was printed
and distributed among the volunteers then
leaving there for Paris. The battalion en-
tered Paris singing this hymn, and the mob
shouted it as it marched to attack the Tuile-
ries, Aug. 10, 1792. After that day the song
was called " Chant des Marseillais," and final-
ly "La Marseillaise." The original composi-
tion contained additional bars of instrument-
al accompaniment, which were afterwards
suppressed. In their accompaniments for
the pianoforte and orchestra, Edelmann,
Givtry, and more especially Gossec, enriched
the harmonies, and soon La Marseillaise in
its present form was known throughout
France. The first edition appeared with
six stanzas ; but when the hymn was dra-
matized for the Fete de la Federation, a
seventh, by Dubois, was added. The song
gained its writer a pension from Louis
Philippe. De Lisle's authorship of the
words has never been denied ; but the com-
position of the tune has been doubted. It
has been said that it is the same as the Ba-
varian Volkslied " Stand ich auf hohen Berg-
en," and Castil-Blaze declares it to have
been taken from a German hymn. Fi'tis
assigns it to a composer Navoigille ; but
these assertions have been disproved, and
documentary evidence brought to light in
a pamphlet, entitled " La verite sur la pa-
terniti' de la Marseillaise," by A. Rouget de
Lisle, the composer's nephew. The contro-
versy is examined in Loquin's " Les melo-
dies populaires de la France " (Paris, 1879).
The tune occurs in the opening chorus of
Salieri's opera, Palmira, and in the iutro-
luction to Grison's oratorio Esther. Gos-
sec included it in his operas, Le camp de
Grandpre and La reprise de Toulon, and
Schumann introduces it with great eft'ect
into his song, Die beiden Grenadiere, op.
49, No. 1, and in his overture to Goethe's
" Hermann und Dorothea," op. 136. The
sous was arranged for double chorus and



525



MARSH



grand orchestra by Hector Berlioz, published
by Brandus (Paris). Larousse, Die. univ. ;
Laraartine, Histoire des Girondins, ii. 40S ;
Castil-Blaze, Moliere musicien, ii. 452 ; Ilam-
bosson, Les harmonies clu son, 137 ; Hans-
lick, Musikalische Stationen, 180 ; Meinoires
de Hector Berlioz, 158 ; Hannonicon (1830),
"74, 410 ; Grove ; Athenrcum (1861), i. ">(> ;
ii. 597 (1863) ; i. 185.

MARSH, JOHN, born at Dorking, Sur-
rey, in 1752, died at Chichester, Sussex, in
1828. Amateur organist and composer, and
didactic writer, lived at Salisbury in 177(5-
81, Canterbury in 1781-86, and Chichester
in 1787-1828, in each of which places he
conducted the orchestra at subscription con-
certs, bringing out many of his composi-
tions. Works : 8 symphonies ; Symphony
for 2 orchestras ; Overtures ; String quar-
tets ; Preludes, fantasias, etc., for the organ ;
Pianoforte music ; Antiphons, anthems,
psalms, and many other sacred n >mp< isitions,
for 1-4 voices. Fe-tis ; Mendt A.

MARSHALL, WILLIAM, born in Eng-
land in 1806, died at Handsworth, Aug. 17,
1ST."). Chorister in the Chapel Royal, and
in 1S2:! in Christ Church Cathedral and St.
John's College, Oxford ; organist, of All
S lints Church, Oxford, and in 1S46 of St.
Mary's, Kidderminster. Mus. Bac., Oxford,
l.vji'l ; Mus. Doc., ib., 1840. He published
a book of Anthems (lsi(h, Art of n-ading
Church Music (184'2), ami left much mis-
cellaneous church music.

MARSICK, MARTIN", born at Jupille,
near Liege, March 9, 1848, still living, 1889.
Virtuoso on the violin, pupil at the Liege
Conservatoires of Di'-sin'-Heyuberg, at Brus-
sels (1865-67) of Leonard, and iu Paris
( 1 st ;s_G9) of Massart, finally, in Berlin (1870-
71), private pupil of Joachim ; appeared with
great success at the Concerts Populaires iu
Paris, 1873, and has composed a number of
effective works for his instrument. Rie-
mann.

MARTHA, Oder Der Markt zu Rich-
mond, opera in four acts, text by Fried-
rich, music by Flotow, first represented in



Vienna, Nov. 25, 1847. This opera was an
extension of the Lady Henrietta, ou la ser-
vante de Greenwich, ballet-pantomime in
three acts, text by Saint-Georges, music by
Flotow, Burgmuller, and Deldevez, first rep-
resented at the Acadi'mie Royale de Mu-
sique, Paris, Feb. 1, 1844. Martha is Flo-
tow's masterpiece, and few operas have been
more frequently performed. Original cast :

Lady Harriet Durham (S.). .Frl. Anna Zerr.

Lyoucl (T.) Hen- Ander.

Plumkett (B.) Hen- Carl Formes.

The scene is in Richmond during the reign
of Oueen Anne, but the Italian version places




Marzella Sembrich.

the action in the loth, and the French in the
19th century. For love of adventure the
Lady Harriet, accompanied by her cousin,
Sir Tristan, and her maid, Nancy, visits the
fair at Richmond, where she and Nancy, un-
der the names of Martha and Julia, become
bound in service to two farmers, Plumkett,
and his adopted brother Lyonel, whose par-
entage is unknown. In the second act the
new servants are put on trial at the spinning-
wheel, and although they prove inefficient
their masters decide to keep them. Lyonel
steals a rose from Martha, who sings " 'Tis
the last rose of summer," which Flotow



MAHT1X



has inserted with great effect. Sir Tristan
soon discovers them, and Martha and Nancy
escape. The next scene is in a forest,
where several farmers are carousing. The
Queen's hunting-party enters, and Plumkett
and Lyonel recognize Martha and Nancy
among the maids of honour. Plumkett at-
tempts to seize Nancy, and during the chase
Lyonel and Martha are left alone. Lyonel,
in despair at learning the Lady Harriet's
rank, sends a valuable jewel to the Queen,
by which it is discovered that he is the Earl
of Derby. His estates are restored, and the
Lady Harriet gives him her hand. Nancy
and Plumkett are also united. Among the
best numbers are : "Von den edleu Cava-
liereu," duet between Martha and Nancy ;
Lyouel's air, "Ja! Seit friiher Kiudheits
Tageu ; " the quartet, " Immer muuter dreh'
das Eadcheu ;" " Mitteruacht," known as
the " Gute Nacht quartet;" Plumkett 's
drinking song, " Lasst mich Euchfragen ;"
Lyouel's air, " Ach so fromm ;" and Martha's
romance, " Hier iu stillen Schattengriiu-
den." The success of the opera is perhaps
due to the gay action and effective combi-
nation of the solo parts. A strong scene
was written for Mme Nautier-Didii'e, who
sang the part of Nancy, which also was one
of Mme Trebelli's best impersonations.
The role of Martha has been sung with
great success by Mme Bosio, Adeliua Patti,
Christine Nilssou, and Marzella Sembrich.
This opera was first performed in London,
iu Italian, at Covent Garden, July 1, 1858 ;
iu English, at Drury Lane, Oct. 11, 1858 ;
in Paris at the Salle Veutadour, Feb. 11,
1858 ; at the Theatre Lyrique, Dec. 1G,
1805. First iu New York, Nov. 1, 1852 ;
at the Metropolitan Opera House, April 23,
1887, with Mine Adeliua Patti, Mme Scalchi,
Signer Guille, and Signer Del Puente.
Published by G. F. Miiller (Vienna, 1848) ;
by Crauz (Hamburg). Clement et La-
rousse, 438 ; Lajarte, ii. 174 ; Edwards,
Lyrical Drama, ii. 73 ; Allgem. inns. Zeitg.,
1. 458, 475 ; Neue Berliner mus. Zeitg.
(1855), 186 ; Revue et Gazette musicale de



Paris (1858), 50, 00, 07 ; Atheiucum (1858),
25, 490 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 108.

MARTIN, GEO11GE CLEMENT, born
atChipping-Lauibourn, Berkshire, England,
in 1844, still living, 1889. Suborgauist and
choirmaster of St. Paul's Cathedral, Lon-
don ; Mus. Bac., Oxford, 1808 ; Mus. Doc.,
ib. Works : To Deum ; Communion Ser-
vices ; Magnificat and Nuuc dimittis, for
chorus and orchestra ; Anthems ; Songs and
part-songs ; Pianoforte music.

MAETIN Y SOLAR, VICENTE (called
by the Italians Martini, or lo Spaguuolo),
born at Valencia, Spain, in 1754, died in St.
Petersburg in May, 1810. Dramatic com-
poser ; was choir-boy in his native place and
later organist at Alicante. Then he went
to Madrid, and wrote some airs for an Ital-
ian singer named Guglietti, who advised
him to set out for Italy ; arriving there
about 1781, he visited Florence, Lucca,
Genoa, Venice, Turin, and Rome, and his
operas became very popular, though such
composers as Paisiello, Guglielmi, and
Cimarosa were then living. Ill 1785 he
went to Vienna, where his operas achieved
a greater success than Mozart's Nozze di
Figaro and Don Giovanni had a short time
before. Mozart did justice to his rival, but
predicted truly that his works would not
live. He was a great favourite, with the
Emperor Joseph II. In 1788, summoned
to the court of Catharine II., he became di-
rector of the Italian Opera in St. Peters-
burg, and the Emperor Paul I. afterwards
made him an imperial councillor. When
the French Opera was substituted for the
Italian Opera, in 1801, he lost his place and
had to teach for a living. Pleasing melo-
dies and a natural style characterize his
works, but they are lacking in profundity.
A piece from his La cosa rara was introduced
by Mozart into the finale of the second act
of Don Giovanni. Works Operas : Ifigeuia
in Aulide, Florence, 1781 ; Astartea, Lucca ;
La dora festeggiata, Turin, 1783 ; L'accorta
cameriera, ib., id. ; Ipermestra, Rome, 1784 ;
II burbero di buou cuore, La capricciosa



MARTINEZ



corretta, L' arbore di Diana, and La cosa
rara (bis masterpiece), Vienna, 1785 ; Gli
sposi in coutrasto, St. Petersburg. La
regiua di Golconda, ballet, Lucca ; other
ballets, Genoa and Venice ; II soguo, can-
tata ; Canons ; 12 Italian ariettas ; Te Deum
(MS). Fetis ; Mendel ; Schilling ; Gerber ;
Riemann.

MARTINEZ (Martiues), MARIANNE,
bom in Vienna, May 4, 1744, died there,
Dec. 13, 1812. Pupil of Haydn and Por-
pora ; became a fine singer and pianist, and
gave evening parties attended by many
noted musicians. She devoted herself in
the latter part of her life to teaching pu-
pils of promise. Honorary member of the
Accademia Filannonica of Bologna in 1773.
Works: Isacco, oratorio; Two other ora-
torios ; Mass ; Psalms, aud other sacred
music ; Cantatas ; Symphonies ; Overtures ;
Sonatas ; Motets; Arias. Wurzbach ; Men-
del ; Fetis; Grove ; Burney, The Present
State of Music in Germany, i. 300, 341.
MARTINI, Padre GIOVANNI BAT-
TISTA (Giam-
battista), born
at Bologna, April
25, 170C, died
there, Oct. 3,
1784. Contra-
puntist and musi-
cal historian, son
of a violinist who
instructed him on
bis i n s t r u nient
and on the piano-
forte ; pupil of Padre Predieri in singing,
and of Riccieri in counterpoint. He en-
tered the order of Franciscan friars in
1721, and became maestro di cappella at
their church in 1725. He was much aided,
at that period, in his contrapuntal efforts
by Giacomo Perti, maestro di cappella of
S. Petronio, aud also devoted much time to
mathematical studies. Eager to become
acquainted with all the old and new trea-
tises on musical subjects, he accumulated a
precious collection of books, manuscripts,







and rare specimens of music of every de-
scription, surpassing the richest library
ever collected by any musician. He endeav-
oured to preserve the grand old traditions of
music, without sacrificing to purity of style
the elegant manner of modern times, and
the cantilena. In time he became the high-
est authority in historical and theoretical
controversies ; pupils came to him from all
quarters of the globe, and famous masters
and scholars did not besitate to ask his ad-
vice, and to submit unsettled questions to his
final decision. Of his magnificent library
a part was incorporated in the imperial
library of Vienna, while the bulk went to
the Liceo Filarmonico at Bologna. He was
a member of both Academies in Bologna,
and of the Arcadians in Rome, under the
name of Aristosenos Amphion. Works :
Litauue atque autiphouiic finales, etc., for 4
voices, with organ and instruments (1734) ;
Souate (12) d' intavolatura per 1' organo o
cembalo (Amsterdam, 1742) ; do. (6), (Bo-
logna, 1747) ; Duetti da camera a diversi
vori (ib., 17l>3). In manuscript: San Pie-
tro, oratorio ; do., second setting ; L' assun-
zioue di Salomone al trouo d' Israello,
oratorio ; La Dirindina, farsetta ; L'impre-
sario delle Canarie, intermezzo ; II Don
Chisciotto, do. ; II maestro di musica, do. ;
Masses. His most important work is bis
Storia della musica (Bologna, 1757, 1770,
1781) ; he published also Exemplare ossia
saggio fondamentale pratico di contrap-
pimto (ib., 1774-75), besides a great num-
ber of smaller treatises, dissertations,
correspondences, etc. On the centenary
anniversary of his death (1884) the Bologna
municipality undertook the publication of
his correspondence, of which one volume is
published (1732-55), entitled : Carteggio



inedito del P. Giaubattista Martini coi pih
celebri musieisti del suo tempo (Bologna,
isss). -Fantuzzi, Notizie degli Scrittori
Bologuesi, v. 342 ; Fetis ; Gaudolfo, Elogio



538



MARTINI



di Gio. Batt. Martini, etc. (Bologna, 1813) ;
Moreschi, Orazione in lode del P. M., etc.
(ib., 1786); Pacciaudi, Elogio del B. P.
Garnb. Martini ; Delia Valle, Elogio del
Padre, etc. (Bologna, 1784) ; do., Memorie
storiche del P. M., etc. (Naples, 1785).

MARTINI, JEAN PAUL fiGIDE, born
at Freistadt in the Palatinate, Sept, 1, 1741,
died in Paris, Feb. 10, 1810. Dramatic
composer ; real name Schwartzendorf, but
lie changed it on entering France, and for
a long time was known as Martini il Te-
desco. At the age of ten he was organist
at the Jesuit seminary of Neustadt on the
Danube, and while studying at the Univer-
sity of Freiburg in the Breisgau acted as
organist of the Franciscan convent. In
1760 he settled in Nancy, where a few
light compositions gained him the favour of
King Stanislaus, whose service he entered.
When his master died, in 17G4, he went to
Paris, where he won a prize offered for a
military march, and through the influence
of the Due de Choiseul was appointed offi-
cer in the suite of a hussar regiment, allow-
ing him leisure for composition. On the
success of his first opera he left the army,
in 1771, and became musical director to
the Prince de Conde, later to the Cornte
d'Artois. Just before the Revolution he
bought the reversion of the office of super-
intendent of the king's music. He directed
the music of the Theatre de Monsieur,
afterwards Theatre Feydeau, from its open-
ing, but lost all his places and pensions in
1792, and fled to Lyons. As soon as he
felt safe he returned to Paris, wrote patri-
otic songs, and became a member of the
committee and inspector of the Conserva-
toire, but was deprived of these posts in
1802. After the restoration he claimed
the superinteudency of the king's music,
and obtained it in 1814. For his Requiem
mass, performed in 1816 on the anniversary
of the death of Louis XVI., he received the
grand cordon of the Order of St. Michael.
His melodies are dramatic and expressive,
but his church music is more brilliant than



religious. Works Operas : L'amoureux
de quiuze ans, 1771 ; Le fermier cru
sourd, Le nouveau-iie, 1772 ; Le rendez-
vous nocturne, 1773 ; Henri IV, ou la ba-
taille d'lvry, 1774: Le droit du seigneur,
1783 ; L'arnant sylphe, 1785 ; Sapho, 1794 ;
Annette et Lubin, Zimc-o, 1800 ; Sophie, ou
le tremblemeut de terre de Messiue ; Le
poete suppose ; La partie de campague.
Arcabonne, cantata ; Cantata for the mar-
riage of Napoleon and Marie Louise ; Trios,
quartets, and other chamber music ; Mili-
tary music ; Masses, psalms, Requiems, and
other church music ; Songs, with pianoforte
accompaniment. Pougiu, Martini (Paris,
1864) ; Eloge de Martini in the Princesse
Constance de Salm's (Euvres, iv. (Paris,
1842) ; Clement, Mus. celebres, 168 ; Fetis ;
Mendel ; Larousse, x. 1285 ; Michaud, Biog.
univ., xxvii. 159 ; N. Biog. gi'u., xxxiv. 88.

MARTINN (Martin), JACOB JOSEPH
BALTHASAR, born in Antwerp, May 1,
1775, died in Paris, Oct. 10, 1836. Violinist ;
began as a choir-boy in the Church of Saint-
Jacques, Antwerp ; went to Paris in 1793
and was violinist in the orchestra first of
the Theatre du Vaudeville, then at the Ital-
ian opera, and, after the imperial lyceums
had been organized, became professor of
the violin at the Lycee de Charlemagne.
Works : Symphonie coucertante, for 2
flutes and bassoon ; do. for flute, oboe, horn,
and bassoon ; 7 quartets for strings ; Trios
for flute, violin, and violoncello ; Duos for
violins ; Do. for flute and violin ; 2 methods
for violin ; Method for viola. Fotis.

MARTINOVSKY, JAN PAVEL, born
at Melilik, Bohemia, Feb. 24, 1808, died in
Prague, Nov. 7, 1873. Vocal composer,
first instructed by Simon M. Hoepler, then
pupil at Kjsoka of Kmoch on the organ.
After finishing his philosophical studies in
Prague, he entered the Premonstraut mon-
astery at Strahov, to win undisturbed lei-
sure for composition. Works : Mass for
male voices ; Zdravas Maria, motet for
mixed chorus, with organ ; Ave maris Stella ;
Several collections of Bohemian songs ;



MARTI UK)



Harmony to 500 Bohemian national melo-
dies (Prague, 1842-70). Memlcl.

MARTIRIO DI SANTA TEODOSIA, IL,
Italian oratorio by Alessandro Scarlatti, first
given in Rome in 1705. Grove, ii. 537.

MARTUCCI, GIUSK I TK. born at Capua,
Jan. (j, 1856, still living, 1889. Pianist, first
instructed by bis father, then pupil at the
Conservatorio, Naples, of Cesi, Carlo Costa,
Paolo Serrao, and Lauro Rossi. Having
settled at Naples to teacb, be soon appeared
in public as a virtuoso, winning great ap-
plause, first at Naples, then in Rome, and in
1875 and 1877 in Milan, also in London and
Dublin, and 1878 in Paris. "Works : Quintet
for pianoforte and strings (prize by the Soci-
cta del Quartette, Milan, 1878) ; Sonata for
pianoforte and violin ; Caprices, melodies,
romances, etudes, etc., for pianoforte. Fe-
tis, Supplement, ii. 177.

MARTYR OF ANTIOCH, THE, cantata,
text by the Very Rev. H. H. Milman, music
by Arthur Sullivan, first given at the Leeds
(England) Musical Festival, Oct. 15, 1880.
Mine Albani, Mine Patey, Mr. Edward
Lloyd, Mr. F. King, and Mr. Henry Cross
sang the solos. It was sung at the Crvs-
t;il I'alaeo, London, Dec. 11, 1880. Scene
I. The Temple of Apollo ; H. Burial Place
of the Christians ; IH. Palace of the Pre-
fect ; IV. Outside the Prison of the Chris-
tians. Characters represented Heathen :
( Mvbius, the Roman Prefect ; Callias, the
priest of Apollo ; Julia, youths and maidens,
the populace of Antioch. Christians: Fa-
bius, Bishop of Antioch ; Margarita, daugh-
ter of Callias ; The Christian congregation.
Published by Chappell & Co. (London,
1880). Athenaeum (1880), ii. 539, 824.

MARTYRS, LES, opera in four acts, text
by Scribe after Corneille's " Polyeucte," mu-
sic by Donizetti, first represented at the
Academic Royale de Musique, Palis, April
10, 1840. This opera was a rearrangement
of the composer's Poliuto. The third act is
written in his best style. It contains a sex-
tet which is almost as famous as the cele-
brated one in Lucia. Original cast :



Polyeucte M. Duprez.

Pauline Mine Dorus-Gnis.

Severe M. Massol.

Felix M. Derivis.

Callistheue M. Serda.

N'eanjue M. Wartel.

It was given at the Royal Italian Opera,
London, April 20, 1852 ; at the Theatre
Italien, Paris, April 20, 1859. Published
by Schott (Mainz); by Ricordi (Milan).
Clement et Larousse, 439 ; Allgem. mus.
Zeitg., xl. 774 ; Neue Zeitschr., xii. 187, 191;
Athenaeum (1852), 405.

MARX, ADOLPH BERNHARD, born in
Halle, May 15, 1799,
died in Berlin, May
17, 18GC. The son
of a physician, he
studied law and ob-
tained a legal ap-
pointment in Naum-
burg, but soon left
it for Berlin. He
had been a pupil of
Tiirk in Halle, got
some ideas from Logier in Berlin, where he
received instruction also from Zelter, and
supported himself by teaching pianoforte,
singing, and composition. In 1824, with
the publisher Schlesiuger, he founded the
Berliner allgemeine musikalische Zeitung,
which, during its seven years of existence,
did good service by extending the appreci-
ation of Beethoven. He received the de-
gree of doctor from the University of Mar-



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