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1812 that of the Theatre Feydeau. He
went to Ghent in 1824 to assume the direc-
tion of a theatre ; but, unsuccessful in his
enterprise, gave up his post for that of mu-
sical conductor, and after the revolution of
1830 was in the same capacity connected
with the theatre at Antwerp until 1832, with
that at the Hague until 1835, when he re-
turned to Ghent, and was appointed director
of the Conservatoire. Member of Royal
Academy of Belgium. Works Operas :

Une nuit
au chateau,

Society) ; Pianoforte accompaniment to
Bach's violin Chaconne in D minor (ib., No-
vello & Ewer). Lampadius, F. M. B., ein
Deukmal, etc. (Leipsic, 1848, 2d ed.) ; do.

ris, Theatre
1818 ; L'ile
do Babilary, ib., 1819 ; Les infideles, Ghent,
1S25 ; Le vampire, ib., 1826 ; Un jour a Van-
cluse, ib., 1828 ; 2 concertos for horn and or-
chestra ; 3 quintets for flute, oboe, clarinet,



horn, and bassoon ; Quartets for wind instru-
ments ; 3 do. for born, violin, viola, and bass ;
3 do. for strings ; Trios fordo.; do. for flute,
violin, and viola ; Duos for Lorn and harp ;
do., arid fautaisies for horn and pianoforte ;
Many romances, with pianoforte, and in
manuscript an overture for grand orchestra,
many pieces for wind instruments, quintets
and trios for horns. His brother and pupil
Jean (born in May, 1796) was also a horn
player, pupil of Dotnuich at the Conserva-
toire of Ghent, and has published fantasias,
duos, etc., for horn and orchestra or piano-
forte. Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 20G.

MENGEWEIN, KAKL, born at Zaunroda,
Thuringia, Sept. 9, 1852, still living, 1889.
Instrumental and vocal composer ; was in
1881-SG instructor at Freudeuberg's Con-
servatorium in Wiesbaden, and conductor
of the society for sacred music ; with Freu-
denberg founded the new Couservatorium
in Berlin, in 1S8G. Works : Schulmeister's
Brautfahrt, Siugspiel, Wiesbaden, 1884: ;
Dornroscheu, overture ; Martin Luther,
festival cantata ; Requiem ; Choruses for fe-
male voices. Riemaun.

ence in 1758, died in Paris in March, 1800.
Dramatic singer and composer, pupil of
Pasquale Potenza in Venice ; appeared first
on the Italian stage ; sang in London in
178C, and the following year in Paris at
the concerts given by Marie Antoinette.
He was one of the chief ornaments of the
Theatre de Monsieur, remained in the latter
city after the Revolution, and was made pro-
fessor of singing in the newly established
Conservatoire. Works Operas : Gli schi-
avi per amore, L' isola disabitata, Paris,
1790 ; Les deux vizirs, ib. ; Aujourd'hui,
Isabelle de Salisbury, ib., 1791 ; Le tableau
parlaut, ib., 1792 ; Une faute par amour,
Pourceauguac, L'ainaut jaloux, Selico, La
jouruee de 1'amour, ballet, ib., 1793 ;
Brunet et Caroline, La dame voilee, ib.,
1799 ; Les habitants de Vaucluse, ib., 1800.
The Methode de Chant du Conservatoire,
edited after his death by Lauglu, is in

the main his work. Fetis ; Schilling ; Ger-

GNADE, alto aria in E minor, with accom-
paniment of 2 oboi d' amore, strings com-
plete, and continuo, in Johann Sebastian
Bach's cantata Festo S. Joannis Bapt.,
"Christ unser Herr zum Jordan karn "
(Bachgesellschaft, No. 7). Published sep-
arately, with additional accompaniments by
Robert Franz (Leipsic, Whistling).

MENTER, JOSEPH, born at Deuteu-
kofeu, near Laudshut, Bavaria, Jan. 19,
1808, died in Munich, April 18, 1856. Vir-
tuoso on the violoncello, pupil of Moralt at
Munich, entered the orchestra of the Prince
of Hoheuzolleru at Hechingeu in 1829, and
the court orchestra at Munich in 1833. On
concert tours in Germany, Austria, Belgium,
Holland, and England, he won a brilliant
reputation. He composed fautaisies, airs
varies, etc., for his instrument, with orches-
tra or pianoforte. Futis.

MENTI ETERNE, soprano aria of Ade-
laide, in B-flat minor, with accompaniment
of violins in unison and continuo, in Han-
del's Lotario, Act II, Scene 4. Published
separately, with additional accompaniments
by Robert Franz (Leipsic, Kistner).

MENUET A LA VIGANO, 12 variations
for the pianoforte in C, by Beethoven, com-
posed in 1795. The theme is from a min-
uet in a ballet by Salvatore Vigano, first per-
formed at the Hoftheater, Vienna, May 18,
1795. Published by Artaria & Co. (Vienna,
1795). Breitkopf & Hartel, Beethoven
Werke, Serie 12, No. 7. Thayer, Verzeich-
niss, 15 ; Thayer, Beethoven, i. 297.

aus Leuau's Faust.

MERBECKE, JOHN, English composer
of the IGth century, died about 1585. Or-
ganist of St. George's Chapel at Windsor ;
Calviuist, condemned to death for heresy in
1544, but pardoned. He is author of the
Boke of Common Praier Noted (1550 ; re-
printed, London, 1844, 1845, 1857). Part
of a mass for 5 voices, Per arma justitise,



by him, in manuscript is in Burney's Mu-
sical Extracts (vol. 6), and a hymn for 3
voices is printed in Hawkins's History of
M ii sic. Grove.

(RAFFAELE), born
at Altamura, near
Bari, Dec. 17, 1795,
died in Naples, Doc.
13, 1870. Dramatic
composer, illegiti-
mate sou of one
Giuseppe Merca-
daiite and a servant-
girl, Rosa Bia. He
entered in 1809 the
Collegio di San S*>-
bastiano, Naples, of which Zingarelli was
then director, where ho studied the violin,
flute, and composition, and afterwards 1><-
came leader in the orchestra. He was dis-
missed for some unknown reason, and, try-
ing dramatic composition for a living,
brought out in 1818 a cantata at the Teatro
del Foudo. His reputation in Italy was
firmly established by his Elisa e Claudio
(Milan, 1822), and confirmed in Vienna in
1824. In 1827 he went to Madrid, and in
1829 to Cadiz, returning to Naples in 1831.
In 18:!:! he succeeded Generali as maestro
cli cappella at the Cathedral of Xovara. In
183C he went to Paris to superintend the
performance of his I briganti. In his I
due illustri rivali (Barcelona, 1S4(!) he be-
gan to employ the brass instruments in a j
way which set the fashion for the abuse of
the cornet which infested Italian composi-
tion for many years afterwards. In 1840 he
was made director of the Naples Conscrva-
torio ; he was also member of the Institnt
de France. He had lost an eye at Novara,
but kept on composing by dictation. He
became wholly blind in 1862. Mercatlmtr
was one of the most noteworthy opera com-
posers of the Rossini school, and should be
ranked next to Bellini and Donizetti. In
Italy he was long regarded as the most
learned of contemporary Italian composers,

an estimation which shows quite sufficiently
the low condition of musical learning in
Italy at the time. His best known, and
probably his best, opera is II giuramento.

Works I. Operas : L' apoteosi d' Er-
cole, Naples, Teatro San Carlo, Jan. 12,
1819 ('?) ; Violenza e costanza, ib., Teatro Nu-
ovo, 1820 (?) ; Auacreoute in Samo, ib., San
Carlo, 1820 (?) ; Scipione in Cartagine, Rome,
Argentina, 1821 (?) ; Maria Stuarda, Bolo-
gna, Teatro Communale, 1821 (?) ; El/.<a e
Claudio, Milan, La Scala, Oct. 30, 1821;
H posto abbandonato, ib., 1821 (?) ; Gli
Sciti, Naples, San Carlo, 1822 (?) ; Alfonso
ed Elisa, Mantua, 1822 (?) ; Dulone abban-
donata, 2 acts, Turin, 1822 (?) ; Adele ed
Emerico, Milan, La Scala, Sept. 21, 1822 ;
Andronico, Venice, Teatro della Feuice,
1822 (?) ; Costanza ed Almerika, Naples,
1822 or 1823 (?) ; Gli amici di Siracusa,
Rome, 1822 or 1823 (?) ; Nitocri, Turin, Tea-
tro Regio, 18-24 (?) ; Dorilice, Vienna, 1824
(?) ; Le nozze di Telemaco ed Antiope, ib.,
1824 (?) ; H podesta di Burgos, ossia il signer
del villaggio, ib., 1824 (?) ; I^m-meislra, Na-
ples, 1824 (?) ; H geloso ravveduto, Rome,
1824 (?) ; Caritea, regina di Spagna (Donna
Caritea), Venice, 182C (?) ; Arnleto, Milan,
La Scala, Dec. 26, 1826 ; Erode, Venice, 182G
or 1S27 (?) ; Ezio, Turin, Teatro Regio,
1S27 (?) ; II montauaro, Milan, La Scala,
April 16, 1827 ; I due Figaro, Madrid,
isi>7 C. J ) ; 1'ietro il Grande, Lisbon, Dec.
17, 1827 (?) ; Adriauo in Siria, ib., Feb. 28,
1828 (?) ; Fraucesca da Rimini, Madrid,
l.vjs ( v) ; La testa di bronzo, Lisbon, 1829 ;
La rappivsaglia, Cadiz, 1829 (?) ; Don Chi-
sciotte, farsa, ib., 1829 (?) ; Zaira, Naples,
San Carlo, August, 1831 ; Gabriella di Ver-
gy, Genoa, Teatro Carlo Felice, 1832 (?) ;
Ismalia, ossia amor e morte, Milan, La
Scala, Oct. 27, 1832 ; I Normanni a Parigi,
4 acts, Turin, Teatro Regio, 1832 (?) ; H
conte d' Essex, 3 acts, Milan, La Scala,
March 10, 1833 ; Emma d' Antiochia, Venice,
Teatro Feuice, 1834 (?) ; Uggero il Danese,
Bergamo, 1834 ; La gioventh d' Eurico V.,
Milan, La Scala, Nov. 25, 1834 ; Francesca



Donate, ossia Corinto distrutta, 3 acts, Tu-
rin, Teatro Regio, 1835 ; I briganti, Paris,
Tlu'atre Italien, March 22, 183C ; II giura-
mento, 3 acts, Milan, La Scala, March 11,
1837 ; I due illustri rivali, Venice, Teatro
Feuice, 1838 (?) ; Elena da Feltre, Naples,
San Carlo, January, 1839 ; II bravo, Milan,
La Scala, March 9, 1839 ; La solitaria clelle
Asturie, ossia la Spagua ricuperata, Venice,
Teatro Feuice, 1840 (?) ; La vestale, Naples,
Sau Carlo, 18-40 (?) ; II proscritto, ib., ib.,
1842 (?) ; II reggeiite, Genoa, Teatro Carlo
Felice, 1844 (?) ; Leonora, Naples, Sau Carlo,
December, 1844 (?) ; H vascello cli Gama,
ib., 1845 ; Orazii e Curiazii, ib., Nov. 10,
184G ; La schiava saracena, Milan, La Scala,
Dec. 20, 1848 ; Medea, Naples, San Carlo,

1851 (?) ; Violetta, Naples, Teatro Nuovo,

1852 ; Statira, Naples, Sau Carlo, 1853 (?) ;
Pelagio, ib., 1857 (?) ; Virginia, 4 acts, ib.,
April 7, 1866.

n. Church music : Le sette parole cli Nos-
tro Siguore, 4 voices, chorus, and strings ;
About 20 masses, either with organ or or-
chestra ; Inno alia Vergine Immacolata, 5
voices aud orchestra ; Inno funebre, in
memory of Mgr. Somma, 4 voices and or-
chestra ; Inno a Pio IX., 5 voices and
orchestra ; Un sospiro sulla tomba del Mgr.
Scotti, do. ; Christus and Miserere, 4 voices
alia Palestrina ; Domiuus a dextris, chorus
and orchestra ; De profundis, 4 voices and
orchestra ; Several Taiitum ergo, psalms,
motets, antiphous, Te Deum, Magnificat,

TTT. Secular cantatas, etc. : Cantata iu
honour of Don Carlos IV., ex-King of Spain,
Naples, San Carlo, 1818 ; La danza augu-
rale, cantata for the accession of Francesco
II., ib., 1859 ; Inno all' ouore cli Vittorio
Etnmauuele, ro d' Italia, 18(50 ; Inno guer-
resco, dedicated to Garibaldi, 1861 ; Inno
popolare, dedicated to Dante, 1863 ; Inno
all' Armenia, for the first Musical Congress
at Naples, 1864 ; Inuo a Rossini, for the in-
auguration of the statue at Pesaro, 1864 ;
Many melodies, uotturui, canzoni uapole-
tane, for one or more voices, solfeggi, etc.

IV. Orchestral : 3 Siufonie caratteristiche
(concert overtures) for grand orchestra, the
third being entitled Lo zampognaro ; II
campo dei Crociati, o la schiava saraceua,
do. ; L' insurrezioue polacca, do. ; II lamen-
to dell' Arabo, do. ; La religione, do., La
rimembranza, do. ; Sinfonia (overture) on
themes from Rossini's Stabat Mater ; Sin-
fonia funebre ; Omaggio a Donizetti, do. ;
Omaggio a Bellini, do., 1860; Omaggio a
Rossini, do., 1868 ; Omaggio a Pacini, do.,
18C8 ; II lamento del bardo, do., 1862 ;
Sinfonia dedicated to Rossini, 1866 ; Sin-
fonia-marciata, on the birth of the Prince
of Naples ; 2 Sinfouie caratteristiche ou
popular Spanish melodies ; 3 divertimeuti
for orchestra ; La malinconia, concert ma-
zurka for do. ; Several fantasias on operas
for various instruments and orchestra ;
Several smaller pieces of chamber mu-
sic for various instruments, Mercadante

also published a Breve ceuno storico sulla
musica teatrale, da Pergolesi a Cimarosa
(no name nor date). Fetis ; do., Supple-
ment ; Gazzetta musicale, Milan, June 18,
July 16 and 30, Aug. 13, Sept. 17, 1876 ;
Florimo, Cenno storico sulla scuola musi-
cale di Napoli.

ture to Shakespeare's drama, by George
Alexander Macfarren.

to Shakespeare's drama, by Arthur Sulli-
van, first given at the Prince's Theatre,
Manchester, Sept. 18, 1871. Published by
Cramer & Co. (London, 1873).

MERCURY, Symphony in E-flat, by
Haydn, composed at Eszterhaz in 1772. Its
style resembles that of Mozart. I. Allegro ;
II. Adagio ; HI. Minuet ; IV. Finale.
Pohl, Haydn, i. 306.



FROID DE), born in Paris in 1803, die .1 ;it
Rouen, April 25, 1874. Pianist and writer
on music, son and pupil of Joseph Nicolas
Mereaux, and pupil of Reicha in composi-
tion ; travelled through France on a concert
tour about 1830 ; lived in London in Ls:>:>-
34, and settled at Rouen about 1835, to
teach his instrument. Legion of Honour
in 18G8. Madame Tardieu de Malleville
and Clara Loveday are among his pupils. He
was a contributor to the Journal de Rouen
for thirty years. Works : Mass ; Cantatas ;
Choruses ; 5 books of pianoforte etudes ;
Other compositions, over 90 in all. He pub-
lished also Les clavecinistes de 1037 a 1790
(Paris, 1807) ; Varietes litteraires et musi-
cales (Paris, 1878) ; and articles in musical
journals. Fetis; do., Supplement, ii. 211 ;
Mendel, Ergiin/., '2~~>.

FROID DE, born iu Paris in 1745, died
there in 1797. Organist and dramatic com-
poser, studied under French and Italian
masters, and became organist of the Church
of Soint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas. Works
Operas : I/i ressource comique, on la pic've
a deux acteurs, given at the Conu'die Ita-
lienue, 1772 ; Le retour de tendresse, ib.,
1771; Le duel eoniique ( with 1'aisiello), ib.,

1770 ; Lanrette, ib., 1777 ; Alexandra aux
Indes. Opera, 1"S3 ; (Edipe ct Jocaste, ib.,
17!U ;,., 17'.i:', ; Les Tliermopyles ;
Scipion a Carthage. Samson, oratorio, Con-
cert Spintuel, 1774 ; Esther, do., ib., 1775;
Ode on the birth of the Dauphin, ib., 17s I ;
Aline, reine de (tolcoude, cantata. Fetis;
do., Supplement, ii. 92.

FROID DE, born in Paris in 1707, died (?).
Organist and pianist, son and pupil of the
preceding; became professor in the royal
school of singing, then professor of piano-
forte, and organist of the Protestant Temple
de 1'Oratoire. He played the organ, erected
on the Champ-de-Mars, at the feast of Feder-
ation, July 14, 1789. Works : Cantata for the
coronation of Napoleon I., with full orches-

tra, 1804 ; Sonatas for pianoforte and violin
or flute ; Nocturne for do. ; Sonatas and
fantaisies for pianoforte. Fetis.

MERIEL, PAUL, born at Moudoubleau
(Loir-et-Cher), France, Jan. 4, 1818, still
living, 1889. Dramatic composer, pupil of
Alessandro Napoleone at Lisbon, and of
Somma at Perpignan ; was chef d'orchestre
at the theatre of Amiens and other provin-
cial cities, and in 1847 settled at Toulouse,
to teach, and in time became director of
the Conservatoire. Legion of Honour.
Works : Cornelius 1'argentier, opura-co-
inicjue, Amiens ; Les precieuses ridicules,
do., Toulouse, 1877 ; L'Armorique, grand op-
era, ib. ; Cain, dramatic oratorio; Le Tasse,
symphony. Futis, Supplement, ii. 211.
" MERE, JOSEPH, born in Vienna, March
15, 1795, died at Ober-Dobling, June 16,
1852. Virtuoso on the violoncello, pupil of
Schindlucker ; was first violoncellist at the
imperial opera in 1818 ; became professor of
his instrument at the Couservatorium in
1823, and chamber virtuoso to the Emperor
in 1834. He made concert tours in Italy and
Germany. Works : Concerto, concertino,
concert-pieces, fantasias, polonaises, varia-
tions, 20 exercises, G studies, for the vio-
loncello. Wurzbach ; Fetis; Riemaun ;

at Oberoderwitz, Sax-
ony, Nov. 12, 1827,
died in Dresden, Oct.
30, 1885. Organist,
pupil of Jo ha nn
Schneider, and in coun-
terpoint of Julius Otto;
also received instruc-
tion from Robert Schu-
mann and from Reis-
siger. He became or-
ganist of the Waisenhauskirche, Dresden,
in 1858, of the Kreuzkirche in 18GO, and of
the Catholic Hofkirche in 1864. He con-
ducted the Dreyssig Siugakademie in 18G7-
73, and became instructor at the Conser-
vatorium in 18G1. Works : G sonatas, 3


fantasias, pi-eludes, and fugues for organ ;
Pianoforte music ; Songs. Mendel ; Rie-
mann ; Fctis, Supplement, ii. 211.

MERLIN, romantic opera in three acts,
text by Siegfried Lipiner, music by Carl
Golclmark, first represented in Vienna, Nov.
19, 1886, with the following cast :

Merlin Hcrr Wiukelmann.

Viviane Frau Materna.

Kc'inig Artus Herr Somer.

Die Fee Morgana Frau Kaulich.

Given at the Metropolitan Opera House,
New York, Jan. 3, 1886, with Herr Alvary as
Merlin, and Frl. Lilli Lehmann as Viviane.
Merlin, German opera, text by Luclwig Hoff-
mann, music by Philipp Riifer, given in Ber-
lin, Feb. 28, 1887. Neue Zeitschr. (1886),
533; Signale (1886), 1089, 1121 ; Krehbiel,
Review (1886-87), 79.

MERMET, AUGUSTE, born about 1815,
still living, 1889.
Dramatic composer ;
son of a French gen-
eral, he renounced the
military profession to
devote himself to mu-
sic, studied the flute,
and later composition
under Lesueur and
Halevy. He waited
more than fifteen years before he succeeded
in getting his opera of Roland performed,
but in spite of its musical mediocrity it
was very favourably received on account of
its martial and patriotic character. A sec-
ond attempt in the same vein was not so
successful, and probably his career ended
with Jeanne d'Arc. Legion of Honour in
1865. Works Operas : La banuiere du
roi, Versailles ; David, Paris, 1846 ; Roland
a Roucevaux, ib., 186-4 ; Jeanne d'Arc, ib.,
1876 ; Pierrot pendu, opt'ra-bouffe, never
performed. Fetis, Supplement, ii. 212 ;
Bitard, 900 ; Larousse.

MEROPE, Italian opera, text by Zeno,
music by Niccolo Jommelli, first represented
in Venice in 1742. The subject is that of

Merope, Queen of Messina, whose husband
Cresphontes and two of her sons were mur-
dered by Polyphontes, who wished to marry
her. She is delivered from his persecu-
tions by her son JSgyptos, who kills him.
The opera was received with such enthusi-
asm that the Council of Ten appointed Jom-
melli director of the Scuola degi' Incurabili,
which gave him an opportunity to begin to
write the sacred music which became the
chief source of his fame. Other operas,
same libretto, by Francesco Gasparini, Ven-
ice, 1712 ; Giovanni Maria Orlandini, Bo-
logna, 1717 ; Luca Antonio Predieri, Flor-
ence, 1718, Mantua, 1719 ; Pietro Torri (?),
Munich, 1719 ; Bioni, Venice, 1728 ; Gia-
comelli, ib., 1734 ; Terradeglias, Florence,
1743 ; Paolo Scalabrini, Dresden, May 25,
1747 ; Gregorio Seiroli, three acts, Naples,
1751 ; David Perez, Genoa, 1751 ; Scarlatti,
Naples, 1755 ; Karl Heinrich Graun, Berlin,
1756 ; Gassmann, Italy, 1759 ; Gaetano La-
tilla, Venice, 1763 ; Borghi, Rome, 1768 ;
Sala, Naples, 1769 ; Mysliweczek, 1775 ; Na-
soliui, Venice, 1795 ; Bianchi, London, 1799 ;
Poissl, with portions of Nasolini's music
retained, Munich, 1810 ; Marcos Portugal,
Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 8, 1817, Lisbon, May
13, 1819 ; Pacini, text by Cammarano, Na-
ples, 1846 ; and a ballet by Luigi Maria
Viviani and Giacomo Panizza, Milan, 1832 ;
and by Zandomeueghi, Pesaro, 1871. Op-
eras in German, same title, by Mangold,
three acts, Darmstadt, 1823 ; Julius Miller,
Amsterdam, 1824 ; H. Miihlenbruch, 1846.
Other Italian operas, of which the dates are
not known, by Alberti ; Galdara ; Treu ; Fi-
nazzi ; Lotti ; Meuaghetti ; Porta ; Vinci ;
and Vivaldi.

MERRY WAR, THE. See Lustigr Krieg.

music to Shakespeare's play by Arthur Sul-
livan, first performed at the Gaiety Theatre,
London, Dec. 19, 1874. It was given at
the Crystal Palace, London, April 12, 1884.

I. Prelude and dance of the Fairies (in E) ;

II. Song, " Love laid his sleepless head,"
words by Swinburne ; IH. Melodrama, song



and chorus, " Fairies black, gray, green,
and white " (in C minor) ; IV. Dance, Alle-
gro vivace (in G) ; V. Dance and chorus,
Allegro vivace (in E). Published by Mt-tz-
ler & Co. (London, 1879). Atheiwum
(1874), ii. 725.

opera. See Lnstigen Weiber von Windsor.

MERTENS, JOSEPH, born at Antwerp,
Feb. 17, 1834, still living, 1880. Dramatic
composer ; was first violin at the royal the-
atre in Antwerp, and became professor at
the Conservatoire. His Flemish operas,
mostly in one act, found great favour with
his countrymen. Works : De Yrijer in de
strop, Antwerp, 1866 ; De Vcr^issing, ib.,
1869 ; LY'goiste, ib., 1873 ; Thecla, ib.,
isTt; Liederik I'intendant, ib., 1875; De
zwarte Kapitciu, The Hague, 1877 ; Les
trois etudiants ; Le viu, le jeu et le tabac ;
Le capitaine Robert ; Les i-vincres ; L'An-
gelus, oratorio, Boom, 18G7 ; Instrumental
music ; Sacred choruses, romances, etc. Fu-
tis, Supplement, ii. '213 ; Riemaun.

MERTKE, EDUARD, born in Riga in
1833, still living, 1889. Pianist ; made ex-
tensive concert tours in 1859, then lived as
teacher of his instrument at Wesserling,
Alsace, at Lucerne, Switzerland, and from
18G5 at Mannheim, whence he was called
to Cologne in 1869 as professor at the
Couservatorium. Works : Lisa, oder die
Sprache des Herzens, opera, given at Mann-
heim, 1872 ; Des Liedes Verkliirung, can-
tata ; Collection of Russian folk-songs ; Pi-
anoforte music. Riemann.

MERULO, CLAUDIO (Claudio da Cor-
reggio ; the original form of the surname
was Merlotti), born at Correggio, April 7,
1533, died in Parma, May 4, 1604. He
received his musical education probably
at Venice or at Brescia. He was appoint-
ed organist at Brescia, Sept. 17, 1556 ;
chosen organist at the second organ at S.
Marco, Venice, July 2, 1557, defeating nine
other candidates for the post ; and was
promoted to the first organ, succeeding An-
uibalc Padovano, Sept. 30, 1566. In this

year he also set up as a music publisher,
an enterprise which he abandoned in 1569 ;
Betanio was his partner for a short time.
In 1584 he went to Mantua, and in May,
1586, was called to Parma by the Duke
Ranuccio Farnese as organist of the ducal
chapel, La Steccata. He was knighted by
the duke, and held his post at La Steccata
until his death. His grave is next to that
of Cipriano de Rore, near the altar of Sta.
Agata in the Parma Cathedral. As a com-
poser of masses, motets, canzoui alia fran-
cese, and madrigals, Merulo was very pro-
lific ; and his compostious in this field show
marks of well-developed Venetian art. But
his chief fame rests upon his organ works,
which show decided genius when compared
witli similar compositions by the earlier
German organists. Both as organist and
organ writer he was the greatest forerunner
of the Gabrielis and of Frescobaldi. Pub-
lished works : II primo libro de' madrigali a
cinque voci, etc. (Venice, Merulo & Betanio,
l.'.Cii; other eds., 1579, 1586); Liber pri-
mus sacrarum cantionum quiuque vocum,
etc. (ib., Gardano, 1578) ; Liber secundus,
do. (ib., 1578) ; H primo libro de' Madrigali
a quattro voci, etc. (ib., 1579) ; Di Claudio
Merulo . . . il primo libro de' Madri-
gali a tre voci, etc. (ib., 15SO ; another ed.,
Milan, 1586) ; Di Claudio Merulo . . .
il primo libro de' Motetti a sei voci, etc.
(Venice, Gardano, 1583 ; 2d ed., ib., 1595);
do., il secondo libro (ib., 1593) ; Toccate
d' intavolatura d' organo . . . libro
primo (Rome, Simone Verovio, n. d.) ; Di
Claudio Merulo il secoudo libro

de' Madrigali a cinque voci, etc. (Venice,
Gardauo, 1604) ; Toccate d' iutavolatura d'
organo . . . libro secoudo (Rome, Ve-
rovio, 1604) ; Rieercari d' intavolatura d'
organo . . . libro primo (Venice, Gar-
dano, 1605) ; 11 terzo libro de' Motetti a
sei voci (ib., 1606) ; Rieercari da cantare a
quattro voci . . . libro secondo (ib.,
16(17) ; do., libro terzo (ib., 1608); Claudii
Meruli Corrigiensis Missse duo cum octo
et duodeciin vocibus coucinnendne, addihrq.

fit; i


Litanirc Bo.atre Maria? Virginia octo vociim
cum parte organica (ib., 1009) ;
Canzoni alia francese. Merulo wrote part
of the music for the wedding of Francesco
de' Medici and Bianca Capello in 1570,
but it was never published. Ambros, iii.
518 ; Grove, ii. 314 ; Fetis, vi. 193.

JlisKu Papa; Marcelli.


MESSAGER, ANDRE, French organist,
contemporary. Pupil of Saint-Sae'ns at
the Ecole de Musique Religieuse in Paris ;
organist at the Church of Saint-
fauvette du temple,
Folies Dramatiques,
bourgeois de Calais, do., ib.,

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