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occupied more than thirty years. He 1 Haydn, i. 229, 285 ; Townseud, Haydn, 52.



See Sommernachtstraum.

MIGNON, opera-comique in three acts,
test by Jules Barbier aiid Michel Carre,
after Goethe's " Wilhelm Meister," music
by Ambroise Thomas, first represented at
the Opera Comique, Paris, Nov. 17, 186(5.
The scenes were suggested by Ary Schef-
fer's pictures. Among the favourite numbers
are : Mignon's song, "Couuais tu le pays ou
(inn-it 1'oranger?" ; " Legeres hiroudelles,"
duet between Miguon and Lothario ; "\Yil-

* -

Sigfid Arnoldson, as Mignon.

helm Mftistor's aria, "Adieu, Mignon, cou-
rage ; " his duet xvith Mignon, " As-tu souf-
fert, as-tu pleuro ? " ; the berceuse, " De son
nriir j'ai calme la fievre," sung by Lothario ;
and the romance, " Elle ne croyait pas, dans
sa candeiu- uai've." Original cast :

Mignon Mme Galli-Marie.

Wilhelm Meister M. Achard.

Laerte M. Coudere.

Lothario M. Bataille.

Philine Mme Cabel.

Christine Nilssnn's impersonation of Miguon
is ideal ; Mine Lucca and Sigrid Aruoldsou

also have made successes in this character,
and Clara Louise Kellogg is excellent as
Philiue. The opera was represented in
London in Italian at Drury Lane, July 5,
1870. Published by Fiirstner (Berlin,
1868). Edwards, Lyrical Drama, ii. 44 ;
Clement et Larousse, 738 ; Hauslick, Mo-
derne Oper, 179 ; Jullieu, Goethe et la mu-
sique, 256 ; Athenfeum (1870), ii. 57 ; "VVo-
chenblatt (1870), 131 ; Atlantic Monthly,
xxis. 635 ; Upton, Standard Operas, 208.

at Fericsaucze, Slavonia, Sept. 13, 1842,
still living, 1889. Pianist, studied the ele-
ments of music at Pesth ; then in 1865, at
Leipsic, theory under Hauptmann, and in
Munich the pianoforte under Biilow. He
belongs to the new German school of com-
posers. Works : Hagbarth uiul Signe, ro-
mantic opera, Dresden, 1882 ; Das Geis-
terschiff (Strachwitz), Ballad for grand or-
chestra ; Hero uiid Leander (Schiller), do. ;
La ronde du Sabbat (Victor Hugo), do. ;
Die Nixe (Gyulai), do.; Funeral March, in
honour of Franz Deak, for do. ; Pianoforte
music and songs. Riemann.

MIKADO, THE, or the Town of Titipu,
comic operetta in two acts, text by Gilbert,
music by Sullivan, first represented at the
Savoy Theatre, London, March 14, 1885.
Characters represented : The Mikado ; Ko-
Ko, the Lord High Executioner ; Pooh-Bah,
a Tremendous Swell ; Nauki-Poo, Second
Trombone in the Titipu Town-band ; Ka-
tisha, an elderly lady of the court ; Yum
Yum, Peep Bo, and Pitti-Sing, three young
la. lies. The Mikado was first performed in
New York at the Fifth Avenue Theatre,
Aug. 19, 1885. Athentcum (1885), i. 384 ;
London Times, March 16, 1885 ; New York
Tribune, Aug. 9, 1885 ; Krehbiel, Review
(1885-86), i.

MI LAGNERo TACENDO, soprano aria
of Laodiee, in D minor, with accompaniment
of violins in unison, and continuo, in Han-
del's Siroe, Act. H., Scene 1. Published
separately, in filled out pianoforte score by
Otto Dresel (Leipsic, Breitkopf & Hiirtel).


at Savigliano, near Turin, Aug. 28, 1827,
still living, 1889. Violinist, pupil of Gio-
vanni Ferrero and Giovanni Morra ; ap-
peared in public before the age of seven, in
Paris attracted the notice of Lafout, with
whom she studied and travelled. She gave
lessons on the violin to her younger sister
Maria (1832-1848), who appeared with IKT
in France, Germany, Italy, and England.
After Maria's death she travelled alone for
some years, but since her marriage with M.
Parmentier in 1857 has led a more settled
life. Works: Ave Maria, chorus for male
quartet ; Fautaisie uli'-giaque for violin ; 2
romances ; Transcriptions and variations for
violin and pianoforte. Fotis ; do., Supple-
ment, ii. 221 ; Wasielewski, Die Violine,
313 ; Les scaurs Milauollo (Lyons, 1847).

MILANUZIO (Milauuzzi), CARLO, Ital-
ian composer of the 17th century. He was
an Augustine monk of Santa Nataglia, be-
came organist of San Stefano in Venice
about 1615, and later of Santa Eufemia in
Verona. His compositions show him to have
been among the distinguished Italian musi-
cians of his time. Works : Messe concer-
tate (Venice, 1618) ; Litanie della Madonna
(ib., 1G20) ; Armenia sacra di concert!, etc.
(ib., 1G22) ; Sacra cetra, concerti con affetti
ecclesiastici (ib., 1625) ; Ariose vaghezze
(ib. 1625) ; Salmi e Vesperi iutieri (ib.,
1628); Messe a tro concertate, etc. (ib.,
1629) ; Compietaconcertatacon le antifonie
e litanie (ib.) ; Balletti, saltarelli, e corren-
tiue alia francese ; Concerti sacri di salmi
(ib., 1636) ; Hortus sacer deliciarum, sou
motetti, litaniicet missa(ib., 1636). Fetis ;
Gerber ; Schilling.

CHELT. See Tristan und Isolde.

Haydn, first performed at Haydn's benefit
concert, London, May 2, 1794. I. Largo,
Allegro ; II. Allegretto ; ILL Minuet ; IV.
Finale, Presto. No. 12 of the Salomon set,
Breitkopf & Hlirtel, No. 11 ; London Phil-
harmonic, No. 12 ; Peters, No. 7. Polil,

Mozart and Haydn in London, ii. 269 ; Up-
ton, Standard Symphonies, 161.

MILLER, EDWARD, born in Norwich,
England, in 1731,
died at Doncaster,
Sept, 12, 1807. Vir-
tuoso on the piano-
forte and the flute,
and writer on music ;
pupil at Lynn of
Burnev. In 1756 he
became organist at
Doncaster, a posi-
tion which he filled fifty years. Mus. Doc.,
Cambridge, 1786. Works: 6 solos for
German flute ; 6 sonatas for the harpsi-
chord ; Elegies for voice and pianoforte ;
12 songs ; The Psalms of David ; Several
treatises. Fetis ; Schilling ; Riemann.

MILLER, JULIUS, born in Dresden in
1782, died at Charlotteuburg, April 7, 1851.
Dramatic singer and composer, mostly self-
taught. In 1794 he was taken to Prague,
to join in the singing at the coronation fes-
tivals, and in 1799 he appeared as violinist
in a concert at Halle. Having successfully
made his debut as a tenor singer at the
German theatre in Amsterdam, he devoted
himself to the stage, went first to Fleusburg,
in 1802 to Schleswig, in 1803 to Hamburg,
and was then considered the best tenor of
his time. After having been a member of
the opera in Breslau, where he formed a
friendship with Weber, he travelled with an
opera troupe in 1810-13, and was about to
go to Russia when he was called to Kfinigs-
berg. In 181C he sang in Berlin, Frank-
fort, and Darmstadt, in 1818 in Hanover, in
1820 in Amsterdam. He went to Paris in
1827, then to Russia and the principal Ger-
man cities, taught in Berlin some time, and
filially undertook the management of the
theatre at Dessau. Reduced in circum-
stances by his disorderly life, he died in ut-
ter poverty. Works Operas : Der Frei-
brief, given at Schleswig, Court Theatre,
1802 ; Die Verwaudluug, Breslau, about
1805 ; Julie, oder der Blumentopf, Ger-



many, 1810 ; Der Kosakenofficier, Leipsic,
1813; Die Alpeuhiitte, Kouigsberg, isli;
Hermann und Tbusnelde, ib., 1815 ; M< -
rope, Germany, 1823 ; Michel und Hanu-
cheu, ib., 1835 ; Das zuriickgegebene Bou-
quet, ib., 1836 ; Perriicke und Musik,
Dresden, 1846. Masses with grand orches-
tra ; Motets ; Pater noster ; Canons ; Con-
cert overtures ; Several collections of songs,
for 3-4 voices ; 6 songs, for 4 male voices ;
Demande et reponse, for 4 tenor and 4 bass
voices ; Songs. Fetis ; Mendel, Ergiinz.,
282 ; Schilling.

overture by George W. Cliadwick, first per-
formed in San Francisco in 1888.

Ferrara, Italy, in 1565, died, probably at
Chioggia, Yeuetia, after 1639. Organist to
the King of Poland, then to the Emperor
Rudolph II., after whose death, in 1612, he
returned to Italy ; in 1614 went to Rome,
accompanied by his former pupil Fresco-
baldi. At a later date he was maestro di
r:i].]M lla at the Cathedral of Volterra, and
finally organist and maestro di cappi 'lla .-it
the Cathedral of Ohioggia. Works : 3
masses for 8 voices (1617, 1626) ; Mass for
4 voices (1617) ; Masses for 3 voices and
1'salms (1620) ; 7 books of motets for 2-G
voices (1626) ; Dominc, Dixit, Magnificat,
and a motet for 9 voices (1626) ; Litanies
(16111, 1639) ; Concerti spiritual! and
Gem me spiritual! (1622) ; 6 books of mad-
rigals for 3-4 voices (1614-24). Fetis ;

MILLICO, GIUSEPPE, born at Terlizzi,
Modcna, in 1739, died (?). Soprano singer
and dramatic composer ; Gluck, who heard
him in Italy, thought him one of the best
sopranos of the time, and chose him for his
niece's teacher, when Millico became at-
tached to the court theatre of Vienna in
1772. In 1774 he went to London, then to
Berlin, and in 1780 was in the service of
the King of Naples, where his jealousy
sometimes led him to use his great influ-
ence to oppress other artists. Works Op-

eras : La pieta d' amore, Naples, 1785 ; La
Zelinda, ib., 1787 ; La nouua per far dormir
i bambini, ib., 1792. Three cantatas ; Ital-
ian ariettas and canzonets ; Nocturnes for
two tenors. Fetis ; Mendel, Ergiiuz., 283 ;
Schilling ; Gerber.

MILLOCKER, KARL, born in Vienna,
May 29, 1842, still liv-
ing, 1889. Dramatic
composer, pupil at the
Vienna Couservato-
rium ; became Kapell-
meister of the theatre at
Gratz in 1864, and of
the Harmonietheater in
Vienna in 1866 ; on the
failure of that theatre,
soon after, he went to
Pesth, but returned to Vienna in 1869,
where he has since been Kapellmeister of
the Theater an der Wien. His music is
light and popular. For several years he also
edited Musikalische Presse, a collection of
pianoforte pieces, appearing in monthly in-
stalments. Works Operettas : Der todte
Gast, Gratz, 1865 ; Die lustigen Binder, ib. ;
Diana, Vienna, 1866 ; Die Fraueninsel,
IVsth, 1867; Der Regimentstambour ; Ein
Alu nteuer in Wieu ; Drei Paar Schuhe ;
Die Musik des Teufels ; Das verwunschene
Si-hloss, Vienna, 1878 ; Giiifiu Dubarry,
comic opera, 1879 ; Die Jungfrau von Belle-
ville, 1881 ; Der Bettelstudent, 1882 ; Gas-
parone, Der Feldprediger, 1884 ; Der Vice-
Admiral, 1886. Also music for many farces.
Fetis, Supplement, ii. 222 ; Riemann.

Cirencester, England, March 13, 1838, still
living, 1889. Pianist, pupil on the piano-
forte of Cipriani Potter, Sterndale Bennett,
Moscheles, Plaidy, Carl Mayer, and Liszt,
and in harmony and composition of Haupt-
mann, Rietz, and Richter. In 1855 he was
organist of the Roman Catholic Cathedral,
Sheffield ; about 1857, went to America and
settled in New York. In 1859, 1867, and
1878 he made concert tours through Ger-
many, playing with success in the principal



cities ; since 1859 he has appeared as a
concert pianist throughout North America.
He is a u honorary
member of the Phil-
harmonic Society,
New York ; A r i o n
Society, New York,
and Tonkiiustler-
Verein, Cologne.
Works : Alpine Horn,
transcription ; Bar-
carole venitienne, op.

12 ; 2 tarentelles, op. 13 and op. 20 ;
Murmuring Fountain, op. 22 ; Recollections
of Home, op. 23 ; Fairy Fingers, op. 24 ;
Toujours gai, polka, op. 25 ; and other pi-
anoforte music.

MILTON, French opera-comique in one
act, by Jouy and Dieulafoi, music by Spon-
tiui, first represented at the Opera Co-
mique, Paris, Nov. 27, 1804. The score is
dedicated to the Empress Josephine, to
whom Spontini was chamber composer.
Subject, Milton, blind and persecuted, takes
refuge at the house of his friend Godwin, a
(Quaker. Sir William Daveuaut, drawn by
love to Emma, appears on the scene, and
endeavours to reinstate her father in the
favour of Charles H. The music is melodi-
ous and rich in harmony and shows the di-
rect influence of Mozart. The best num-
bers are Milton's hymn to the sun, and the
quintet, No. 7. This opera long remained
in the repertory of the Opera Comique.
It was well received in France, and was
represented in Berlin, March 24, 180G, Ger-
man translation by Treitschkc ; and also in
Weimar, Dresden, and Vienna. Clement
et Larousse, 455 ; Grove, iii. GGG.

MILTON, JOHN, English composer of
the 17th century, died in London in 1646-
47. Vocal composer, father of the great
poet, by whom his musical abilities are
celebrated in a Latin poem, Ad Patrem.
He received his musical education at Christ
Church, Oxford. Works : In nomine, in
40 parts ; Fayre Oriaua in the Morne, six-
part madrigal (1601) ; 4 motets (1614) ;

York, Norwich, and other tunes, in Ravens-
croft's Whole Booke of Psalmes (1621).

born in Paris, Nov. 4, 179G, died at Char-
tres in 1854. Organist, pupil of the Con-
servatoire, where he studied the violoncello
and harmony. He was organist of Saiut-
Roch, and taught in Paris more than twenty
years ; afterwards organist of the Cathedral
of Chartres. Works : Fautaisie for piano-
forte and violin ; Nocturne for do. ; Fan-
taisie for pianoforte and violoncello ; Con-
certo de societe, for pianoforte ; Trios for
pianoforte and strings ; Sonatas for piano-
forte ; Many pieces of various kind, for pi-
anoforte and other instruments ; Method
for violoncello ; Do. for double bass ; Livre
d'orgue. Fetis.

MINOJA, AMBROGIO, born at Ospita-
letto, near Brescia, Italy, Oct. 21, 1752, died
in Milan, Aug. 3, 1825. Dramatic and
church composer, pupil at Naples of Sala
in counterpoint. He succeeded Lampu-
gnani as accompanist at the Teatro della
Scala, Milan, about 1772, and went to Rome
in 1788, to write an opera for the Teatro
Argentina. On his return to Milan he was
appointed maestro di cappella at the Church
of the Padri della Scala, and later inspec-
tor of studies at the Couservatorio in Milan.
Works Operas : Tito uelle Gallie, given in
Milan, La Scala, 1787 ; Zenobia, Rome,
Teatro Argentina, 1788. Veui Creator, and
Te Deum, performed by two hundred and
fifty singers in the Cathedral of Milan, at
the coronation of Napoleon I. as King of
Italy ; Cantata ; De profuudis, for 3 voices,
with orchestra ; do. for 4 voices ; Sauctus
for 3, Messe soleunelle for 4, voices, and
other church music ; Funeral symphony
and march ; I divertimenti deUa campagua,
4 quartets for strings ; Sonatas for piano-
forte. He published, Lettere sopra il Canto
(1812). Fetis ; Mendel ; Riemaun.

MIO BEL TESORO, soprano aria of
Ruggiero, in G minor, with accompaniment
of 2 flutes, 2 oboes, strings complete, and



continuo, in Handel's Alcina, Act II., Scene
6. Published separately, with additional
accompaniments by Robert Frauz (Leipsic,

MIO CARO BENE, soprano aria of Ro-
delinda, in G major, with accompaniment
of oboes and violins in unison, viola, and
continue, in Handel's Rodelinda, Act II.,
Scene 9. Published separately, with addi-
tional accompaniments by llobert Fran/,
Leipsic, Kistuer.

aria of Arianna, in D minor, with accompa-
niment of strings complete, and continuo,
in Handel's Giiistino, Act I., Scene 12.
Published separately, in filled out piano-
forte score by Otto Dresel (Leipsic,
kopf & Hiirtel).

MIUADI ACERBE. See Trooalore.

MIRA, O NORMA. See Xnrma.

MIRECKI, FRANZ (in Polish, Franei-
szek), born at Cracow in 1794 (1791 ?), died
there, May '2'.), 1862. Pianist arid dramatic
composer; played the pianoforte when four,
and two years later appeared in concerts.
In 1814 he went to Vienna, where he studied
pianoforte and composition under Hummel,
and harmony under Preindl. After living
in close intercourse with Beethoven, Salieri,
Mosrheles, and Pixis, he went to Venice,
in 1816, to study the Italian method of
singing, and then passed several years in
Paris, and in Milan and other Italian cities,
to introduce his compositions. About 1S25
he accepted the direction of the Teatro San
Carlo in Lisbon, and in 1S2(!, after a visit
to England, returned to Genoa, where for
twelve years he taught vocal music. In
1838 he was called to Cracow, to direct a
school of dramatic singing. Works Op-
eras : Cyganie, given in Warsaw, 1820 ;
Evaudro in Pergamo, Genoa, 1824 ; I due
forzati, Lisbon, 182G ; Adriano in Siria ;
Coruelio Beutivoglio, Milan, 1844 ; Una
notte uegli Apenuini, Cracow, 1845. Bal-
lets : Octavia ; II castello di Kenilworth ;
I baccanali abboliti, Milan. Oratorios ;
Symphony for grand orchestra ; 2 masses ;

2 trios for strings ; Adagio et Allegro, for
pianoforte and strings ; Sonatas for piano-
forte and violin ; Sonatas, rondos, varia-
tions, and other pieces for pianoforte ; Sev-
eral collections of polonaises and mazurkas.
He wrote a treatise on instrumentation,
Trattato intoruo agli stromenti, ed all' is-
trumeutazioue (Milan, 1825). Encyklope-
dya powszeclma (Warsaw, 1864), xvii. 651 ;
Fotis ; Sowifiski ; Wurzbach.

MIREILLE, French opera in five acts,
text by Michel Carre-, music by Gounod,
first represented at the Theatre LjTiejue,
Paris, March 19, 1864. The subject is
taken from Mistral's poem, " Mire'io." Mi-
reille, the daughter of a rich proprietor,
Kaiuon, is in love with Vincent, the sou of a
poor basket-maker. Her father commands
her to marry a wealthy but brutal cattle-
driver. Ourrias, who kills his rival. Mireille
dies in the arms of her betrothed. The
music is pastoral and lyric, written with
local colour, and includes many folk-songs.
The opera was reduced to three acts, with
the addition of a waltz, and was reproduced
at the same theatre, Dec. 15, 1864. Per-
formed in Italian at Her Majesty's, London,
July 5, 1864, with Mile Tietjens as Mireille ;
Mine Trebelli, Taven ; Sig. Giugliui, Vin-
cent ; rind Mr. Sautley, Ourrias. Published
by Choudens (Paris, 1865) and by Boosey
(London, 1865). Clement et Larousse,
t.-.ii: Athenieum (1864), i. 478, 514; ii. 57 ;
1 1*70), 442 ; Hauslick, Moderne Oper, 205 ;
Allgem. mus. Zeitg. (1864), 340; Upton,
Standard Operas, 123.

MIH HAT DIE WELT, choral in B-tkt
major, for Coro I. and II., with accompani-
ment of two flutes, 2 oboes, strings com-
plete, organ and coutinuo, in Johann Sebas-
tian Bach's I'uxxion uach Matthiius (No. 38).
The melody is "In dich hab' ich gehofl'et,
Herr," by Sethus Calvisius (1594).

Song of Victory), for soprano solo with
chorus and pianoforte accompaniment, text
by Grillparzer, music by Schubert, op. 136,
first performed in Vienna, at a concert for



erecting a head-stone at Schubert's grave,
Jan. 30, 1829. It was composed in 1828,
and published by Diabelli (Vienna, 1838).
It was orchestrated by Franz Lachuer, and
first performed in Vienna, March 28, 1830.
Published by Seuff (Leipsic). Same title,
concert aria for soprano with orchestra by
Karl Reiuecke, op. 74, published by Breit-
kopf & Hiirtel (Leipsic, 18G3). Kreissle
von Hellborn, Schubert (Coleridge), ii.
201 ; AJlgem. rnus. Zeitg. (1803), 589 ; Up-
ton, Standard Cantatas, 314.

del in.

MIRY, CHARLES, born in Ghent, Aug.
14, 1823, still living, 1889. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil at the Ghent Conservatoire of
Meugal in harmony and counterpoint, and
later of Gevaert. He completed his musical
studies in Paris, and returned to his native
town to conduct a theatre orchestra. In
1857 he was appointed professor of compo-
sition at the Conservatoire, Ghent. Works
Operas and operettas : Brigitta, given in
Ghent, Theatre Miuard, 1847 ; La lanterne
magique, ib., Grand Theatre, 1854 ; Charles-
Quint, ib., before 1857 ; Anne Mie, Antwerp,
1853 ; Bouchard d'Avesnes, Ghent, 1864 ;
Maria van Burgondie, ib., I860 ; De Keizer
bij de Boeren, ib., 1866 ; De occasie maakt
den dief, ib., 1866 ; Fraus Ackerman, Brus-
sels, 1867 ; Brutus en Cesar, Ghent, 1867 ;
Le niariage de Marguerite, ib., 1867 ; Eeu
Engel op wacht, Antwerp, 1869 ; Drie Ko-
ningen Avond, ib., 1870 ; La Saint-Lucas,
Ghent, 1870 ; Het Driekoniugenfeest, Brus-
sels, 1876 ; La rose d'or ; Le poiite et sou
ideal ; Twee zusters. Ballets : La bouque-
tiere ; La fee des eaux ; Klida, Brussels.
Cantatas : An roi ; La Belgique, ou le rogne
de 25 ans ; Le 16 ducembre ; Les orphe-
lins ; Het Eerevaandel der werkliedeu ; Het
Eerevaandel der Weezenjongeus van Gent.
Choruses for men's voices ; Several collec-
tions of school-songs ; Music for wind in-
struments ; Pianoforte music. Fetis ; do.,
Supplement, ii. 226 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 284.

MISERERE, by Gregorio Allegri, for

nine voices in two choruses, in the second
Gregorian mode (transposed), sung annually
at Tenebrte in the Sixtiue Chapel, in Holy
Week. It belongs to a collection of twelve
settings of the Miserere preserved in two
MS. volumes in the archives of the Pontifi-
cal Choir, and is the only one of the twelve
still in use. The other eleven are by Cos-
tauzo Festa, Luigi Dentice, Francesco Guer-
rero, Palestrina, Teofilo Gargano, Francesco
Anerio, Felice Anerio, an anonymous com-
poser, Giovanni Maria Naniui, Saute Nal-
dini, and Ruggiero Giovanelli. The MS. of
this Miserere was so carefully guarded in the
archives of the Pontifical Chapel that until
1770 only three transcriptions had been
lawfully made ; one for the Emperor Leo-
pold I., one for the King of Portugal, and
one for Padre Martini. The latter lent
his copy to Dr. Buruey, who compared it
with a transcription of his own, probably
obtained through Santarelli, the singer, and
published it in a work, now rare, entitled
" La Musica della Settimaua Santa," re-
printed in Novello's "Music of Holy Week."
Mozart accomplished the remarkable feat
of writing down this entire composition in
1770, at the age of fourteen, after having
heard it once in the Sixtiue Chapel, where
he corrected his MS. two days later. Men-
delssohn was enthusiastic in his admiration
of this work. Grove, i. 54 ; ii. 336 ; Fetis,
i. 72 ; Mendel, i. 165 ; Heusel, Mendelssohn,
ii. 98 ; Moritz Hauptmaun, Briefe an Franz
Hauser, i. 52 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg., xxvii.
420 ; Ctecilia, ii. 66 ; The Harmonicou
(1825), 195 ; Baini, Memorie della vita e
delle opere di Palestriua, ii. 200.

MISERERE, by Tommaso Bai, written
in 1714, at the request of the choir in the
Vatican, of which he was maestro di cap-
pella. This is its composer's only work of
importance. It is written in the Second
Mode transposed, with verses for four and
for five voices, alternately, the last one end-
ing with eight parts. It was sung in the
Sixtine Chapel alternately with Allegri's
during the three days of the Teiiebne, from



1714 till 1767, one by Tartini being per- '
formed in 1768 ; and again from 17(>9 till
1820, with the exception of 1777, when Pas-
quale Pisari's Miserere was given. It was
published by Choron in his collection of
sacred music, and by Burney and by No-
vello. It is now performed every other
year, the second day of the Tenebne, alter-
nately with that of Giuseppe Baini, which
was first sung in 1821. The latter is a work
of great merit and was composed for the
Sixtine Chapel by order of Pope Pius VIL
In MS. Fi-tis, i 74 ; Mendel, i. 415 ; All-
gem, mus., Zeitg., xxvii. 418 ; Baini. Memo-
rie della vita e delle opere di Palestriua, ii.
195 ; Grove, i. 125, 288 ; iii. 519.

three masses written by Palestrina by the
order of a board of eight Cardinals, pre-
sided over by S. Carlo Borromeo, commis-
sioned by Pius IV. to see that the decrees
of the Council of Trent in reference to a
reform in church music were carried out.
This mass, dedicated to the memory of
Pope Marcellus II., was first publicly per-
formed in the Sixtine Chapel, June 19,
l"i(i"), at the solemn service consecrating the
alliance between the Papal Chair and the
Swiss Confederates, S. Carlo Borromeo offi-
ciating. It is for six voices (S., A., 2 T., 2
B.) unaccompanied, and is in the Gregorian
Hypoionian mode, except the Crucitixus
and Beuedictus, which are in the Mixolyd-
ian. The work has been made the nucleus
of many unwarranted legends, the most
absurd of which, and the generally accepted
one, is that it embodied all the reforms in
church music decreed or suggested by the
Council of Trent, and was thus the point of
departure of a new and perfected style of
ecclesiastical composition. The truth is
that, as far as its musical style is concerned,
it embodies not one of these reforms, and
contains no single novel musical feature.
The Cardinals of the board were individu-
ally strongly opposed to the musical reforms
suggested by the Council, and so far from
Palestrina's being instructed to conform to

these in the test mass that was ordered
of him, the Cardinals gave him something
more than a hint to do his best to write a
mass which should so set forth the beauties

Online LibraryJohn Denison ChamplinCyclopedia of music and musicians (Volume 2) → online text (page 88 of 93)