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141, 142, and 27 without opus number.

For do., 4 hands : Grande sonate, in E-flat,
op. 47 ; Grande sonate symphonique, No.
2, op. 112 ; Other works, op. 10, 30, 31, 33,
70, 102, 130, 140 ; Duo coucertant on the
march from Preciosa (with Mendelssohn),
for 2 pianofortes, op. 87b ; Hummaye a
Haendel, for do., op. 92 ; Les coHirasfes,
for do., 8 hands, op. 115.

V. Songs: Op. 10, 97, 116, 117, 119, 125,
131, 132, 130. Aus Moscheles' Leben
(Leipsic, Duncker & Humblot, 1873) ;
Grove ; Mendel.



cuse, April, 1827, still living, 1889. Dra-
matic composer, studied counterpoint arid
composition in bis native town, later in
Naples. Works Operas : Stradella, given
in Naples, San Carlo, 1850 ; Eufemia, il>. ;
Don Carlos, ib., 1862 ; Piccarda Donati,
Florence, Teatro della Pergola, 18G3 ; Gou-
z:iles Davila, Syracuse, 1809 ; Quattro rus-
tici, Florence, Politeama, 1875 ; Francesca
da Kimiui, Malta, 1877. He is said to have
written fourteen other operas, not yet given.
L'Y-tis, Supplement, ii. 245.

MOSE IN EGITTO, opera seria in three
acts, text by Tottola, music by Rossini,
first represented at the San Carlo, Naples,
March 5, 18 18. Original cast :

Musi'- (B.) Signor Beuedetti.

Faraone (B.) Sigiior Porto.

Osiride (T.) Siguor Nozzari.

Elcia (S.) Mile Colbran.

The work pictures the sorrows of the Israel-
ites, their appeal to Moses, the plague of
darkness, tin- exodus of the Hebrews, tin
pursuit by Pharaoh, and the passage of the
Bed Sea. Owing to imperfect stage ma-
chinery this last scene was received with
derision, until K"ssini added the fine prayer,
"Dal tuo stellato soglio," sung by Moses
and the Israelites on the banks. This num-
ber, which is often heard in concerts, was
sung by the pupils of the Paris Conserva-
toire at Rossini's funeral, Nov. 21, 18GS,
.and was played on the violin by Sivori with
great effect at the services held in mem-
ory of Rossini in Florence. Another note-
worthy number is the scene between the
lovers Elcia and Osiride, " Parlar spiegar."
The work was sung as an oratorio at the Ita-
liens, Paris, Oct. 22, 1822, and in the same
year at Covent Garden, London, under the
direction of Bochsa. It was given at the
King's Theatre, London, April 23, 1822,
as Pietro 1' Eremita, with the characters
changed to Noureddin, Sultan of Egypt ;
Fatima, his wife ; Orosmane, his son ; Pie-
tro 1' Eremita, leader of the Crusaders ;

Lucignano, a general ; Agia, Orosmane's
love ; Costanza, wife of Lucignauo ; and
Ismeno, minister. It was given in French
as Mo'ise en Egypte, the libretto revised by
Ktienue Jouy and Balocchi, and the music
rearranged by Rossini, at the Academic
Royale de Musique, Paris, March 2G, 1827.
The work was performed as an oratorio,
" The Israelites in Egypt ; or. The Passage
of the Red Sea," with additions from Han-
del's Israel in Egypt, and with scenery, at
Covent Garden, London, Feb. 15, 1833.
It was first sung in New York in March,
1 *:'">, and by the Handel and Haydn So-
ciety, Boston, in 1845. Rossini's later version
was first represented in New York, May 7,
1860, with Patti, Briguoli, Susini, and Fen!
in the cast. The work was given at the
Koyal Italian Opera, Coveut Garden, Lon-
don, April 20, 1850, as Zora, with Tamber-
lik, Tamburiui, Soldi, Zelger, Mine Castel-
lan, and Mile Vera. The Sacred Harmonic
Society sang it at Exeter Hall, London,
May 24, 1878, with great success, in an
English version by Arthur Matthison. Pub-
lished by Tronpenas (Paris) ; by Breitkopf
\ Hiirtel (Leipsic, 1823); and by Schott
(Mainz, 1829). Oratorios on the same sub-
j ject : Mose liberate da Nilo, by Gasparini,
Vienna, 1703 ; and by Porsile, ib., March
1 , 1 725 ; Mosi: preservato, by Francesco
Couti, ib., 1720 ; Mose ricouosciuto, by
Schuster, Dresden, 1786 ; Mosi; in Egitto,
by Leopold Kozeluch, Vienna, 1790 ;
Moses, by Stegmauu, about 1800 ; by Ig-
naz von Seyfried, about 1800 ; Mose nell'
Egitto, text by Leopold Villati, music by
Ignazio Couti, Vienna, March 22, 1829 ;
Moses Errettung, by Liudpaintner, about
1830 ; Moses, by Franz Lachner, text by
Bauernfeld, about 1835 ; Moses, by A.
B. Marx, Breslau, December, 1841 ; by Aloys
Schmitt, text by Kilzer, Frankfort-on-the
Main, April, 1844 ; and by Berliju, Magde-
burg, 1844. Operas : Moses, by Franz
Xaver Siissmayer, Vienna, 1792 ; by Tuczek,
ib., 1804; by Uber on Kliugemann's drama,
Cassel, 1812 ; Mozes op den Nijl, by Emil


Wambach, Antwerp, 1881 ; and sacred
opera in eight scenes, text by Mosentbal,
music by Eubiusteiu, op. 112 (1887). Ed-
wards, Rossini, 190, 301 ; do., Hist. Opera,
ii. 1G3 ; Escudier, Rossini, 48, 95, 195 ; Vie
de Eossini par vm dilettante, 155 ; Clement
et Larousse, 459 ; Lajarte, ii. 125 ; Haus-
lick, Moclerne Oper, 114 ; Ebers, Seven
Years of the King's Theatre, 157 ; Jullieu,
Goethe et la musique, 33 ; Harrnouicon
(1825), 82, 90, 112 ; Allgem. mus. Zeitg,
xxv. 777 ; Neue Zeitg., xxxix. 4 ; Revue
musicale, i. 181, 300 ; Athenamm (1850),
458 ; (1878), i. 708 ; Signals (1887), 929.

bora in Vienna, April
1, 1772, died there,
April 8, 1844. Dra-
matic composer and
writer on nmsic, pu-
pil of Joseph Fischer ;
studied also fine arts,
and entered the gov-
ernment service. He /
conducted the first \
festivals of the Ge-
sellschaftderMusikfreundein 1812-16, and
was ennobled and appointed Hofrath. He
acted as vice-director of both court theatres
in 1820-29, and was first custodian of the
Imperial Library from 1829 until his death.
Works : Cyrus und Astyages, opera, 1818 ;
DieFeuerprobe, Singspiel, 1811; Der Maun
von vierzig Jahren (Kotzebue), do. ; Salem,
lyric tragedy, 1813 ; Hermes und Flora,
cantata, 1812 ; Hygaea, do., 1814 ; Missa
solennis ; Overtures and entr'actes ; Dances
and songs ; and many writings, the most
important being, Versuch einer Aesthetik
des dramatischen Tonsatzes (Vienna, 1813) ;
Ueber das Leben und die Werke des An-
tonio Salieri (ib., 1827) ; Ueber die Origi-
nal-Partitur des Requiems von W. A. Mo-
zart (ib., 1829) ; Geschichte der Hofbiblio-
thek (ib., 1835) ; Die Tonkunst in Wieu
wiihrend der letzten fiinf Dezeunien (ib.,
1808, revised, 1840). Wurzbach ; Fetis ; N.
Necrol. der D. (1844), i. 350 ; Schilling.

RAEL, double chorus in C major, the " In-
troitus " of Part H. of Handel's Israel in
Egypt, leading up to the double chorus,
" I will sing unto the Lord," which recurs
again, with some variation, at the close of
the oratorio.

born at Boldog-Aszouy, Hungary, Sept. 4,
1814, died in Pesth, Oct. 31, 1870. Dra-
matic and national composer ; at the age
of twenty he went to Presburg, was influ-
enced by Turanyi, and remained seven years
in the service of Count Pejachevits as pi-
anoforte teacher. About 1842 he settled in
Pesth, and soon became known in musical
circles. Liszt wished to perform his Ger-
man opera Maximilian in Weimar, but sug-
gested some changes, which so discouraged
the composer that he threw his score
into the fire. His first compositions were
classical in style and appeared under his
real name of Brand ; later he became a cham-
pion of the Hungarian national music and
took the pseudonym of Mosonyi, which is
simply the translation of his name into
Magyar. With Abranyi he published a
journal of Hungarian music. Liszt consid-
ered him the noblest representative of Hun-
garian music, and Wagner praised some of
his compositions. Works : Szcp Ilouka,
Hungarian opera, Pesth, 18G1 ; Ahnos, do.
(not performed) ; Hungarian music ; Can-
tata ; Sj'mphouy ; Symphonic work in mem-
ory of Count Szechenyi ; Triumph and
Mourning of the Honvcd, symphonic poem ;
Overture with the national air Szozat ;
Church music ; Studies for the improve-
ment of national Hungarian music, for pi-
anoforte ; Songs. Wurzbach ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, ii. 247 ; Mendel, Ergiinz., 290 ;

holder Aumuth.

MOSZKOW T SKI, MORITZ, born at Bres-
lau, Aug. 23, 1854, still living, 1889. Pi-
anist, first instructed in his native city,
then at the Couservatorium in Dresden,



finally in Berlin pupil at Stern's Conserva-
torium and Kullak's Akademie, at which he
taught for several
years. In 1873 he gave
his first concert in
Berlin, and has since
repeatedly .appeared
there, and in Paris,
Warsaw, and other
cities, winning con-
siderable reputation.
Works : Jeanne d'Arc,
symphonic poem ; Suite
for orchestra ; Concerto for pianoforte ; do.
for -violin ; 2 Conzertstiicke for violin and
pianoforte ; Spanish dances, for pianoforte ;

Couzert-Walzer, for do. ; Other pianoforte
music, and songs. liiemauu ; Fetis, Sup-
plement, ii. 2411.

MOTO PERPETUO. See Perpetuum

MOTTL, FELIX, born in Vienna, in
185G, still living,
1889. Dramatic com-
poser, pupil of Josef
Hellmesberger, the
elder, at the Conser-
\ :itnniini, where he
won several prizes.
failed to conduct the
academic Wagner-
Vereiu in Vienna, he
at once manifested
his eminent fitness as
an orchestra conductor, and in 1876 was one
of the most active members of the so-called
Nibelungen-Kanzlei, entrusted with the re-
hearsals for the Festspiele at Bayreuth. In
1881 he succeeded Dessoff as Hof-Kapell-
meister at Carlsruhe. His opera Agues
Beruauer was given successfully at Weimar,
1880. Mus. Wochenblatt (1886), 372.

born at Haarlem, in 1751, died, probably in
Paris, after 1809. Violinist, and dramatic

and instrumental composer. He studied
music in Amsterdam, then went to Paris,
joined the orchestra of the Comedie Ita-
lieune as violinist in 1774, and was pen-
sioned in 1809. Works Operas : Les
nymphes de Diane, given m Paris, Theatre
de la Foire, 1753 ; La servante justified,
Fontainebleau, Court Theatre, 1773. Sym-
phony for grand orchestra ; 6 quartets for
strings. Fetis ; do., Supplement, ii. 249.

born at Haarlem in 1753, died probably in
Paris. Violinist and dramatic composer,
brother of Jean Baptiste. He was in-
structed in Amsterdam, then went to Brus-
sels, to enter the orchestra of Prince Charles
of Lorraine, left this position to become
chef d'orchestre successively of several pro-
vincial opera companies, and in 1785 set-
tled in Paris, to teach music. Works
Operas : Les talents a la mode, given on
the provincial stages of France, about 1785 ;
Les ruses de 1'amour, ib., 1790 ; Le mari
sylphe, ib., 1790 ; Les amants rivaux, Les
deux coutrats, ib., 1790 ; Le manage mal-
heureux, ib., 1795 ; Le vieillard amoureux,
i1>., 1810; Horipheme ; Sylvaiu (with Le-
grand and Davesne). Fetis ; do., Supple-
ment, ii. 249.

ballet opera in two acts, text by J. T.
Thackeray, music by John Barnett, repre-
si-nted at the English Opera House (Ly-
ceum), London, Aug. 25, 1834. From this
work, says Professor Macfarren, dates the
establishment of an English dramatic school.
Grove, i. 141.

tus am Oelberge.

Avignon in 1682, died in Paris, Dec. 22,
1738. Dramatic and instrumental com-
poser ; studied music in Paris, and soon
after 1707 was made maitre de chapelle to
the Duchesse de Maine, later musician to
the king, director of the Concerts Spirituels,
and composer at the Comedie Italieune. In
1830 he suddenly lost these appointments,


became insane, and was taken to the asylum
of Charenton. Works Operas : Les fetes cle
Tbalie, given in Paris, Opera, 1714 ; Ariane,
ib., 1717 ; Piritlioiis, ib., 1723 ; Les amours
cles Dieux, ib., 1727 ; Le triomphe des sens,
ib., 1732 ; Les graces, ib., 1735 ; Eagonde,
ou la soiree de village, ib., 1742. Music to
about fifty comedies, farces, vaudevilles,
etc., given at the Comudie Italieune ; Mu-
sic to several plays, given at the Comedie
Francaise ; Divertissement and 2 intermcdes
for the private theatre of the Duchesse de
Maine ; Cantatas and divertissements for
the Concerts Spirituels ; Motets ; Sonatas for
2 violins or flutes. F6tis ; do., Supplement,
ii. 249 ; Mendel.

the song "Roland a Roncevaux," by Rouget
de Lisle, written in 1792. It was inserted
into the drama, " Le chevalier de maison
rouge," by Alexandre Dumas and Auguste
Maquet, first represented at the Theatre
Historique, Paris, Aug. 3, 1847. The mu-
sic was adapted by M. A. Varuey, chef d'or-
chestre of the theatre. It received the
name of " Chant des Girondius," and was
accepted at once as a national air. Two
anonymous verses were added in 1848, in
which year this song was sung as a sort of
Marseillaise. Larousse, iv. 54.


opening chorus in C minor, in Handel's
Judas Maccabreus.

LES (The Queen's Musketeers), opi'ra-co-
mique in three acts, text by Saint-Georges,
music by Halevy, first represented at the
Opera Comique, Paris, Feb. 3, 184G. It
was received with great applause, and
is one of Halevy's best operas-comiques.
Plot original ; scene in Poitiers in the
reign of Louis XTTT. It was revived at the
Opera Comique, Paris, July 10, 1857.
Published in French and German, transla-
tion by J. C. Griinbaurn, by Schlesiuger
(Berlin, 1847). Clement et Larousse, 407 ;

Neue Zeitschr., xxvi. 207 ; Allgem. runs.
Zeitg., xlviii. 48, 206, 619 ; Revue et Gazette
musicale de Paris (1857), 225.

MOUTON, JEAN (Joannes Mottonus),
born in the Department de la Somme,
France, about 1475, died at Saint-Quentin,
Oct. 30, 1522. He studied counterpoint
under Josquiu Despres ; was successively
in the service of Louis XII. and Franyois
I. ; afterwards canon of Therouanne and,
probably from 1513, canon of the collegiate
church at Saint-Queutin, where he lies bur-
ied. He was one of the most noted com-
posers of his day ; a worthy follower of the
reat Josquiu.

Published works Motets : Motetti, col-
lect. (Venice, Andreas de Autiquis, 1521)
(In illo tempore Maria Magdalena ; Per
lignum salvi facti sumus ; Felix namque
est virgo ; Factum est silentium ; Quteramus
cum pastoribus ; Tua est potentia ; Salug
unica lapsis ; Jocundare Jerusalem ; Saucte
Sebastiaue, ora pro uobis) ; Petrucci, Mot.
della corona, Lib. I. (Gaude Barbara be-
ata ; Nos qui vivimus ; Laudate Deum in
Sauctis ; Ecce Maria geuuit nobis ; Beata
Dei geuitrix ; Christum regem regum ;
Benedicta est cceloruni regina ; Creleste
beneficium) ; Ib., Lib. II. (Illumiuare Jeru-
salem ; Factum est sileutium ; Homo quidam
fecit co3nam ; Maria Virgo semper Iretare ;
Non uobis, Domino ; Noe, Noe, psallite) ;
Ib., Lib. HI. (Quis dabit oculis uostris ;
Quam pulchra es, attributed to Josquin, but
almost surely by Mouton) ; Petrucci, Mot.,
Lib. IV. (O Maria virgo pia ; O quam fulges
in tetheris) ; Novum et iusig. op. musicum
(In illo tempore accesserunt) ; Lib. cant,
select, q. v. Mutetus vocant (Missus est Au-
gelus Gabriel) ; Cant, select, ultra Cent.,
Nesciens mater, also Glarean, pp. 466-467 ;
Ulhardt, Concent. 8 etc. voc., Surgeus Jesu
amortuis. Petrejus, Psalmi Pt. I. Psalms:
Domiue Deus uoster ; Alleluia, confitemiui,
Miserere rnei ; Pt. II. In exitu Israel.
Moutanus & Neuber Evaugelia dominie, et
festar. dierum, 4 motets. Magnum opus,
coutinens, etc. : Quis dabit oculis ; Elisa-



beth Zacharise ; Dulces exuviro ; Qurcramus
cum pastoribus ; Alleluia ; Noli flere Maria ;
In illo ternpore accesserimt ad Jesum Phari-
ssei (4 voc.) Per lignum ; Tua est potentia ;
Missus est Gabriel (5 voc.) Salva nos,
Domine, vigilantes (6 voc.). Pierre Attai-
guaut, Coll. Mot. : Gaude, virgo Catbariua ;
Glorios. priucipes ; Jeri. Jacob. Modernus,
Mottet, Lib. I. (Lyons, 1532). Pater pec-
cavi. Glareau, Christus resurgeus (wrongly
att. to Richafort). Pierre Attaiguaut, 7 bks.
masses, Missa d'Allemagne ; Tua est poten-
tia. Andreas de Autiquis, Lib. 15 missarum
(Rome, 1516), Alma redemptoris ; Dites nici
toutes vos peusues. Jacob. Moderuus, Lib.
10 Missarum, Quern dicunt homines. Pe-
trucci, 5 masses by Moutou (Venice, 1508,
and Fossombroue, complete copy in British
Museum, 1515) : Sine nomine ; Alleluja ;
Alma redemptoris ; Alia sine nomine ; Ile-
giua mearuin.

Unpublished works : Motets, Noli flere
Maria ; Ave fuit prima salus ; Accesscnuit
ad Jesum ; Laudate ; Puer natus ; Illumi-
nare Jerusalem ; Egregie Christi martyr.,
in MSS., defect., Vienna Library. 22 mo-
tets in MS. score in British Museum ; same
collection printed by Le Roy, 1555.
Masses, De Sum-la Trinitate (Ambraser
Sammlung). Sine cadeutia, in Cambrai
Library. Ambros, iii. 27H ; Ft'tis; Grove.
POLD, born at
Augsburg, Nov. 14,
1719, died at Salz-
burg, May 28, 1787.
Violinist, and church
composer ; studied
music as chorister
in the convents of
his native town, and
later at Salzburg,
while taking a course of law at the university ;
joined the orchestra of the Prince Bishop
as violinist and court musician in 1743, and
was appointed Vizekapellmeister in 1763.
After completing the musical education of
his children, he made concert tours with

<1 '


them through almost all European coun-
tries, lived a few years in Italy, and returned
to Salzburg, to leave it no more. Works :
12 oratorios ; Many symphonies, 18 of which
have been published ; Offertorium de Sa-
cramento, for 4 voices, with organ, horn, and
strings ; Missa brevis, do. ; Litanipo breves,
do. ; Litauia de veuerabili ; Concertos for
wind instruments ; La cautatrice ed il poeta,
intermezzo ; Musikalische Schlittenfahrt,
divertissement ; Music for pantomimes ; 30
grandes sure-
uades, for several
Military music ;
Trios for strings ; Music for organ ; G sonatas
and many other pieces for pianoforte ; Me-
thod for violin. The operas attributed to
him, were composed by his son. Fetis ;
Gerber ; Mendel ; Riemann ; Schilling ;

born at Salzburg,
Jan. 27, 1756, died
there, Dec. 5, 1791.
He was christened
Joannes Chrysosto-
mus Wolfgangus
Tlieophilus ; his fa-
ther used to trans-
late Tlieophilus by
Gottlieb. Mozart,
in signing earlier
letters, added his confirmation name, Si^'is-
mundus. His first works, and those pub-
lished in Paris in 17G4, were signed J.
G. Wolfgang, and afterwards Wolfgang
Amade ; in private life he was always Wolf-
gang. He was one of the most astounding
instances of musical precocity, his musical
education, which he owed almost entirely
to his father, beginning with pianoforte
lessons at the age of three. He soon be-
gan to compose, and to receive instruction
on the violin. From 1762 to 1769 he and
his sister Marianne led the life of child
prodigies, only it is to be noted that Wolf-
gang was known almost from the begiu-




ft i)



ning quite as much as a composer as a pi-
anist. Their first professional tour with
their father (Janu-
ary, 1702, to Janu-
ary, 17G3) was to
Munich, Linz, Vien-
na, and Presburg.
The second (June
9, 17C3, to Novem-
ber, 17GG) included
Munich, Augsburg,
Sch we tzingeu,
Mainz, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Cobleutz,
Aix-la-Chapelle, Brussels, Paris, London,
Canterbury, Bourne, back through The
Hague, Amsterdam, Ghent, Haarlem,
Mechlin, Paris, Lyons, Geneva, Lausanne,
Berne, Ziirich, Sehaffhausen, Donaueschiug-
eu, and Biberach. The success of the
children was universal ; in every capital
they visited they played repeatedly at
court, and at many of the concerts the pro-
grammes were almost entirely of compo-
sitions by Wolfgang. In Frankfort he was
heard by Goethe ; in Paris (Nov. 18, 17G3, to
April 10, 17G4) four of his sonatas for piano-
forte and violin were published. In Lon-
don (April, 1764, to July 24, 17G5) he took
singing lessons of Manzuoli, and probably
benefited much by the advice of Johaun
Christian Bach, with whom he became inti-
mate. While staying at Chelsea he wrote
his first symphony. While in Geneva the
party visited Ferney, with a letter of intro-
duction, but both Voltaire and Mme Denis
were too sick to see them. Everywhere
they were received and feted by the most
distinguished people. Back in Salzburg
(November, 17GG), Wolfgang was put
through Fux's Gradtis. In January, ITtiS,
father and children went to Vienna, where
Wolfgang was commissioned to write his
first opera, La fiuta semplice, which, how-
ever, was not performed. But a smaller
( ii-rman Singspiel by him, Bastieu und
Bastienue, was given there. On his return
to Salzburg the Finta semplice was given at
the palace of the Archbishop, who appointed

him his Conzertmeister, but without salary.
He was now thirteen, and his period of
child-wonderhood may be considered as
over ; he was already recognized as a com-
poser. In December, 1769, he set out with
his father on his famous trip, or, rather, his
triumphal progress, through Italy. This
was through Innsbruck, Roveredo, Verona,
Mantua ; Milan, where he met Piccinui and
Giambattista Sammartini (with the latter
of whom he did some work in counter-
point) ; Parma, Bologna (where he met
Farmelli and Padre Martini, with whom
he worked at fugue), Florence (March 30,
1770, where he met the Marquis de Ligui-
ville and Thomas Linley) ; Rome to Naples
(May 8, where he met Joiumelli) ; back again
through Rome (June 25, where the Pope
conferred upon him the order of the Gol-
den Spur, " the same as Gluck's "), Bologna
(July 20, where he was made compositore
to the Accademia Filarmonica, and received
a voluntary testimonial from Padre Mar-
tini), Milan (Oct. 10, where he wrote and
produced his Mitridate, which had been or-
dered of him there on his first visit), Tur-
in ; back once more to Milan, and through
Venice, Padua (where an oratorio was or-
dered of him), Vicenza, Verona, arriving
in Salzburg, March 28, 1771. On June 5
he was elected (hon-
orary ?) maestro di
cappella to the Acca-
demia Filarmonica
of Bologna. In Au-
gust he returned to
Milan to write his
serenata Ascanio in
Alba, which com-
pletely eclipsed
Basse's Ruggiero,

given the evening before. Basse's admira-
tion and friendship for him were, however,
not lessened by this defeat. In December,

1771, he was home again, and was laid up
by a severe illness. His friend and pro-
tector the Archbishop died, and in October,

1772, he went a fourth time to Milan, where



his Lucio Silla made a furore. In 1773 lie
went to Vienna, but failed to get a court
appointment ; later to Munich, where he
brought out his Fiuta giardiuiera (1775)
with great success, and won high praise
also as a violinist. After this he gave up
violin playing in public, although he long
kept up a liking for playing the viola in
quartets. His abandoning the violin was
a great disappointment to his father, who
saw in him the making of the first violinist
in Europe. From March, 1775, to Septem-
ber, 1777, he stayed in Salzburg, working
hard at composition. His relations with
the new Archbishop, Hieronymus, Graf Ton
Colloredo, were unsatisfactory, and at last
he applied for a discharge from service,
which was granted. He was now twenty-
one, and here his great period as a com-

fit p

Mozart's Birthplace.

poser begins. On Sept, 23, 1777, he set
out again, this time with his mother, going
through Munich and Augsburg to Mann-
heim (Oct. 30), where he became intimate
with Wieland the poet, and with many
noted musicians, but failed to get a posi-
tion in the Elector Karl Theodor's Ka-
pelle. He fell in love with Aloysia Weber,
daughter of the prompter and copyist at
the theatre ; and to break off the match,
his father wrote him from Salzburg to go
immediately to Paris, where he arrived,
March 23, 1778. His troubles now began

in earnest ; he was no longer an infant
phenomenon, the whole musical life in
Paris was absorbed by the Gluck-Piccinui
controversy, and there was no opening for
an outsider. He gave some music lessons,
and brought out a symphony and a few
other smaller things, but could not get an
order for an opera. Added to his ill-luck
came the death (July 3) of his mother. On
Sept. 26, after a cordial meeting with his
old friend Johaim Christian Bach, he set
out to return to Salzburg, going by Nancy
and Strasburg, and arriving in October.
In November he went to Mannheim, but
failed to get any profitable work, and his
father ordered him to come home forth-
with. He arrived, Dec. 25, at Munich,
where he found the Webers, but Aloysia
jilted him, and he returned home in July,

Online LibraryJohn Denison ChamplinCyclopedia of music and musicians (Volume 2) → online text (page 91 of 93)