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1779. He heartily disliked Salzburg, even
to his duties as Conzertmeister and organ-
ist at court and at the cathedral, where he
had succeeded Adlgasser at a salary of 400
florins (about $200). On Jan. 29, 1781,
Idomeneo, the first of his great operas, the
one which decided his rank as dramatic
composer, was given under Schikaneder's
baton in Munich, during the Carnival ; and
on March 1G he joined the Archbishop in
Vienna. His position soon became intoler-
able ; he was obliged to dine at the ser-
vants' table, and his protector treated him
with every indignity. When the Arch-
bishop returned to Salzburg in the summer,
in a huff at his unpopularity at court, Mo-
zart was the first to be turned out of the
house. He went to live with the Webers ;
the father was dead, and Aloysia married to
Joseph Laufe, a court actor. He made two
applications to the Archbishop for a formal
discharge, but the only release from service
he ever got was a kicking by that dignitary
and a shower of bad language. He was
now fixed in Vienna, where he married
Cohstauze Weber, a younger sister of the
faithless Aloysia, Aug. 16, 1782. He was
very poor, and found but few pupils ; his
, main source of income was composition



MOZART



and concert-giving, of which lie did a great
deal ; but lie could get no .appointment at
court, and the Italian Opera was monopo-
lized by Sarti and Paisiello. He contem-
plated a trip to Paris and London, but was
dissuaded by his father. A son, Karl, was
born, June 17, 1783. In July he went to
Salzburg to conduct a mass at the cathe-
dral, and to present his wife to his family ;
but neither his father, who had warmly op-
posed the match, nor his sister ever got to
like her, and he returned to Vienna in Oc-
tober. In 1785 his father visited him,
meeting Joseph Haydn, who was loud in
his praises of Wolfgang. The father's
health failed shortly after his return to
Salzburg, and he never saw his son again.
In October, 1785, the stage of the Ger-
man Opera was again open to him,
and he brought out his Schauspieldirek-
tor ; but a performance of Idomeueo at
the palace of Priuz Auersperg was of
more importance to him, as it attracted
the notice of the dramatist Lorenzo da
Polite (boru at Ceneda, Venetian States,
March Id. 17111. .lied in New York, Aug. 17,
1838), who engaged to write the text of
Figaro for him. The opera was given, May
1, 17HG, with almost unprecedented success,
but still got him no appointment. He again
determined to go to England, but was once
tin in- dissuaded by his father. He, how-
ever, went by invitation to Prague to wit-
ness the success of Figaro. He staid at the
house of Count Johann Josef Thun, and had
one of the most splendid ovations of his life,
besides receiving an order for another opera.
On returning to Vienna he began a third
time to make arrangements to go to Eng-
land, his friends Kelly, Nancy Storace, and
Attwood (his own pupil) offering to get him
some position there. But the overwhelm-
ing success of Don Giovanni at Prague (Oct.
29, 1787) induced the Emperor to appoint
him Karnmercompositor, at a salary of 800
Gulden (about $400) to keep him in Vienna.
His finances, however, still continued des- !
perate. In April, 1789, he accompanied his 1



patron and pupil Prinz Karl Lichnowski to
Berlin, stopping on the way to give concerts
in Dresden and Leipsic. In Berlin Fried-
rich Wilhelm II. offered him the post of
Kapellmeister, with a salary of 3,000 Thalera
($2,")00), but he refused, preferring to stay
in Emperor Joseph's service. All he gained
by this trip was glory, in spite of several
concerts and two presents of a hundred
Friedrichs d'or from the King of Prussia, and
a hundred ducats from the King of Saxony.
After his return to Vienna his poverty was
rendered doubly unbearable by his wife's
constant ill-health. The Emperor, stimu-
lated by hearing of the King of Prussia's
offer, ordered another opera of him, Cosl
fan tutte (given, Jan. 26, 1790). The run
was interrupted by the Emperor's death
(Feb. 20). No musician had anything to
hope from his successor, Leopold II. Mo-
zart applied for the post of second Kapell-
meister, but all he could get was the ap-
pointment as assistant Kapellmeister (with-
out pay) to Hoffmann at the cathedral,
with the right to succeed him at his death.
In October, 1791, he went to Fraukfort-on-
the-Main to attend Leopold's coronation,
stopping on the way to play at Reichstadt,
and, on the way back, at Mannheim and
Munich. On his return to Vienna he had
to take leave of Haydn, whom Salomon was
taking to London. His affairs were now
worse than ever. He had not played the
pianoforte in public in Vienna since 1788,
but made one last appearance, March 4, 171)1,
at a concert by the clarinet player Biihr.
Schikaneder, who had opened a little thea-
tre in one of the suburbs, ordered of him a
magic opera, the Zauberfliite. In July he
received the order for the Requiem, just as
he was setting out for Prague, where he had
been invited to write an opera for the coro-
nation of Leopold H. He worked hard at
this opera even during his journey thither,
and La clemenza di Tito was given on the
evening of the coronation, Sept. G, 1791.
He was already ill, and suffered severely
from the journey. On his return to Vienna



000



MOZAIIT



he set to work again on the Zauberflote,
which was brought out, Sept. 30. He now
began the Bequiem, but was continually in-
terrupted by fainting fits ; he fell into a




Mozart's Monument, Vienna.

profound melancholy, and fancied he had
been poisoned. News came that some Hun-
garian nobles had clubbed together to
guarantee him an annual sum of money,
and that a subscription was raised in Am-
sterdam to buy anything he might compose.
But it was too late ; he died of malignant
typhus before completing his Bequiem.
His last finished composition was a can-
tata for the Free Masons' Lodge, Nov. 15.
The funeral, Dec. 6, 1791, was in the open
air at St. Stephen's (the site now occupied
by the Galvani'sches Gebaude in the Bau-
hensteingasse) ; he was buried in the
churchyard of St. Marx, in the common
paupers' grave. All clue to the actual grave
has been lost, but a monument with a
statue has been erected there to his mem-
ory. Among the di majores of the musical
Olympus Mozart stands conspicuous for
combining the finest and most versatile
genius with the most complete and thorough
technical musical culture. His early death



entailed upon the art of music probably the
greatest loss it ever sustained. He had
fully exhausted the musical field of his day,
and his later works, notably Don Giovanni
and Die Zauberflote, show that he already
had one foot over the threshold of that do-
main of larger and freer musical forms in
which Beethoven and, after him, Schumann
were destined to do their greatest work.
He had a finish and perfection of style which
has since been approached only by Cheru-
biui and Mendelssohn, both of them men of
far less force of original genius. He com-
bined the highest characteristics of the
Italian and German schools as no man ever
did, before or since. Apart from his music,
however, he seems to have been decidedly
an ordinary man. He was sincerely relig-
ious, and his life was above reproach ; but
his tastes were in no way intellectual. He
liked dancing, billiards, ninepins, eating
and drinking (especially punch), fine clothes,
and jolly company ; his animal spirits were
unbounded, and he was extravagantly fond
of fun ; but music was the only intellectual
activity for which he had either inclination
or capacity. He was a tremendous worker,
and the stories told of his dissoluteness are
wholly without foundation. Of his pupils
(of whom he had comparatively few) Thomas





Mozart's Ear.



Ordinary Ear.



Attwood was his favourite. For a list of por-
traits of him, see Grove, ii. 404. A complete
edition of his works is published by Breit-
kopf & Hiirtel in Leipsic.

Works. I. Dramatic: Die Schuldigkeit des



601



MOZAUT



ersten Gebotes, sacred Singspiel, 3 parts (first
part by Mozart, the two others by Michael
J laydu and Adlgasser), Salzburg, 17G7 ; . \pnl-
lo et Hyacinthus, Latin comedy, ib.. May 13,
17G7 ; Bastien und Bastienne, operetta, Vien-
na, 1768 ; La^/i/asemplice, opera buft'a, not
performed ; Hitridate, re di Poiito, opera
seria, Milan, Dec. 26, 1770 ; Axcanio in Alba,
t'esta teatrale, ib., Oct. 17, 1771 ; Ilsor/no di
Scipione, dramatic serenade, Salzburg, May,
1772 ; Lucio Silla, dramma per musica,
Milan, Dec. 26, 1772 ; ~Lifinta giardiuiera,
opera buna, Munich, Jan. 13, 1775 ; II ru
pastore, festa teatrale, Salzburg, April 23,
177o ; Zalde, operetta (unfinished, com-
pleted by Johann Audiv), not given ; Cho-
ruses and entr'actes to Thainox, Konig in
Aegypten, Berlin, 1786 ; Idomeneo, n'- di
Greta, ossia Ilia ed Idamaute, opera seria,
Munich, Jan. 29, 1781 ; Die Enlfiihrung MI*
dem Serail, comic Singspiel, Vienna, Na-
tionaltheater, July 12, 1782 ; Der Schau-
spii'ldirektor, comedy with music, SchOn-
brunu, Feb. 7, 1786 ; Le nozze di Figaro,
opera buffa, Vienna, Nationaltheater, May 1,
1786 ; n dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Gio-
vanni, do., Prague, Oct. 29, 1787 ; Cox/ fan
tutte, do., Vienna, Jan. 2G, 1790 ; Die Zau-
l'i-tl/">(e, German opera, ib., Sept. 30, 1791 ;
La i-li'menza di Tito, opera seria, Prague,
Sept. 6, 1791.

II. Oratorios and cantatas : Passious-
Cautate ; Die Maurerfreude ; Eiue K/i-im-
Freimaurer-Cantate ; Dctulia liberata, ora-
torio, Padua, 1772 ; H rti pastore, Salz-
burg, April 23, 1775. Davidde peniteute,
(antate, Vienna, Burgtheater, March 13,
1785.

ILL Arias, etc., with orchestra A. For so-
prano : Conservati fedele, aria ; A Berenice,
recitative, and Sol uascente, aria ; Per pieta,
bel idol mio, aria ; O temerario Arbace,
recit. and aria ; Se tutti i mali miei, aria ;
Fra cento affanni, do.; Kommt her, ihr
frechen Siinder, do. ; Voi, ch' avete un cor
fedele, do.; Ah, lo previdi, scena, and Ah,
t' invola agli occhi miei, aria ; Alcandro lo
confesso, recit., and Nun so doude vieue,



aria ; Popoli di Tessaglia, recit., and lo non
chiedo, aria ; Ma che vi fece, recit., and
Sperai vicino il lido, aria ; Misera, dove
sou ? scena, and Ah, non son io, aria ; A
questo seno, recit., and Or che il cielo a me
ti rende, aria ; Nehmt meineu Dank, aria ;
Mia speranza, recit., and Ah, non sai qual
pena, rondo ; Vorrei spiegarvi, aria ; No, no,
che non sei capace, do. ; Ch' io mi scordi,
recit., and Non temer, amato bene, rondo
with pianoforte obligato ; Ddla mia fiamma,
recit., and Resta, o cara, aria ; Ah, se in ciel,
aria ; Alma grande, e nobilcore, do.; Chi sa,
chi sa qual sia, do. ; Vado, ma dove? do.
B. For contralto : Ombra felice, recit., and
Io ti lascio, rondo. C. For tenor: Vn, dal
furor portata, aria ; Or che il dover, do. ;
Si niostra la sorte, do.; Con ossequio, con
rUpetto, do; Clarice, cara mia sposa,
do. ; Se al labbro mio nou credi, do.; Per
pieta, non ricercate, rondo ; Misero, ognu-
no, recit., and Aura che intoruo, aria. D.
For bass : Cosi dunque tradisci, recit.,
and Aspri rimorsi atroci, aria ; Alcandro,
lo confesso, recit., and Non so doude viene,
aria ; Mentre ti lascio, o figlia, aria ; Un
bacio di mauo, arietta ; Hirn/i/i'te a lui lo
sguardo, aria ; Ich muchte wohl der Kaiser
sein, German war-song ; Per questa bella
mano, aria. E. Duets : Nun, liebes Weib-
chen, ziehst mit mir (S. and B). F. Ter-
zets : Mi lagnero tacendo (2 S. and B.) ;
Ecco, quel fiero (do.) ; Mandina amabile
(S., T., and B.) ; Piii non si trovano, canzo-
net (2 S. and B.). G. Quartet : Dite almeno,
in me mancai (S., T., and 2 B.).

IV. Church music : 8 Missre breves, in
G, D minor, F, D, C, C, C, B-flat ; Missa
longa (Credo-Messe) in C ; 6 other masses,
all in C, among them the mass In honorem
SSrnfc Trinitatis and the KrOnungs-Messe ;
Two sets of Litanirc Laurentanne, in B-flat
and D ; 2 do. of Litanife de venerabili, in
B-flat and E-flat ; Dixit and Magnificat, in
C ; Vespers de dominica, in C ; Vesperre
solennes de coufessore, in C ; 5 Kyrie ; God
is our Kefuge, 4 voc. ; Veni Sancte Spiritus,
4 voc. and ace.; Miserere, 3 voc. and org. ;



002



MOZART



Quserite primum, 4 voc. ; 3 Regina Coeli,
4 voc. and ace. ; Te Deum, do. ; 2 Tantum
ergo, do. ; 8 offertories for various voices ;
2 German Kirchenlieder, for voice arid org. ;
De profundis, 4 voc. and ace. ; Ergo inte-
rest, recit. and aria ; 2 Motets, Exsultate,
Jubilate, and A ve, verum ; Graduale ad fes-
tum B. M. V., 4 voc. and ace. ; 2 Hymns, do.

V. Vocal, with pianoforte : 37 songs ; 2
terzets (S., T., and B.) ; 1 3-part chorus ; 21
canons for 2-12 voices.

VI. Orchestral : 41 symphonies No. 1,
in E-flat ; No. 2, in B-flat ; No. 3, in E-flat ;
No. 4, in D ; No. 5, in B flat ; No. G, in F ;
No. 7, in D ; No. 8, in D ; No. 9, in C ; No.
10, in G ; No. 11, in D ; No. 12, in G ; No.
13, in F ; No. 14, in A ; No. 15, in G ; No.
16, in C ; No. 17, in G ; No. 18, in F ; No.
19, in E-flat ; No. 20, in D ; No. 21, in A ;
No. 22, in C ; No. 23, in D ; No. 24, in B-
flat ; No. 25, in G minor ; No. 2G, in E-flat ;
No. 27, in G ; No. 28, in C ; No. 29, in A ;
No. 30, in D ; No. 31, in D (ZVisrr-Sinfo-
nie) ; No. 32, in G ; No. 33, in B-flat ; No.
34, in C ; No. 35, in D ; No. 3G, in C ; No.
37, in G ; No. 38, in D (without minuet) ;
No. 39, in E-flat ; No. 40, in G minor ; No. 41
in C (Jupiter). Two Cassationen, in G and
B-flat ; 8 serenades, 1 in F, and 7 (among
which the //a/f,er-Serenade) in D ; 1 Noc-
turne for 4 orchestras, in D ; 3 serenades
for wind instruments, in B-flat, E-flat, and
C minor ; 7 divertimeuti for strings and
wind, in E-flat, D, D, F, D, B-flat, and D ;
10 do., for wind instruments, in E-flat, B-
flat, C, C, F, B-flat, E-flat, F, B-flat, and E-
flat ; 12 marches, 8 in D, 3 in C, and 1 in
F ; Allegro (finale for a symphony) in D ;
Minuet (for a symphony) in C ; Maurerische
Trauermusik in C minor ; Ein musikalischer
Spass, in F ; 41 minuets, in G sets of from
2 to 12 each ; 2 do. with contradances ; 49
deutsche Tiiuze, in 8 sets of 3-12 each ; 30
contradances, either separate or in sets of
2-9 each, among them La bataille, Der Sieg
vom Helden Coburg, and Les filles niali-
cieuses.

VII. Concertos with orchestra : 28, for



one or more pianofortes No. 7, for 3 pi-
anofortes, in F ; No. 10, for 2 do., in E-flat ;
No. 1, for 1 do., in F ; No. 2, in B-flat ; No.
3, in D ; No. 4, in G ; No. 5, in D ; No. 6,
in B-flat ; No. 8, in C ; No. 9, in E-flat ; No.
11.. in F ; No. 12, in A ; No. 13, in C ; No.
14, in C minor ; No. 15, in B-flat ; No. 1C,
in D ; No. 17, in G ; No. 18, in B-flat ; No.
19, in F ; No. 20, in D minor ; No. 21, in
C ; No. 22, in E-flat ; No. 23, in A ; No. 24,
in C minor ; No. 25, in C ; No. 2G, in D ;
No. 27, in B-flat ; No. 28 (concert-rondo), in
D. Five for violin : No. 1, in B-flat ; No.
2, in D ; No. 3, in G ; No. 4, in D ; No. 5,
in A. Adagio for violin, in E-flat ; Rondo
coucertaut for do., in B-flat ; Rondo for do.,
in C ; Coucertoue for 2 violins, in C ; Con-
certante Symphonie for violin and viola, in
E-flat ; Concerto for bassoon, in B-flat ; do.,
for flute and harp, in C ; 2 for flute, in G
and D ; Andante for do., in C ; 4 concertos
for horn, 1 in D, 3 in E-flat ; 1 do. for clar-
inet, in A.

VIII. Chamber music A. Quintets : 1
for pianoforte, oboe, clarinet, horn, and bas-
soon, in E-flat ; G for 2 violins, 2 violas, and
violoncello, in B-flat, C minor, C, G minor,
D, and E-flat ; 1 for violin, 2 violas, horn,
and violoncello, in E-flat ; 1 for clarinet, 2
violins, viola, and violoncello, in A ; Eine
Kleiue Nachtmusik, for 2 violins, viola, vio-
loncello, and double bass, in G ; Adagio for
2 clarinets and 3 basset-horns, in B-flat ;
do. and rondo, for harmonica, flute, oboe,
viola, and violoncello, in C minor. B. Quar-
tets : 2 for pianoforte, violin, viola, and vio-
loncello, in G minor and E-flat ; 23 for 2
violins, viola, and violoncello Nos. 1, 3, and
14, in G ; Nos. 2, 20, and 21, in D ; Nos. 4,

10, and 19, in C ; Nos. 5, 8, and 23, in F ;
Nos. 6, 12, 17, and 22, in B-flat ; Nos. 7,

11, and 16, in E-flat ; Nos. 9 and 18, in A ;
Nos. 13 and 15, in D minor ; 3 divertinienti
for do., in D, B-flat, and F ; Adagio and
fugue for do., in C minor ; 2 quartets for
flute, violin, viola, and violoncello, in D and
A ; 1 do., for oboe, violin, viola, and violon-
cello, in F. C. Trios : 7 for pianoforte, vio-



I'm, and violoncello, in B-flat, D minor, G,
B-flat, E, C, and G ; 1 (Kegelstatt-Trio), for
pianoforte, clarinet, and viola, in E-flat ;
Divertimento for violin, viola, and violon-
cello, in E-flat ; Kleines Adagio, for 2 basset-
horns and bassoon, in F. D. Duos : 43 so-
natas for pianoforte and violin Nos. 1, 9, 13,
18, 24, 27, 38, and 39, in C ; No. 21, iu C mi-
nor; Nos. 2 and 14, in D ; Nos. 11, 20, 26,
3G, and 41, iu E-flat ; Nos. 22 and 28, in E
minor ; Nos. 8, 15, 17, 19, 32, 33, and 43,
in F ; Nos. 4, 6, 12, 25, and 35, in G ; Nos.
7, 23, 29, 37, and 42, iu A ; Nos. 3, 5, 10,
16, 31 (one movement), 34, and 40, iu B-
llat ; 12 variations for do., on La bergere
HiliuH-ne, in G ; G do., on Helas, j'ai perdu
mon amaut, iu G minor ; 2 duos for violin
and viola, in G and B-flat ; 1 do. for 2 vio-
lins, in C ; 1 sonata for bassoon and violon-
cello, in B-flat.

IX. For pianoforte : 5 sonatas for 4
bands, in G, B-flat, D, F, and C ; Andante
and 5 variations for do., in G ; Fugue for 2
pianofortes, iu C minor ; Sonata for do., iu
D ; 17 sonatas for pianoforte solo ; Nos. 1,
7, 10, and 15, in C ; No. 14, in C minor ;
Nos. 6, 9, and 17, in D ; No. 4, iu E-flat ;
Nos. 2 and 12, in F ; No. 5, iu G ; No. 11,
iu A ; No. 8, in A minor. Four fantasias :
No. 1 (with fugue), iu C ; Nos. 2 and 4, in
C minor ; No. 3, in D minor ; 2 rondos, iu
D and A minor ; 15 sets of variations ; 1
suite, in C ; 15 smaller pieces ; Adagio for
harmonica; 3 pieces for mechanical organ.

X. For organ with other iustruments :
11 sonatas for 2 violins, bass, and organ, 2
in C, 1 in E-flat, 2 in B-flat, 3 in D, 2 iu F,

and 1 iu G ; 2 do. for
2 violins and bass, or
organ, in B flat and
D ; 2 do. for organ
and orchestra.

XI. For works left
unfinished at Mo-
zart's death, among which are the Requiem,
and the operas L' v<-a del Cairo and Lo sposo
deluso, see Breitkopf & Hiirtel's Catalogue
for 1885, 512. Otto Jahn, W. A. Mozart (2




vols., Leipsic, 18(57) ; do., in English, trans-
lated by Pauline D. Townseud (3 vols.,
London, 1882) ; G. N. von Nissen, Bio-
graphic W. A. Mozart (Leipsic, n. d.) ;
Wurzbach, Mozart-Buch (Vienna, 18G9) ;
Oulibicheff, Nouvelle biographic de M. (3
vols., Moscow, 1844) ; Grove ; Wurzbach.

MUDIE, THOMAS MOLLESON, born
at Chelsea, England, Nov. 30, 1809, died in
London, July 24, 1876. Pupil at the Royal
Academy of Music of Dr. Crotch in com-
position, of Cipriani Potter for pianoforte,
and of Willman for clarinet, and was
professor of pianoforte at the Academy iu
ls:!2-44. Iu 1834-40 he spent much time
in the service of Lord Monson at Gatton,
Surrey, where he was organist until 1844.
Many of his works were performed by the
Society of British Musicians, founded in
1834. He settled in Edinburgh as a teacher
in 1S44, but returned to London iu 18G3
and remained iu comparative obscurity.
Works : 48 solos and 6 duets for pianoforte ;
19 fantasias ; 3 sacred duets ; a collection
of 24 sacred songs ; 3 chamber anthems ;
42 songs and 2 duets ; Several symphonies ;
Trio, quintet, overture, and other pieces.
The scores of his symphonies and all his
printed works are in the library of the Royal
Academy of Music. Grove ; Riemaun, Gil.

M I ETTE DE PORTICI, LA (The Dumb
Girl of Portici), French opera in five acts,
text by Scribe and Germain Delavigne, mu-
sic by Auber, first represented at the Aca-
di'mie Royale de Musique, Paris, Feb. 29,
1828. Original Cast :

Masaniello (T.) M. Adolphe Nourrit.

Pietro (B.) M. Dabadie.

Elvire (S.) Mile Cinti-Damoreau.

Fenella (dauseuse) Mile Noblct.

The scene is near Naples. Fenella, the
dumb girl, whose part is expressed in pan-
tomime, escapes from prison and gains the
protection of the Priucesse Elvire from the
persecutions of an unknown cavalier. Dur-
ing the marriage of the Priucesse with Al-



eiu



MUETTE



phonse, son of the Due d'Arcos, she dis-
covers that he is her persecutor, and de-
nounces him to Elvire. In the second act
Masauiello, brother of Feuella, excites the
revolutionary spirit of the fishermen, assem-
bled on the sea-shore mending their nets and
sails. Feiiella attempts to throw herself
into the sea, but is prevented by Masaniello,
who vows to avenge her wrongs. The third
act is in the market-place, which is crowded
with market-girls and fishermen. Fenella,
seized by an officer, is rescued by the fisher-
men, and Masaniello gives the signal for a
general uprising, before which they chant
a cappella the celebrated prayer, taken from
Auber's mass. The fourth act shows Masa-
niello in his cottage. Feuella enters, de-
scribes the tumult in the city, and falls
asleep, while Masauiello sings to her the
song, " Du pauvre seul ami fidule," known
as "L'air du sommeil." Pietro, a fisher-
man, enters with the news of Alphonse's
escape, and the two depart. Shortly after-
wards Alphonse and Elvire seek refuge from
the mob within the cottage. Feuella prom-
ises her protection, and Masaniello, on his
return, yields to her petition. The people
rush in with the keys of the town, and pro-
claim Masaniello king. The fifth act opens
in the Viceroy's gardens, where a number
of fishermen are singing. It is soon an-
nounced that the troops are ordered against
the people, that Vesuvius is in eruption,
and that Masauiello has lost his reason.
Aroused by Fenella, he plunges into the
fray and is killed. At the news of her
brother's death, Fenella joins the hands of
Alphonse and Elvire, and throws herself
into the stream of lava that is flowing
through the town. Among the best num-
bers of the opera are the chorus : " O Dieu
puissant, Dieu tutcjlaire ; " the barcarolle,
" Amis, la matinee est belle," previously
used in the earlier opera Emma (18'21), sung
by Masaniello ; the duet, " Amour saciv de
la patrie," by Masauiello and Pietro ; Pie-
tro's barcarolle, " Voyez, du haut de ces
rivages ; " and Elvire 's aria, " Arbitre d'une



vie." The overture was previously used as
a prelude to Le Maron. This opera is Au-
ber's masterpiece, though its success was
partly due to its intense revolutionary
spirit. Its representations in Paris in 1830
occasioned great excitement, and Nourrit,
who achieved brilliant success as the hero,
rendered it still more popular by singing La
Parisieuue at each performance. The opera
was given 471 times at the Opera, Paris, up
to Oct. 28, 1873. In London La muette de
Portici was received with demonstrations
from the radicals during the reign of Will-
iam IV. Its performance in Brussels on
Aug. 25, 1830, caused the riots which
drove the Dutch from Belgium. The work
was forbidden in Italy, but it has been fre-
quently represented in Russia, as Feuella.
It was first given in Berlin as Die Stumme
von Portici, Jan. 12, 1829 ; in Vienna, April
11, 1829 ; and in London, at Drury Lane,
May 4, 1829, as Masaniello, in three acts,
and with Mr. Braham, who achieved great
success, in the title-role. It was performed
at Covent Garden, London, in Italian,
March 15, 1849, with Signor Mario as Ma-
saniello, and on April 4, 1850, Tamberlik
made his debut in England in the same
character with great success. It was given
at Her Majesty's as La rnuta di Portici,
April 10, 1851. It was first represented in
New York in English, Nov. 28, 1831 ; and
at the Metropolitan Opera House, in Ger-
man, as Masaniello, Feb. 16, 1887. Pub-
lished by Brandus & Dufour (Paris, 1829) ;
by Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipsic, 1829) ; by
Schott (Mainz, 1829) ; and by Trautweiu
(Berlin, 1829). Clement et Larousse, 468 ;
Lajarte, ii. 129 ; Liszt, Gesammelte Schrif-
ten, HI., Part I, 79 ; Hanslick, Moderue
Oper, 127 ; Berliner mus. Zeitg., vi. 27 ;
Allgern. mus. Zeitg., xxxi. 166, 338, 666;
Eevue musicale, iii. 129, 179 ; Revue et Ga-
zette musicale de Paris (1879), 297 ; Ed-
wards, History of the Opera, ii. 195 ; Athe-
Dieuni (1829), 285 ; (1849), 282 ; (1851), 412 ;
Grove, i. 103 ; Upton, Standard Operas,
14.



6B5



M I ' I- 1 FAT



MUFF AT, AUGUST GOTTLIEB, born ; Ballets ; Overtures; Choruses and songs.



about 1090, died iu Vienna, Dec. 10, 1770.
Son and pupil of Georg Muilut aiid pupil
of J. J. Fus ; was court organist to Em-



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