John Evelyn.

Diary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) online

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sick and wounded ; all which was granted. Hence to the
Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.

Came news of his Highnesses victory, which indeed
might have been a complete one, and at once ended the
war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or
treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however,
bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. ISext day, the
9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I
got to Rochester this evening. Next day, I lay at Deal,
where I found all in readiness ; but, the fleet being
hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th,
and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and, on the
13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward,
and lay at Chatham, and, on the 14th, I got home. On
the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of
State to the French King, with much other company, to
dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London,
to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave
his Majesty an account of my journey to the coasts under
my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness, now
come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See
the whole history of this conflict in my " History of the
Dutch War." *

20th. To London, and represented the state of the sick

See likewise Pepys' Diary, edited by Lord Braybrooke.



1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 395

and wounded to his Majesty in Council, for want of
money ; he ordered I should apply to my Lord Treasurer
and Chancellor of the Exchequer, upon what funds to raise
the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty
divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge.

This evening making my court to the Duke, I spake to
Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his
Highness granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were
desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant.

22nd. We waited on the Chancellor of the Exchequer,
and got an Order of Council for our money to be paid to
the Treasurer of the Navy for our Receivers.

23rd. I dined with Sir Robert Paston, since Earl of
Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother
to the Queen-Mother, a handsome old man, a great hunter.

The Duke of York told us that, when we were in fight,
his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all
the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous recep-
tion and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish
Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties
sitting together under the canopy of state.

30th. To Chatham ; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord
Sandwich, now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace
to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at
anchor ; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ord-
nance, haply the best ship in the world both for building
and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza,
or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined
with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served
in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner,
came his Majesty, the Duke, and Prince Rupert. Here I
saw the King knight Captain Custance for behaving so
bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the
good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel
so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot
in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which,
after a gun was shot off, came all the flag-ofiicers to his
Majesty, who there held a General Council, which deter-
mined that his Royal Highness should adventure himself
no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the
most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned
in his Majesty's yacht with my Lord Sandwich and



396 DIARY OP [LONDON,

Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday
morning.

5th July. I took order for 150 men, who had been
recovered of their wounds, to be carried on board the
Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus, and Zealand, ships that had
been taken by us in the fight ; and so returned home.

7th. To London, to Sir William Coventry ; and so to
Sion, where his Majesty sat at Council during the contagion;
when business was over, I viewed that seat belonging to
the Earl of Northumberland, built out of an old nunnery,
of stone, and fair enough, but more celebrated for the
garden than it deserves : yet there is excellent wall-fruit,
and a pretty fountain ; nothing else extraordinary.

9th. I went to Hampton-Court, where now the whole
Court was, to solicit for money ; to carry intercepted
letters; confer again with Sir William Coventry, the
Duke's secretary; and so home, having dined with Mr.
Secretary Morice.

16th. There died of the plague in London this week
1100; and, in the week following, above 2000. Two houses
were shut up in our parish.

2nd August. A solemn Fast through England to de-
precate God's displeasure against the land by pestilence
and war; our Doctor preaching on 26 Levit. v. 41, 42,
that the means to obtain remission of punishment was not
to repine at it ; but humbly to submit to it.

3rd. Came his Grace the Duke of Albemarle, Lord
General of all his Majesty's Forces, to visit me, and
carried me to dine with him.

4th. I went to Wotton with my Son and his tutor,
Mr. Bohun, Fellow of New College (recommended to me
by Dr. Wilkins, and the President of New College,
Oxford), for fear of the pestilence, still increasing in Lon-
don and its environs. On my return, I called at Durdans,
where I found Dr. Wilkins, Sir William Petty, and Mr.
Hooke, contriving chariots, new rigging for ships, a wheel
for one to run races in, and other mechanical inventions ;
perhaps three such persons together were not to be found
elsewhere in Europe for parts and ingenuity.

8th. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle, who was re-
solved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died
this week in London 4000.



1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 397

15th. There perished this week 5000.

28th. The contagion still increasing, and growing now
all about us, I sent my Wife and whole family (two or
three necessary servants excepted) to my brother's at
Wotton, being resolved to stay at my house myself, and
to look after my charge, trusting in the providence and
goodness of God.

5th September. To Chatham, to inspect my charge, with
900/. in my coach.

7th. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor
creatures weekly ; however, I went all along the city and
suburbs from Kent Street to St. James's, a dismal pas-
sage, and dangerous to see so many coffins exposed in the
streets, now thin of people ; the shops shut up, and all in
mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next.
I went to the Duke of Albemarle for a pest-ship, to wait on
our infected men, who were not a few.

14th. I went to Wotton ; and, on 16th September, to
visit old Secretary Nicholas, being now at his new pur-
chase of West Horsley, once mortgaged to me by Lord
Viscount Montague : a pretty dry seat on the Down.
Returned to Wotton.

17th. Receiving a letter from Lord Sandwich of a de-
feat given to the Dutch, I was forced to travel all Sunday.
I was exceedingly perplexed to find that near 3000 priso-
ners were sent to me to dispose of, being more than I had
places fit to receive and guard.

25th. My Lord-Admiral being come from the fleet to
Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to
consult with the Duke of Albemarle. I was peremptory
that, unless we had 10,000/. immediately, the prisoners
would starve, and it was proposed it should be raised out
of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich.
They being but two of the commission, and so not em-
powered to determine, sent an express to his Majesty and
Council, to know what they should do. In the meantime,
I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the pri-
soners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best.
After dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to
visit his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth.

28th. To the General again, to acquaint him of the



398 DIARY OP [GRAVESEND,

deplorable state of our men for want of provisions :
returned with orders.

29th. To Erith, to quicken the sale of the prizes lying
there, with order to the commissioner who lay on board till
they should be disposed of, 5000/. being proportioned for
my quarter. Then I delivered the Dutch Vice-Admiral,

who was my prisoner, to Mr. Lo * of the Marshalsea, he

giving me bond in 500/. to produce him at my call. I
exceedingly pitied this brave unhappy person, who had
lost with these prizes 40,OOOJ. after 20 years' negotiation
[trading] in the East Indies. I dined in one of these
vessels, of 1200 tons, full of riches.

1st October. This afternoon, whilst at evening prayers,
tidings were brought me of the birth of a Daughter at
Wotton, after six Sons, in the same chamber I had first
took breath in, and at the first day of that month, as I
was on the last, 45 years before.

4th. The monthly Fast.

llth. To London, and went through the whole City,
having occasion to alight out of the coach in several places
about business of money, when I was environed with mul-
titudes of poor pestiferous creatures begging alms : the
shops universally shut up, a dreadful prospect ! I dined
with my Lord General; was to receive 10,0007., and had
guards to convey both myself and it, and so returned
home, through God's infinite mercy.

17th. I went to Gravesend; next day to Chatham ; thence,
to Maidstone, in order to the march of 500 prisoners to
Leeds Castle, which I had hired of Lord Culpeper. I was
earnestly desired by the learned Sir Roger Twisden, and
Deputy-Lieutenants, to spare Maidstone from quartering
any of my sick flock. Here, Sir Edward Brett sent me
some horse to bring up the rear. This country, from
Rochester to Maidstone and the Downs, is very agreeable
for the prospect.

21st. I came from Gravesend, where Sir J. Griffith, the
Governor of the Fort, entertained me very handsomely.

81st. I was this day 45 years of age, wonderfully pre-
served ; for which I blessed God for His infinite goodness
towards me.

* Mr. Lowman.



1665.] JOHN EVELYN. 399

23rd November. Went home, the contagion having now
decreased considerably.

27th. The Duke of Albemarle was going to Oxford,
where both Court and Parliament had been most part of
the summer. There was no small suspicion of my Lord
Sandwich having permitted divers commanders, who were
at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and
take to themselves jewels, silks, &c. : though I believe
some whom I could name filled their pockets, my Lord
Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he un-
derwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and pre-
possessed the Lord General, for he spake to me of it with
much zeal and concern, and I believe laid load enough on
Lord Sandwich at Oxford.

8th December. To my Lord of Albemarle (now returned
from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, to the no
small mortification of that excellent person the Earl of
Sandwich, whom the Duke of Albemarle not only sus-
pected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant ; himself
imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hol-
landers, as well now as heretofore he fought against them
upon a more disloyal interest.

25th. Kept Christmas with my hospitable Brother, at
Wotton.

30th. To Woodcot, where I supped at my Lady Mor-
daunt's at Ashted, where was a room hung with pintado,
full of figures great and small, prettily representing sundry
trades and occupations of the Indians, with their habits ;
here supped also Dr. Duke, a learned and facetious gen-
tleman.

31st. Now blessed be God for His extraordinary mercies
and preservation of me this year, when thousands, and
ten thousands, perished, and were swept away on each
side of me, there dying in our parish this year 406 of the
pestilence !



ADDITIONAL NOTES.



Page 4, line 2 from bottom. " The Bohemians 1 defection from the
Emperor Matthias."

Evelyn alludes to the insurrection of the Bohemians on the 12th of May,
1618. The Emperor died soon after, and the revolted Bohemians offered
the crown to the Elector Palatine Frederic, who had married Elizabeth,
daughter of James I. ; whereupon there was great excitement throughout
England, in consequence of the backwardness of the king to assist his son-in-
law in the struggle for a kingdom, for which the people willingly, as Evelyn
in a subsequent page informs us, made " large contributions." This is the
" talk and stir" to which Evelyn has just alluded in connection with Count
Gondomar, whose influence had been used with James to withdraw him from
the Protestant cause.

Page 6, line 13. " The Lord of Castlehaven."

Mervyn Touchet, second Earl of Castlehaven ; convicted by a court of
twenty-seven lords, with the Lord Keeper, sitting in Westminster Hall, of
crimes of the grossest description ; and in pursuance of their sentence,
executed on Tower Hill, May 14, 1631.

Page 7, line 12. " My Lord of Lindsey, then Admiral."

Robert Bertie, tenth Baron Willoughby d'Eresby, subsequently created
Earl of Lindsey, a Knight of the Garter. He was at different times Lord
High Chamberlain, Lord High Admiral, Constable of England, and Governor
of Berwick ; and was general of the king's forces at the breaking out of
the Civil War. He was in command at the Battle of Edgehill, in 1642 ; but,
opposing Prince Rupert's pretensions, he surrendered a responsibility which
the weakness of Charles would have had him divide with a " boy," put himself
at the head of his regiment, fought with heroic gallantry, and fell covered with
wounds.

Page 10.

Evelyn should have said u till twenty years after," not thirty. Coffee was
introduced into England, and coffee-houses set up in 1658.

Page 15. Vanderborcht" and " Hollar."

Henry Vanderborcht, a painter, of Brussels, lived at Frankendale. Lord
Arundel, finding his son Henry at Frankfort, sent him to Mr. Petty, then
collecting for him in Italy, and afterwards kept him in his service as long as
he lived. Vauderborcht, the younger, was both painter and engraver; he drew



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 401

many of the Arundelian curiosities, and etched several things, both in that
and the Royal Collection. A book of his drawings from the former, con-
taining 567 pieces, is preserved at Paris ; and is described in the catalogue
of L'Orangerie, p. 199. After the death of the Earl, the younger Henry
entered into the service of the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II., and
lived in esteem in London for a considerable time ; but returned to Ant-
werp, and died there. See Horace Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting. Win-
ceslaus Hollar was born at Prague, in Bohemia, in the year 1 607, and came
to England in the suite of the Earl of Arundel, in the year 1 636. In the
troubles he distinguished himself as a Royalist, for which he was imprisoned
by the Parliament. He escaped to the continent, but returned at the
Restoration, and died in great distress, March 28th, 1677.

Paye 15. Entries of 25th and 27th April, and 12th of May.

The reader may here remark the circumstance, that between the entries
which relate to Lord Strafford, the young Prince of Orange came over to
make love to the Princess Royal, then twelve years old ; and that the
marriage was subsequently celebrated amid extraordinary Court rejoicings
and festivities, in which the King took a prominent part, in the short interval
which elapsed between the sentence and execution of the King's great and
unfortunate minister. It may not be out of place here to indicate the more
important passages printed for the first time in the present edition of the
Diary) the minor alterations need not be pointed out), and which occur chiefly
in the commencing forty pages. They will be found at pp. 1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 1 1 ,
12, ] 5, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 27, and 29.

Page 18. " Queen of Bohemia's Court."

Elizabeth, daughter of James I , mother of the Princes Maurice and
Rupert ; her youngest daughter was Sophia, Electoress of Hanover, whose
eldest son was George I.

Page 18. "Lord Finch."

Sir John Finch, Speaker of the House of Commons in 1627; Attorney-
General to the Queen (Henrietta Maria) in 1635 ; the following year
promoted to be Judge of the Common Pleas ; afterwards Lord Chief
Justice; thence promoted to be Lord Keeper of the Great Seal in 1637 ;
and in April, 1 640, advanced to the peerage as Baron Finch. He died in
1660.

Page 1 9. " Colonel Goring."

This was George, distinguished in the Civil Wars as General Goring, for
his military services in the cause of the King. He subsequently obtained
additional reputation as a lieutenant-general in the army of the King of
Spain employed in the Netherlands. He was the eldest son of Sir George
Goring, in 1632 created Baron Goring, and in 1644 raised to the Earldom
of Norwich, for his services to Charles I., before and after the troubles.
General Goring died before his father, in 1662.

Page 23.

In the early editions of this Diary, the entry relating to the Amsterdam
Hospital stood thus : u But none did I so much admire as an hospital for
their lame and decrepid soldiers, it being for state, order, and accommoda-
tions, one of the worthiest things that the world can show of that nature.
Indeed it is most remarkable what provisions are here made and maintain'd
for publick and charitable purposes, and to protect the poor from misery,
and the country from beggars." The passage in the text would appear to

VOL. I. D D



402 ADDITIONAL NOTES.

have received Evelyn's later correction. The reader will remember with
some interest, in connexion with this remark on the hospital of Amsterdam,
that the first stone of Greenwich Hospital was afterwards laid by Evelyn.

Page 23.

Some slight differences may be marked in the description of the Dutch
towns as it stands in the earlier editions. These and other discrepancies
are explained in the preface to the present edition ; and, in all the more
important passages, the text as first printed is preserved in these notes.
"... sluices, moles, and rivers, that nothing is more frequent than to see
a whole navy of merchants and others environ'd with streets and houses,
every man's bark or vessel at anchor before his very door ; and yet the
street so exactly strait, even, and uniform, that nothing can be more pleasing,
especially being so frequently planted and shaded with the beautiful lime-trees,
set in rows before every man's house."

Page 24.

The description of the Briloft is thus given in the earlier editions :
u There was a lamp of brass, with eight sockets from the middle stem,
like those we use in churches, having counterfeit tapers in them, streams of
water issuing as out of their wicks, the whole branch hanging loose upon a
tack in the midst of a beam, and without any other perceptible commerce
with any pipe, so that, unless it were by compression of the air with a
syringe, I could not comprehend how it should be done. There was a chime
of porcelain dishes, which fitted to clock-work and rung many ohanges and
tunes." That of the Reiser's Graft stands thus : " The Reiser's Graft, or
Emperor's Street, appears a city in a wood through the goodly ranges of
the stately lime-trees planted before each man's door, and at the margin
of that goodly aquse-duct, or river, so curiously wharfed with clincars (a kind
of white sun-bak'd brick), and of which material the spacious streets on
either side are paved. This part of Amsterdam is gained upon the main
sea, supported by piles at an immense charge. Prodigious it is to consider
the multitude of vessels which continually ride before this City, which is
certainly the most busy concourse of mortals now upon the whole earth,
and the most addicted to commerce."

Page 25.

The entry as to the booksellers is thus expressed in the earlier editions :
" I went to Hundius's shop to buy some maps, greatly pleased with the
designs of that indefatigable person. Mr. Bleaw, the setter forth of the
Atlas's and other works of that kind, is worthy seeing."

Page 26. " The famous Dan Heinsius."

Daniel Heinsius, a scholar and critic, who edited numerous editions
of the Classics. He was chosen professor of history at Leyden ; then
secretary and librarian of the University. In 1619, he was appointed secre-
tary to the states of Holland, at the Synod of Dort ; and the fame of his
learning became so diffused, that the Pope endeavoured to draw him to
Rome. He was made a Rnight of St. Mark by the Republic of Venice, and
the Ring of Sweden honoured him with the title of Counsellor. He died in
January, 1 655. The Elzevir printers are well known.

Page 32, line 52. Sir Henry De Vic."

For twenty years resident at Brussels for Charles II ; also Chancellor
of the Order of the Garter ; and in 1 662 appointed Comptroller of the
Household of the Duke of York. He died in 1672.



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 403

Page 32.

In the earlier editions of the Diary, the entry descriptive of the tower of
Antwerp Cathedral was taken from Evelyn's earlier text. " It is a very
venerable fabric, built after the Gothic manner ; the tower is of an excessive
height. This I ascended, that I might the better take a view of the country
about it, which happening on a day when the sun shone exceedingly hot,
and darted the rays without any interruption, afforded so bright a reflection
to us who were above, and had a full prospect of both land and water about it,
that I was much confirmed in my opinion of the moon's being of some such
substance as this earthly globe consists of ; perceiving all the adjacent country
at so small a horizontal distance, to repercuss such a light as I could hardly
look against, save where the river, and other large water within our view,
appeared of a more dark and uniform colour, resembling those spots in the
moon supposed to be seas there, according to our new philosophy, and
viewed by optical glasses. I numbered in this church 30 privileged altars,
whereof that of St. Sebastian's was rarely painted."

Page 51, line 17. "Monsieur Saracin."

James Sarazin, a celebrated sculptor, much employed by the royal family
of France. For Cardinal Richelieu he executed, in silver and gold, Anne
of Austria's offering to the Chapel of Loretto, in the form of a group
representing the dauphin's presentation to the Virgin Mary. Born 1590,
died 1660.

Page 66.

In the first and second quarto editions of the Diary many trifling personal
details, such as this mention of the author having sent his own picture in
watercolours to his sister, were omitted ; but they were restored by Mr.
Upcott in the subsequent octavos. It is not necessary to point them out in
detail. They are always of this personal character (for other examples, the
mention of the wet weather preventing the diarist from stirring out, at
p. 117, and that of his coming weary to his lodgings, at p. 114, might be
cited), and seldom of any importance. There is only one passage in the
quarto editions which has not been repeated in the octavos, and it would be
difficult to say what induced Mr. Upcott to omit in the latter the incident it
describes ; unless Evelyn's apparent confusion as to the name of the inn at
Orleans where the adventure occurred (for he calls it the White Lion as
well as the White Cross) may have caused him to doubt the miracle alto-
gether. It occurs in the mention of his coming to Orleans (at p. 67),
where, as printed in the quarto, he adds, " I lay at the White Lion, where I
found Mr. John Nicholas, eldest son to Mr. Secretary. In the night a cat
kittened on my bed, and left on it a young one having six ears, eight legs,
two bodies from the middle downwards, and two tails. I found it dead, but
warm, in the morning when I awaked."

Page 101, line 3 from bottom. " My Lord of Somerset."

Thomas, third son of Edward fourth Earl of Worcester, made a Knight of
the Bath, by King James, and in 1626 created Viscount Somerset, of Cashel,
in Ireland. He died in 1651.

Page 1 08. Father Kircher."

Athanasius Kircher was born at Fulda, in Germany, early in the seven-
teenth century. He received his education at Wurtzburg, and in 1635
entered the College of Jesuits, at Avignon. He became a good scholar in
Oriental literature, and an admirable mathematician ; but he directed his

D D 2



404 ADDITIONAL NOTES.

attention particularly to the study of hieroglyphics. Father Kircher's works
on various abstruse subjects amount to twenty folio volumes, for which he
acquired great renown in his day. On Evelyn's visit to Rome, he was con-
sidered one of the greatest mathematicians and Hebrew scholars of which
the metropolis of Christianity then the head quarters of learning could
boast. He died there in 1680. See subsequent passages in the Diary,



Online LibraryJohn EvelynDiary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) → online text (page 40 of 46)