John Evelyn.

Diary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) online

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Online LibraryJohn EvelynDiary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) → online text (page 41 of 46)
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p. 313.

Page 108. " Schotti."

Caspar Schott, a native of Wurtzburg, where he was born in 1608, who
had the advantage of being the favourite pupil of Father Kircher. He
taught philosophy and mathematics at Rome and Palermo, and published
several curious and erudite works in philosophy and natural history ; but
they have long since ceased to possess any authority. He died in 1666.

Page 132, Urn 28. " Famianus Strada."

Born at Rome, in 1572 ; after joining the Society of Jesus, in 1592,
appointed professor of rhetoric in their college in Home ; and known to
the English reader by his " Prolusiones Academicse," in which he intro-
duced clever imitations of the Latin poets, translations of several of which
Addison published in the ' Guardian.' He died at Rome, in 1649.

Page 193. " Isabella Sirani."

Giovanni Andrea Sirani, a Bolognese artist, had three daughters. The
most celebrated, Elizabetta, born 1638, and died August 1657, is the lady
alluded to by Evelyn as having been so famous a copyist of Guido, of whom
her father was a pupil, and imitator. Her sisters, Anna and Barbara, were
also artists, but never reached the excellence of Elizabetta.

Page 204. Lord Bruce."

Thomas Bruce, first Earl of Elgin, in Scotland ; created by Charles I.,
on the 13th of July, 1640, Baron Bruce, of Whorlton, Yorkshire, in the
English peerage. He died in 1663.

Page 21 1. The Cavalier Dr. Veslingius."

John Vesling was born at Minden, in Germany, in 1598 ; and became
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Padua. Evelyn says that at
his visit he was anatomical and botanical professor, and prefect. He had the
care of the botanical garden, and published a catalogue of its plants. He
wrote also " Syntagma Anatomicum," and shortly afterwards travelled
into Egypt, where he seems to have paid a good deal of attention to the
artificial means of hatching poultry, then an Egyptian marvel, lately a
common exhibition in London. He wrote many other works, and died
in 1 649.

Page 214. Lord Mowbray, eldest son to the Earl of Arundel."

James Lord Mowbray and Maltravers, the eldest son of Lord Arundel,
died before his father. Evelyn's friend was Henry Frederick, the Earl's
second son, who, on his father's death in Italy, succeeded to the earldom of
Arundel. He married, in 1626, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Esme Stuart,
Earl of March, and afterwards Duke of Lennox ; who will be found noticed
occasionally by Evelyn. He died April 7, 1652.


Page 215. " Mr. Henry Howard, grandchild to the Earl of Arundel."

Second son of the preceding. He succeeded his elder brother, Thomas, who
had been restored to the dukedom of Norfolk, as sixth duke, though he had
previously been created Baron Howard and Earl of Norwich. Also created
Earl Marshal of England, and died January 11, 1683-4. Evelyn often
mentions this family.

Page 219. " Lord Arundel's grandson Philip, turning Dominican friar,
since Cardinal of Norfolk."

Philip was the third son of Henry Frederick Baron Mowbray. He
entered the Church of Rome, as stated by Evelyn, and afterwards rose to
the dignity of Cardinal and became Lord Almoner to Catherine, consort of
Charles II. He died in 1694.

Page 224. " Ferrarius, a Doctor of the Ambrosian College."

Francisco Bernardino Ferrari, born in 1577, and for his extensive know-
ledge of books selected by Frederick Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, as
a proper person to travel and collect books and manuscripts for a noble
library he was desirous of founding in that city. He collected a great
number of works in all classes of literature, which, with later additions, has
since been known as the Ambrosian Library. He died in 1669.

Page 239. " His little pupil, the Earl of Carnarvon."

Charles, third Baron Dormer, succeeded, in September, 1643, as second
Earl of Carnarvon ; his father having been killed at Newbury, where he was
in arms for the King as a General of Horse. He died on the 29th of Sep-
tember, 1709.

Page 245. " Dr. Earle."

John Earle was born at York in 1601, and finished his education at Mer-
ton College, Oxford, where he took his degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was
appointed sub-tutor to Prince Charles, son of Charles I., whom he afterwards
attended when abroad, as chaplain. Returning to England at the Restora-
tion, he was successively made Dean of Westminster, Clerk of the Closet,
Bishop of Worcester, and Bishop of Salisbury. He was the author of a
Latin translation of the " Eikon Basilike," of " Microsmography, or a piece
of the World discovered in Essays and Characters," and of " An Elegy on
Mr. Francis Beaumont." He died at Oxford in 1665.

Page 246. " Sir William Ducy [Ducie], afterwards Lord Downe."

The son of Sir Robert Ducie, the wealthy Lord Mayor, created a baronet
by Charles ; his only return for about 80,OOOL which Chai-les had borrowed
from him. Sir William was made one of the Knights. of the Bath, and
created Viscount Downe at the coronation of Charles II. Dying without
issue, his estates descended to the only daughter of his younger brother,
whose son was Lord Ducie in 1720, and from him descended the present
Earl of Ducie.

Page 248. La Neve."

Probably the artist mentioned by Walpole as Cornelius Neve, who drew a
portrait of Ashmole.

Page 251. " Sir Arthur Hopton, brother to Sir Ralph Lord 11 op ton,
that noble hero."

Sir Arthur Hopton was uncle, not brother, to Lord Hopton (so well known
for his services to Charles in the course of the Civil War) ; and would have


succeeded his Lordship in the title, as the latter died childless, but that Sir
Arthur had himself died two years before him, without issue, in the year
1650. The title became extinct.

Page 251. "My worthy friend, Sir John Owen."

A Royalist officer, whose life had been forfeited for the part he took
against the Parliament, but was sared by the timely interposition of
Colonel Hutchinson. The latter humanely spoke for him in the House, though
Sir John was a perfect stranger to him, because he perceived, while the great
noblemen, his companions, found earnest intercessors, no one seemed to know
anything of the Knight, or would offer a word in favour of him. Sir John
Owen afterwards proved himself ungrateful.

Page 251. Lady Hatton."

Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Charles Montague, and niece of Henry
Earl of Manchester. She married Sir Christopher Hatton made a Knight
of the Bath at the coronation of Charles I., who, on the 20th of July, 1643,
created him Baron Hatton, of Kirby, for his devotion to the royal cause.
After the Restoration, he was sworn of the Privy Council, and appointed
governor of Guernsey. He died in 1 670.

Page 252. Old Alexander Rosse."
Immortalised in Butler's couplet :

" There was an ancient sage Philosopher ;
Who had read Alexander Ross over."

He was a Scotchman, born in 1591 ; and after receiving an education for
the church, took orders, became master of a free school at Southampton,
and preached, wrote, and taught with a diligence that ought to have obtained
him other reputation than Butler's ludicrous lines have bestowed upon him.
He died in 1654.

Page 252. " Lady Catherine Scott, Daughter of the Earl of Norwich."

His youngest daughter ; married to James Scott, Esq., of Scott's Hall,
Kent, supposed to have been a son of Prince Rupert.

Page 252. * Sir George Cartaret, Governor of Jersey."

George was son and heir to Helier Cartaret, Esq., Deputy-governor of
Jersey, and grandson of Sir Philip Cartaret, who in the reign of Elizabeth
planted a colony in the island (in which his ancestors, from the time of Ed-
ward I., had held lands) to secure it from the French, who had fre-
quently sought to obtain possession of it. The son of the Deputy-governor
entered the navy at an early age ; greatly distinguished himself in the
service ; and attracting the attention of the Duke of Buckingham, received
the appointment from Charles I., of Joint-governor of Jersey, and Comp-
troller of the Navy. Having served the King during the civil wars, at
the Restoration he was returned to Parliament for Portsmouth, and filled
the office of Treasurer of the Navy. He died January 13th, 1674. Several
members of his family distinguished themselves in the wars of the seventeenth
century, and one of his descendants became a celebrated statesman under
the first and second Georges.

Page 253. My Lord Wilmot."

Henry, only son of Charles Viscount Wilmot, of Athlone, raised to the
English Peerage by Charles I., in June 29, 1643, as Baron Wilmot, of
Adderbury. He held a command in the King's cavalry, in which he served


with distinction at the battle of Roundway Doune ; subsequently assisting
Charles II. to escape from the field of Worcester ; though, according to the
King's statement to Pepys, it was rather in the way of hiding from, than in
combating with, his enemies. Nevertheless he was created Earl of Roches-
ter, December 13, 1652, at Paris, where Charles for a short time assumed
the privilege of sovereignty. He died at Dunkirk in 1659, and was suc-
ceeded by his only surviving son, afterwards the notorious Rochester.

Page 253. " Mrs. Barlow, the King's mistress, and mother to the Duke
of Monmouth."

The lady here referred to was Lucy, daughter of Richard Walters, Esq.,
of Haverfordwest. (See Evelyn's striking mention of her in a later passage,
vol. ii., p. 229.) She had two children by the King ; James, subsequently
so celebrated as the Duke of Monmouth, and Mary, whose lot was obscure in
comparison with that of her brother, but of course infinitely happier. She
married a Mr. William Sarsfield, of Ireland, and after his death, William
Fanshawe, Esq.

Page 253. " Mr. William Coventry, afterwards Sir William."

A member of the Privy Council of Charles II., and Commissioner of the
Treasury, but dismissed the Court for sending a challenge to the Duke of
Buckingham. " He was a man," says Burnet, " of great notions and eminent
virtues ; the best speaker in the House of Commons, and capable of bearing
the chief ministry, as it was once thought he was very near it, and deserved
it more than all the rest did." Evelyn, in a subsequent mention in his
journal, characterises him as "a wise and witty gentleman."

Page 256. M My Lord of Ossory, and Richard, sons to the Marquis
of Onnonde."

James Butler, Marquis of Ormonde, and Earl of Ossory in the Irish
Peerage, first brought himself into notice when Ireland had for her Lord-
Deputy the Earl of Strafford. A Parliament had been summoned to meet at
Dublin Castle with strict injunctions that the members were to come
unarmed, and the young Marquis not having attended to this when he pre-
sented himself at the door, the Usher of the Black Rod demanded his
sword ; whereupon the other fiercely replied, that if he had his sword at all, he
should have it "in his guts." The Lord-Deputy summoned the Marquis of
Ormonde before him in the evening to account for this conduct ; when his
Lordship produced the King's writ summoning him to Parliament " cinctus
cum gladio." Upon this Strafford fancied so resolute a man would be better
as a friend than as an enemy, resolved to attach him to the King's service and
to his own, and appointed him a member of the Council. The Marquis
was afterwards a staunch friend of Strafford, even in his adversity, and an
equally earnest partizan of the King, who bestowed upon him the Order of
the Garter, and appointed him Lord-Deputy of Ireland, and Lord Steward of
the Household. In the Civil Wars he exerted himself zealously in the cause of
his master, till obliged to seek safety with his family in exile. He returned at
the Restoration, and Charles II., on the 20th of July, 1660, raised him to the
English Peerage by the titles of Baron Butler and Earl of Brecknock, advanced
him in the Irish Peerage to the Dukedom of Ormonde, and again appointed
him to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland. He died in 1688. Bishop Burnet
has left a sort of negative character of the Duke, for he describes him as
" a man of great expense, but decent even in his vices, for he always kept
up the forms of religion." He seems to have made himself more accept-
able to Grammont, who neither alludes to his vices nor to his religion


but, discovering a resemblance in the turn of his wit and the nobility of
his manners to his own relative, the Marshal de Grammont, thinks that he
is bound to estimate the Duke at the highest possible appreciation. Of the
sons mentioned by Evelyn, the first was the Duke's second son, Thomas,
Earl of Ossory, who proved himself an efficient commander both by sea and
land, an able statesman, and an accomplished man of letters. According to
Anthony Wood, his heroism in the sea fight with the Dutch, in 1 673, was
" beyond the fiction of romance ; " and Evelyn's correspondence contains
earnest tributes to his character. On the 24th of September, 1666, he was
summoned to Parliament as Lord Butler, of Moor Park ; and was after-
wards employed as General of the Horse, as member of the Privy Council, and
as deputy for his father in his Irish government. He died July 30, 1680.
Richard, the younger brother of Thomas, also referred to by Evelyn,
was created an Irish Peer in 1662, by the titles of Baron Butler, Viscount
Tullogh, and Earl of Arran ; and became an English Peer in 1673, by the
title of Baron Butler, of Weston. He also was deputy for his father, and
distinguished himself both by sea and land, particularly in the naval engage-
ment with the Dutch in 1673, and against the mutinous garrison of Carrick-
fergus. He died in 1685. Evelyn highly esteemed this family, and makes
frequent allusion to them.

Page 256. Earl of Chesterfield."

Sir Philip Stanhope, created November 7, 1616, Baron Stanhope of Shel-
ford ; and on the 4th August, 1628, Earl of Chesterfield. At the breaking
out of hostilities with the Parliament, his lordship became a determined
partisan for the King, and garrisoned his house at Shelford, where his son
Philip lost his life, and the place was stormed and burned to the ground.
Lord Chesterfield at last found safety in flight, and retired to France. He
died September 12, 1756.

Page 258. Lord Stanhope."

Charles, second Baron Stanhope, of Harrington. He died in 1677. Henry,
son of Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, and his son Philip (subsequently
second Earl), also in succession bore the title of Lord Stanhope.

Page 258. " The famous sculptor Nanteuil."

Robert Nanteuil, who drew cleverly in crayons, and was an admirable
engraver. Born at Rheims, in 1630, and died at Paris in 1678.

Page 262. u Sir Thomas Osborne, afterwards Lord Treasurer."

The only son of Sir Edward Osborne, Vice-President of the Council
for the north of England, and Lieutenant-General of the Northern Forces.
Sir Edward had devoted himself to the cause of Charles I., and his son
followed his example. He shared the same fortune as other exiles during
the Protectorate, but at the Restoration was amply rewarded, dignities and
titles being showered upon him with excessive liberality. Lord High
Treasurer, and Knight of the Garter, he was successively created Baron
Osborne, of Kiveton, and Viscount Latimer, of Danby; Earl of Danby,
Marquis of Carmarthen, and Duke of Leeds, in the English Peerage ; and
Viscount Dumblane, in the Peerage of Scotland. He died July 26, 1712.
The vicissitudes of his official career are well known.

Page 266. " Mr. Thomas White, a learned Priest, and famous philosopher."

A native of Essex, who was born in 1582, educated abroad, and, his family
being Catholic, became a priest of that church, and sub-rector of the college


at Douay. He advocated the Cartesian philosophy, and this brought him
into an extensive correspondence with Hobbes and Descartes, in the course
of which he Latinised his name into Thomas Albius, or De Albis. He died
in 1676.

Page 266. Lord Strafford."

This was William, the eldest son of the Earl who was executed ; but
he was not restored to his father's titles till the Restoration. He died in
1 695. The " Lord Wentworth " adverted to by Evelyn in a preceding page
(253), was the son of the Earl of Cleveland.

Page 267. " The Lord Gerrard."

Charles, son of Sir Charles Gerard, having served for some time in the
Netherlands, returned to England in time to join King Charles, when
his dispute with the Parliament was referred to the sword. He was made a
general officer, and eminently distinguished himself on several occasions, for
which the King appointed him lieutenant-general of his horse, and created
him Baron Gerard, of Brandon, on the 8th of November, 1 645. By Charles II.
he was raised to the dignity of Viscount Brandon, and Earl of Macclesfield,
on the 23d of July, 1679 ; but by James II. he was sent to the Tower, in
company with the Lords Stamford and Delamere, and condemned to death,
though afterwards pardoned. He lived five years beyond the Revolution.

Page 273. Mrs. Lane."

Sister of Colonel Lane, an English officer in the army of Charles II. dis-
persed at the battle of Worcester. She assisted the King in effecting his
escape after that battle, his Majesty travelling with her disguised as her
serving-man, William Jackson..

Page 278. " My Lord Devonshire."

William, third Earl. He died in 1684. " My young lord," with whom
Evelyn desired that his nephew George might be " brought up," was his only
son, William, created on the 12th of May 1694 Marquis of Harlington and
Duke of Devonshire. He was also Knight of the Garter and Lord Steward
of the Household.

Page 278. " Sir Adam Newton."

Tutor and afterwards secretary to Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of
James I., who, in April, 1620, created him a baronet. An admirable
scholar. After the death of Prince Henry, Sir Adam Newton was
appointed treasurer to Prince Charles, and in 1628 succeeded Lord Brooke
as secretary to the Marches of Wales. He died in 1629-30, leaving one son
Evelyn's " noble friend" Sir Henry Newton, who, on the decease of the
last surviving daughter of his uncle, Sir Thomas Pickering, succeeded to his
estate and assumed his name.

Page 283. Dr. Scarborough."

Sir Charles Scarborough was educated at Caius College, Cambridge, where
he obtained a Fellowship. He afterwards studied medicine ; but making
himself too conspicuous as a Royalist during the troubles, was deprived of
his Fellowship, and found it necessary to retire to Oxford. Subsequently
he practised in London as a physician, and at the Restoration received the
honour of knighthood, and was named one of the King's physicians. He
succeeded Harvey at Surgeons' Hall as lecturer.


Page 288. " Sir Robert Stapylton."

A member of a Yorkshire Catholic family, who obtained the post
of Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Prince Charles (Charles II.), occasion-
ally varying his duties by fighting against the Parliamentarians and writing
books. For his services at Edgehill, Charles I. conferred on him the honour
of knighthood ; and, at about the same period, he was made LL.D at Oxford.
At the Restoration, Sir Robert Stapylton appeared as a writer of plays,
poems, and translations. He died in 1669.

Pages 2889. My Lord Craven."

William, eldest son of Sir William Craven, Lord Mayor of London, who,
after a good deal of service under Gustavus Adolphus and Henry Prince of
Orange, distinguished himself against the forces of the Parliament, and was
created by Charles I., in 1663, Viscount and Earl Craven. He survived
all the changes of the government, and, in the latter years of his life,
acquired some celebrity from an odd peculiarity of taste. He was so sure
to be at any conflagration that occurred in London, that the people said his
horse "smelt a fire as soon as it happened." He died, April 9th, 1697,
at the advanced age of eighty-eight. (The word " Caversham," in the first
line of p. 289, should have been printed between brackets.)

Page 288. Note upon Buckingham House.

This note is not correct. The first house on the site of the present
Buckingham Palace was called Goring House ; the second, Arlington House ;
the third, Buckingham House, afterwards called the Queen's House, and
pulled down to erect the present Buckingham Palace.

Page 290. " Dr. Ward, Mathematical Professor."

Seth Ward, the son of an attorney, was born in 1617, at Bantingford,
in Hertfordshire, and finished his education at Sidney College, Cambridge,
where he obtained a fellowship, but was expelled the university in 1744, for
refusing the covenant. Oxford, as usual, received him ; where he succeeded
Greaves, the Savilian Professor of Astronomy ; and in 1654, obtained the
degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was intimately acquainted with the ab-
stract sciences, and was one of that limited band of scholars at whose
meetings first arose the idea of the Royal Society, in which Evelyn took
so deep an interest and so active a part. He was elected Master of Trinity
in 1659, which, however, he resigned, when presented with the Rectory of
St. Lawrence Jewry, London. In succession he also became Precentor of
Exeter, Dean, and Bishop, from which see, in 1 667, he was translated to
Salisbury, and was named Chancellor of the Order of the Garter. Dr. Ward
wrote numerous works illustrative of mathematical science and of astronomy,
and opposed Hobbes in a Latin Treatise : he also published several sermons,
and a Philosophical Essay on the Being and Attributes of God. He died in
1689, having for some years outlived his faculties.

Page 291. " My dear and excellent friend, Dr. Wilkins."

John Wilkins was the son of an Oxford goldsmith, and was born in 1614,
at Paisley, near Daventry, in the house of his grandfather, John Dodd, a
celebrated nonconformist divine, and author of a work on the Commandments,
which obtained him the name of the Decalogist. Young Wilkins was edu-
cated at Oxford, for the ministry, matriculated at New Inn Hall, in 1627,
and afterwards graduated at Magdalen Hall. Aubrey says he was as eager
for experimental philosophy at Oxford as Lord Bacon had been at Cambridge.


As a divine he was early in repute, and received the domestic chaplaincy of the
Count Palatine of the Rhine ; but this did not prevent him from subsequently
adopting the covenant. He then took part with the republic, and by his
discourses entirely gained the confidence of its leaders ; through whose
influence he was elected head of Wadbani College, and, obtaining a privi-
lege to dispense with the condition of celibacy attached to that particular
mastership, married in 1656, Robinia, the sister of Oliver Cromwell.
Even his popular sympathies, however, failed to withdraw him from the
cultivation of science ; for at the most troubled period preceding the
execution of Charles, he established a philosophical club, held weekly
at the Bull's Head Tavern, Cheapside, of which the principal rule was a
prohibition of " all discourses of divinity, of state affairs, and of news, other
than what concerned our business of philosophy." Again assisted by
his wife's relations, hi 1659, he was appointed to the headship of Trinity
College, Cambridge ; but this proved the last of their good offices, the restora-
tion of the King ensuing in the following year. Dr. Wilkins had mean-
while propitiated the Church party by acts of care and kindness for the
privileges of his university while he was in power, and he had no difficulty,
when he had intimated the necessary change in his opinions, in obtaining
the favour of Vilh'ers, Duke of Buckingham, and the means of Church
advancement. He was first appointed preacher to the societies of Gray's-
Inn; then rector of St. Lawrence, Old Jewry; afterwards dean of Ripon; and
finally, in 1668, bishop of Chester. In the course of these duties he found
leisure to write several works, both scientific and religious ; and no one ac-
quainted with the peculiarities of thinking in his age, will consider it any grave
imputation on his love for philosophy and practical science that he should
have advocated the practicability of a passage to the moon, in a work published
in 1638, under the title of " The Discovery of a New World, or a Discourse
on the World in the Moon," which he followed in 1640 with a treatise
striving to prove the earth a new planet. His other scientific writings were
entitled "Mercury, or the Secret and Swift Messenger," published in 1641,
" Mathematical Magic, or the Wonders to be performed by Mechanical Geo-
metry," published hi 1648, and "An Essay towards a real Character and
Philosophical Language." His religious works were, " Ecclesiastes, or the
gift of Preaching," " A Discourse concerning Providence," an essay " On

Online LibraryJohn EvelynDiary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) → online text (page 41 of 46)