John Evelyn.

Diary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) online

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the Principles and Duties of Natural Religion," and another " On the Gift
of Prayer." Bishop Wilkins also materially assisted in the establishment of
the Royal Society (the first germ of which may be said to have existed in
the Bull's Head Club) ; and devoted himself to the advancement of religion and
science till his death, which took place November 19, 1672, in Chancery-
Lane, at the house of his daughter, who had married a still more eminent
member of the church, Dr. (afterwards Archbishop) Tillotson. Evelyn was
strongly attached to Wilkins, notwithstanding his early connection with the
revolutionary party ; and the feeling was more than justified by the many
estimable qualities of this remarkable man.

Page 294. Pierce."

Edward Pierce, a celebrated painter of history, landscape, and architecture,
who worked under Vandyke. He died a few years after the Restoration.
One of his sons, John, was also a painter.

Page 305. " That learned gentleman, my Lord Aungier."
Gerald, eldest son of Sir Francis Aungier, Master of the Rolls in 1609,
and created Baron Aungier in the Irish Peerage in 1621. He died in 1655,
and was succeeded by his nephew, Francis, afterwards created Earl of
Longford. Evelyn more than once celebrates his learning.


Page 305. u Where Suffolk-street stood." For this note substitute
the following :

Suffolk House, afterwards Northumberland House. At the funeral of Anne
of Denmark, a young man was killed by the fall of the letter S from the
border of capital letters mentioned by Evelyn.

Page 310. Honest and learned Mr. Hartlib."

Samuel Hartlib is believed to have been born in Poland. He arrived', in
England about the year 1630, and attained some celebrity in 1641 by the
publication of a work describing some recent attempts to create a .general
union of Protestants of all denominations. Cromwell, gratified with his
labours for the advancement of civilisation, presented him with an annual
pension of 10U/., subsequently augmented to 3001. With this assistance he
founded a school for the education of gentlemen's sons ; and published
several works on agriculture. But he had thus exhausted his resources ;
and at the Restoration, when his pension was stopped, he fell into great
distress. Many of his contemporaries regarded Hartlib with the same
admiration as Evelyn, and Milton addressed to him his " Tractate on
Education." Subsequent mention will be made of him in the notes to
Evelyn's correspondence.

Page 312. " Barlow, the famous painter of fowls, beasts, and birds.."
Francis Barlow. He occasionally painted portraits. He died in 1702.

Page 312. Mr. Roger 1'Estrange,"

Afterwards knighted ; and licenser of the press to Charles II., and
James II., in whose Parliament he was returned for Winchester. He was
the author of several works, chiefly translations ; was a fierce and reckless
advocate of high Church principles ; and established a newspaper called
the Public Intelligencer, which he afterwards changed to London Gazette,
and ultimately to a paper called the Observator. In the latter he so excelled
even himself in the fury of his assaults on the Whigs, that Evelyn, who hated
intemperance in all parties, became obliged to confess, though he thought
L'Estrange " a person of excellent parts, abating some affectations," that his
"pretence to serve the Church of England" involved a still stronger sus-
picion of " gratifying another party." He possessed courage enough to
oppose the infamous Titus Gates, when that worthy was terrifying every
one (including the King) that held opposite opinions to himself ; and when
James II., whom he had supported in his claim to a dispensing power,
assumed the mask of toleration, L'Estrange quarrelled also with him.
Pepys describes him as a man of fine conversation, most courtly, and full
of compliments ; but seeking his society for the purpose of obtaining news.
He was known among the courtiers by the sobriquet of " Oliver's fiddler,"
owing to a report, which he strenuously denied, that he had once performed
on the violin in the presence of the Protector. Queen Mary entertained
a great antipathy to him, and, by transposing the letters of his name,
gave him the appellation of "Lying Strange Roger." He died in 1704,
aged eighty-eight.

Page 313. " Mr. Robert Boyle, that excellent person and great virtuoso."'

Fifth surviving son of Richard Boyle, styled "the great Earl of
Cork," and bora at Lismore, in Ireland, January 25, 1626-7. He was
travelling on the continent, when the death of his father, who had be-
queathed to him the Dorsetshire property and other estates, brought him


back to England, in 1644, and the remainder of his life was spent in the
study of natural philosophy, wherein he made many important discoveries,
and obtained the reputation, both at home and abroad, of being one of the
greatest philosophers of his age. He died December 30, 1691. His name
occurs too frequently in the Diary, and in the letters of Evelyn (one of which
contains a most elaborate and finished picture of this " friend of forty
years"), to justify any further allusion to him in this place.

Page 313. * Sir William Paston's son, since Earl of Yarmouth."

Sir Robert Paston, Bart., who obtained great reputation as a Royalist
commander, and for whose services, Charles II., on 15th August, 1673,
created him Baron Paston, and Viscount Yarmouth. And in 1674 he was
made Earl of Yarmouth, and died July 30 of the same year. He was
reputed a good scholar.

Page 314. " The old Marquis of Argyle, since executed."

Archibald, eighth Earl, created Marquis of Argyle, November 15, 1641.
In the subsequent troubles he took his place at the head of the Scotch
Covenanters, and did so much damage to Charles I.'s cause, that the wrong
was not considered to have been expiated by his subsequent proclamation of
Charles II. Evelyn, who knew him well, calls him a " turbulent" man ;
and at the Restoration, having been convicted of high treason, he had his
head struck off by the maiden, at the market-cross of Edinburgh, on the
27th of May, 1661.

Page 314. u The Earl of Southampton, since Treasurer."

Thomas Wriothesley, fourth Earl, a distinguished Royalist, who at the
Restoration was created a Knight of the Garter, and appointed Lord Trea-
surer. His second daughter, Rachel, was the wife of the patriot Lord Wil-
liam Russell. He married three times. By his second wife, Frances,
daughter of Francis Earl of Chichester, who died in 1644, he succeeded to
that title; but dying without male issue, May 1 6, 1667, all his honours became
extinct. Evelyn enjoyed much of his hospitality, and characterises him as a
person of extraordinary parts, but a valetudinarian.

Page 317. " Mr. Needham, my dear and learned friend."

Jasper Needham, a physician of great repute, and one of Evelyn's oldest
friends. For apathetic mention of his death, see the Diary, voL u'., p. 135.

Page 317. " Old Sir Henry Vane."

This was " Vane, young in years, but in sage counsel old," the nobleness
and independence of whose character, as well as his claims to the affection of
posterity, are not ill expressed in the two facts recorded by Evelyn his
imprisonment by Cromwell, and his judicial murder by Charles the Second.

Page 31 9. Mr. Mordaunt."

John, second son of John, fifth Baron Mordaunt, and first Earl of Peter-
borough. He was a zealous Royalist ; an offence for which he was tried,
and, as Evelyn relates in a subsequent page, acquitted by one vote, under
the Commonwealth. Nevertheless; he still exerted himself to bring back
Charles II., who, on the 10th of July, 1659, created him Baron Mordaunt of
Reigate, and Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon, and appointed him Constable of
Windsor Castle, and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Surrey. Many foul
charges were afterwards brought against him in connection with his com-


mand at Windsor. See vol. ii., p. 19. With his mother and his wife, Evelyn
was extremely intimate, frequently mentioning both with enthusiasm ; and
taking an active part, as many passages of the Diary will show, in the business
affairs of the family.

Page 319. " Two of my Lord Dover's daughters."

Henry Carey, fourth Baron Hunsdon, created Viscount Rochford and
Earl^of Dover, and who died in 1668, had three daughters Mary, married
to Sir Thomas Wharton, Judith, and Philadelphia.

Page 320. Way-wiser."

Beckmann, in his " History of Inventions," has written an account of
the different instruments applied to carriages to measure the distance
they pass over. He places the first introduction of the adometer in England
at about the end of the sevententh century, instead of about the middle,
and states it to have been the invention of an ingenious artist named

Page 321. " John Tradescant's museum."

The tomb-stone of the family in Lambeth church-yard declares, that
u Beneath this stone lie John Tradescant, grandsire, father, and son."
They were all eminent gardeners, travellers, and collectors of curiosities.
The first two came into this county in the reign of James I., and the second
and third were employed in the Royal Gardens by Charles I. They had a
house at Lambeth, which, being filled with rarities of every description,
passed by the name of Tradescant's Ark, and was much resorted to by the
lovers of the curious. It formed the foundation of the Ashmolean Museum
at Oxford, and a catalogue of its contents was printed by the youngest John
Tradescant, in 1656, with the title of " Museum Tradescantianum." He
died in 1652. See the Diary, vol. ii., pp. 119120.

Page 328. The Earl of Northumberland."

Algernon, tenth Earl. He was a Knight of the Garter ; and though
conspicuously opposed to Charles I. during the Civil Wars, promoted the
Restoration. He was one of our first collectors of pictures, and his gallery
at Suffolk, since Northumberland, House, was greatly admired, not only by
Evelyn, but by all connoisseurs. He died Oct. 1 3, 1668.

Page 332. " Mr. Brereton, a very learned gentleman."

William, afterwards third Lord Brereton ; a nobleman of extensive
acquirements, who assisted Evelyn in establishing the Royal Society. He
died in 1679.

Page 332. Sir Henry Blount, the famous traveller and water-drinker."

The second son of Sir Thomas Pope Blount, of Tittenhanger, in
Hertfordshire, born December 15, 1602. After entering himself a
member of the Society of Gray's Inn, he started in 1634 on a tour
in Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, which lasted four years, and on his return
published the results under the title of " A Voyage to the Levant, with
Observations concerning the Modern Condition of the Turks," which passed
through many editions. In 1638 he succeeded to the family estate, Blount's
Hall, Staffordshire, and the next year received the honour of knighthood.
On the breaking out of the troubles, Sir Henry Blount became a cavalier
officer, and fought under the royal banner at Edgehill. He afterwards


changed sides, was employed by Cromwell as a commissioner for reforming
the criminal code, and was engaged in trying the brother of the Portuguese
ambassador for murder. On the death of his brother in 1 654, Sir Henry
succeeded to another estate at Tittenhanger, and became High Sheriff of
Hertfordshire in 1661. On the return of Charles II. he found no difficulty
in making his peace, and entertained his subsequent leisure with the com-
position of comedies and other fugitive productions.

Page 334. " My Lord Viscount Montague."

Francis Brown, third Viscount, a zealous royalist. He died Novem-
ber 2, 1682.

Page 339. Dr. Bramhall."

John Bramhall, born in 1593, at Pontefract, in Yorkshire. Studying
for the Church, he obtained his Doctor's degree in 1638, and became chap-
lain to Archbishop Matthews ; then prebendary of York ; and subsequently of
Ripon. He went to Ireland on the invitation of Lord Wentwortb, and was
made Bishop of Derry ; but in 1641 his conduct laid him open to charges
of high treason, and he found it necessary to quit the country, till the return
of Charles II., when he was created Archbishop of Armagh. He died
in 1677, in which year there was a publication of his works, in one
volume, folio. Evelyn subsequently refers (see tin& Diary, \o\. ii., p. 252) to
a curious letter of his on the Irish Catholics, which caused the suppression
of the book in which it appeared.

Page 340. " Sir Philip Warwick, now Secretary to the Lord Treasurer."

He was born at Westminster, went to school at Eton, and afterwards pro-
ceeded to Geneva. On his return to England, he attached himself to the
Court, and obtained a seat in Parliament, where he opposed Strafford's
impeachment, and subsequently went to Oxford with the King, who employed
him in 1646 as one of his commissioners to treat with the Parliament,
and afterwards retained him as his secretary at the Isle of Wight. He was
returned for Middlesex at the Restoration, and obtained the office of,
Secretary to the Lord Treasurer, which brought him into frequent com-
munication with Evelyn. His death occurred in 1682. He had found time
to write " A Discourse on Government," and " Memoirs of King Charles,"
the last containing some curious anecdotes, and the most graphic existing
account of Cromwell's first speech in the House of Commons.

Page 343. Countess of Guildford."

Elizabeth, daughter of William, first Earl of Denbigh, married to Lewis,
Viscount Boyle, who fell at the Battle of Liscarroll, in 1642. She was
advanced to the Peerage for life, on the 14th July, 1660, as Countess of
Guildford, and died in 1673.

Page 347. Grenville, Earl of Bath."

Son of the celebrated Royalist general, Sir Bevill Grenville, by whose side
he fought in several battles with great gallantry, though a mere youth. He
was afterwards Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Charles II., whom he
attended in his exile, and for whom he negotiated with Monk. In consider-
ation of his services he was raised to the peerage by the titles of Baron and
Viscount Grenville and Earl of Bath. He died in 1701.


Paye 347. " Howard, Earl of Carlisle."

Charles, created Baron Dacre, Viscount and Earl of Carlisle, held several
important offices. He was Ambassador to the Czar of Muscovy, and was
afterwards sent with the Order of the Garter to Charles XII., King of
Sweden. He was also Governor of Jamaica. He died February 24th, 1684.

Page 347. Denzill Holies."

He was second son of John, first Earl of Clare, and at the commencement
of his career vigorously opposed in Parliament the arbitrary measures of
Charles I. ; but during the Commonwealth he sought to restore the monarchy,
for which he was created Baron Holies, and was employed as Ambassador
Extraordinary to the Court of France, and Plenipotentiary at the Treaty of
Breda. Nevertheless, he afterwards went round to his old opinions, and was
considered a patriot for the rest of his life, which terminated on the 17th
February, 1679-80.

Paye 347. " Cornwallis."

Sir Frederick Cornwallis, Bart., for his faithful services to Charles I. and
Charles II., created Baron Cornwallis, of Eye. He died in 1662.

Paye 351. " Lord Brouncker."

Sir William, the second Viscount Brounker, was the first President of the
Royal Society ; and several mathematical papers written by him are to be
found in their transactions. He died April 5th, 1684. He was also Chan-
cellor to Queen Catherine of Braganza, a Commissioner of the Admiralty,
and Master of St. Katherine's Hospital.

Paye 352. "Dr. Wallis."

John Wallis, born in 1616, at Ashford, in Kent, of which place his father
was minister. Adopting the same profession, he took his degree of Doctor
of Divinity, became chaplain to a Yorkshire baronet in 1641, and obtained
the living of St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, London, in 1643. As we learn
from Evelyn, he was one of the earliest members of the Royal Society, to the
transactions of which he contributed many valuable papers, and wrote several
mathematical and theological works. He was appointed chaplain to Charles
II., and had been employed in decyphering intercepted correspondence, in
which he was considered remarkably clever. He died October, 1703, at
Oxford, where his works had previously been published in three volumes

Page 352. Dr. Duport."

James Duport, son of the Master of Jesus' College, Cambridge, where he
was born in the year 1 606. He finished his education at Trinity, and was
appointed llegius Professor of Greek in 1632, but was deprived in 1656 for
refusing the engagement. He was Prebendary of Lincoln and Archdeacon
of Stow in 1641, and in 1660 chaplain to Charles II., when he was restored
to his Greek Professorship, created Doctor of Divinity, made Dean of
Peterborough, and, in 1668, elected Master of Magdalen College. He was
a good classical scholar.

Page 352. Dr. Fell."

John Fell, born June 23rd, 1625, at Longworth, in Berkshire, was son of
the Dean of Christchurch. He was removed from the grammar-school at
Thame, when only eleven years of age, to become a student at Christchurch,
Oxford, his father being at the time Vice-Chancellor of the University. Of
this appointment the elder Fell was deprived by the Parliament, and his son


expelled from his College, for having been in arms for the King. The father
died upon hearing of the execution of Charles, but the son was not over-
looked at the Restoration, receiving a stall at Chichester, and afterwards
a more valuable one at Christchurch. He served the office of Vice-Chancellor
of the University in 1666, and, in 1676, was made Bishop of Oxford. Bishop
Fell was a voluminous author. He died in 1686.

Page 353. " The New Spring-Garden at Lambeth a pretty contrived

Since so well known under the name of Vauxhall Gardens.

Page 356. " Madame out of France."
Henrietta Maria.

Page 356. " My Lord of Bristol."

George Digby, second Earl, had suffered much for Royalty, but was made
Knight of the Garter, and might have held important employments, had he not,
when abroad, become a Catholic. He died in 1 6'. 6. Horace Walpole thus smartly
sums up his character : " He wrote against Popery, and embraced it. He was
a zealous opposer of the Court, and a sacrifice for it : was conscientiously con-
verted in the midst of his prosecution of Lord Strafford, and was most unconsci-
entiously a prosecutor of Lord Clarendon. With great parts, he always hurt
himself and his friends. With romantic bravery, he was always an unsuccessful
commander. He spoke for the Test Act, though a Roman Catholic; and
addicted himself to astrology on the birth-day of true philosophy." (Royal
and Noble Authors, Vol. II., p. 25.) Grammont mentions him, but in terms
far from respectful ; nor does " my lord of Bristol" appear to more advan-
tage in the annals of Bussy, or hi the continuation of his life by Clarendon.

Page 357. " Dr. Basire, that Great Traveller."

Isaac Basire, born in the Island of Jersey, in 1 607 ; was educated for the
Church ; for some time officiated as Master of the Free School at Guernsey ;
and then as chaplain to Morton, Bishop of Durham, who presented him with
a rectory and a vicarage. Preferments and honours promised to flow rapidly
upon him, when the disturbed state of the country induced him to quit
England, and he traveUed in the Morea, to the Holy Land, and to Con-
stantinople. On his return, Charles II. appointed Dr Basire his Chaplain
in Ordinary. He died in 1676. His sermons obtained a deserved celebrity.
He wrote also a History of the English and Scottish Presbytery.

Page 358. " Dr. Creighton."

Afterwards Bishop of Bath and Wells. His son, Dr. Robert Creighton,
while attending Charles II. in his exile, studied music, in which he became
such a proficient that his anthem, " I will arise and go to my Father,"
and a service in the key of E., still maintain a high reputation with the lovers
of sacred music. He died at Wells in the year 1736.

Page 358. Sir William Petty."

One of the celebrities of the seventeenth century, born at Ramsey, in
Hampshire, in 1 623. He was the son of a clothier, who sent him to the gram-
mar school of his native town ; but at the age of fifteen, he was removed to
the University of Caen, in Normandy. On his return to England, he ac-
cepted an appointment in the navy; but with the object only of raising



enough money to enable him to travel,and complete his education his own way.
He proceeded to the University of Holland in 1643 ; thence to Paris, study-
ing anatomy and medicine ; and was again in England in 1646. In 1647, he
took out a patent for a copying-machine, which attracted towards the inventor
the notice of many men of science. Then he practised as a physician, and re-
sided at Oxford, where he was appointed assistant professor, and afterwards
Professorof Anatomy. He was a Fellow of Brasenose, created M.D. in 1649,
and admitted into the College of Physicians in the following year. He was,
at about the same period, Professor of Music in Gresham College ; Physician
to the Army in Ireland, and to the Lord Deputy Commissioner for the division
of the lands forfeited by the Rebels ; Secretary to the Lord Deputy ; and
Clerk of the Council. But having been elected for East Loo in the Parliament
of 1658, he was impeached for high crimes and misdemeanours in his Irish
commission a few months afterwards, and this ended in a deprivation of all
his employments. At the Restoration, however, he again appeared upon the
scene as prominently as ever. He was Commissioner of the Court of Claims ;
physician, philosopher, author, and projector ; opened lead mines, established
pilchard fisheries, and assisted in the councils of the Royal Society ; invented
the double-bottomed ship to go against wind and tide, mentioned by Evelyn ;
wrote a method for equalising taxation, and acted as president to a philoso-
phical society established in Dublin. So numerous is the list of things he did,
and the books he wrote, that it is impossible to notice half of them. But the
best and most amusing character of him is to be found in the text. He died
December 16th, 1687.

Page 360. Cooper."

There were two artists of this name, brothers, Alexander and Samue
Cooper. The former painted landscapes and portraits, resided at Amster-
dam, and entered into the service of Queen Christina of Sweden : the other
was a fashionable portrait painter, well known by his characteristic likeness
of Cromwell, and obtained in France and Holland, where he li ved for several
years, not less reputation than he had acquired in England. His head is
engraved in Walpole's Anecdotes, where there is a notice of him. He was
born in 1604, and died in 1672.

Page 362. " The young Marquis of Argyle."

Archibald, ninth Earl, who, notwithstanding his father's attainder, which
forfeited the marquisate, was permitted to inherit the ancient Earldom of his
family. Evelyn seems at once to have discovered him in this interview to
be " a man of parts," and he greatly deplored his subsequent fate. This has
been too strikingly and beautifully told by Mr. Macaulay in his recent his-
tory (vol. i., pp. 537-565) to require further allusion here. The reader
may be also referred to Lord Lindsay's entertaining Lives of the Lindsays,
voL ii., pp. 146-155. ^

Page 363. " Our New Queen."
Katherine of Braganza.

Page 366. Sir R. Fanshawe.

Sir Richard Fanshawe, equally eminent at this period as a diplomatist
and as a poet. In the former position he acted as ambassador to the courts
of Spain and Portugal ; in the latter translated the Pastor Fido of Guarini,
and the Lusiad of Camoens. Born 1608 ; died 1666. His wife- was Anne,
eldest daughter of Sir John Harrison, of Balls, Hertfordshire.


Page 369. Dr. Meret."

Christopher Merret, a celebrated physician and naturalist, and fellow of
the Royal Society.

Page 370. Earl of Oxford."

Aubrey de Vere, twentieth and last Earl. He had served as a military
officer, both at home and abroad ; and his services were rewarded at the Re-
storation by a seat at the Privy Council, the dignity of Knight of the Garter,
and the appointment of Lord- Lieutenant of Essex. He died in 1702, leaving
an only daughter, married to the Duke of St. Alban's.

Page 378. Mr. Hooke."

Robert Hooke, born in 1635. He pursued his studies in the abstract sciences
with singular success, obtaining a great reputation among his most learned
contemporaries. He was Professor of Geometry in Gresham College, wrote
several treatises on different branches of philosophy, and entered into con-
troversies with Hevelius, and on Newton's Theology of Light and Colours.

Online LibraryJohn EvelynDiary and correspondence, To which is subjoined the private correspondence between King Charles I. and Sir Edward Nicholas, and between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne (Volume 1) → online text (page 42 of 46)