John F. (John Fralick) Rockart.

Computers and the learning process online

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be noted that our model suggests that the computer-based "tutorial"
instruction (better known as Skinnerian-type "programmed instruction")



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which is usually used for the transmission of facts should not be a priority
area for the allocation of funds at. the f resent time. (There are, of course,
exceptions to this rule. One is in caset of an exceptional need to motivate
students, such as in the case of ri-tarded students, or the need to rapidly
assimilate particular vocabularies.) In general, however, our model suggests
that computer-based tutorial methods suffer hugely by comparison with
traditional textbooks for the acquisition of facts. The model is therefore
in conflict with much of today's government funding of computer-based
learning aids. However, a survey of computer use to aid learning in higher
education in the state of Massachusetts suggests that where professors
are voting with their institutions' own dollars, they are in heavy
agreement with what our model suggests. (See our book. Chapter 7) . There
are virtually no tutorial programs being utilized which were developed
through non-government funds... at least in Massachusetts. Rather money
is being spent to support computer-based aids to embed (drill and practice
programs) material, integrate material, and allow students to test ideas
in simulated or gameed environments.

Finally, I would argue that an explicit statement of the learning model
that underlies the use of computer systems to aid education is a useful
thing in itself alone. It is helpful if one never touches a computer for
the insights it provides into learning — and, therefore, teaching. On the
other hand, it can be even more helpful in specifying the correct tools
to assist learning and particularly in allocating increasingly scarce
higher education dollars toward areas where the computer can be of the
most help in assisting the learning process.



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STIMULUS-RESPONSE



COGNITIVE



PROCESS TYPE



CHAINED MUSCULAR RESPONSE CENTRAL BRAIN PROCESS



WHAT LEARN



HABITS



COGNITIVE STRUCTURES



NEW THINGS
LEARNED BY



APPLYING CLOSEST OLD
HABIT ~ OR TRIAL AND
ERROR



"INSIGHT" — COMPARISON
WITH OLD STRUCTURES



FIGURE 1



Basic Differences in Two Major Learning Theories



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Concrete
experience

(1)



Testing Implications
of concepts in (4)
new situations



Observations and
(2) reflection



(3)

Formation of abstract
concepts & generalizations



FIGURE 2



The Experiential Learning Model



I



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Acquire basic new
knowledge, facts, skills,
processes, concepts, etc,



Test implications
of concepts in
new situations



Embed new knowledge
through reflection
practice, etc.



Integrate new facts, etc.
into existing concepts
and generalizations



FIGURE 3



A General Learning Model



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Acquisition Embedding



Integration &
Generalization



Testing in
New Studies



Facts and
Definitions










Skills and
Procedures










Established
Concepts










Frontier
Concepts











FIGURE 4



A Learning Matrix



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I. Content Related

1. Ability to telescope time

2. Ability to present structure

3. Provision of a rich environment

4. Ability to provide ill-structured material

5. Flexibility for adding new material quickly

6. Support for the learners' structured, clerical tasks

7. Support for unstructured data manipulation

II. User Related

8. Degree of learner control

9. Ability to adjust to individual learner needs

10. Ease of use

III. Communications Related

11. Amount of sensory impact

12. Amount of emotional impact

13. Degree of learner feedback

14. Ability to access data or concepts previously learned

IV. Economics



15. Low cost per data item or concept

16. Decentralized availability



FIGURE 5
Summary of Attributes of Learning — Delivery Mechanisms (Tools)



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Online LibraryJohn F. (John Fralick) RockartComputers and the learning process → online text (page 2 of 2)