of a fundamental vibration and certain secondary
vibrations of subdivisions of the vibrating body.
These secondary vibrations give rise to what is know T n
as overtones. By their union with and modification of
the fundamental vibration there is produced a special
form of vibration which gives rise not to a simple but
to a composite sensation.
It is for this reason that the
same note of the piano, the violin, and the human
voice varies in quality (Brubaker).
1. Name some of the ordinary sensations.
2. Name some of the special sensations. How do they arise?
3. Name the special senses.
4. What structures are essential for the appreciation of the
sense of touch?
5. Name some of the end-organs concerned in the sense of
6. Where are the corpuscles of Meissner located? Of Vater?
7. What do you understand by the sense of touch?
8. Name the senses possessed by the skin.
9. What does the individual perceive by the muscle sense?
10. What structures are essential to the sense of smell?
11. Bound the nasal fossae.
12. Name the two portions into which the mucous membrane of
the nasal fossa? is divided.
13. What type of epithelium is found in the olfactory portion
of the nasal mucous membrane?
14. Name the appendages of the eye.
416 THE ORGANS OF SPECIAL SENSE
15. What structures are included under the lacrymal apparatus?
16. How many lacrymal ducts are there and where do they drain?
17. How do the tears reach the nasal cavity?
18. Name the coats of the eye-ball.
19. What muscle controls the diameter of the pupil?
20. What structure contains the pigment which gives the eye
21. Where is the vitreous humor found in the eye? The aqueous?
The crystalline lens?
22. Where is the anterior chamber of the eye? The posterior
23. What is the function of the retina?
24. What nerve expands into the retina and when does the
nerve enter it?
25. How many layers of cells in the retina? Which layer of cells
is the most important as regards vision?
26. Name the refracting apparatus of the eye.
27. What is accommodation as regards vision? What is the
function of the lens in relation to accommodation?
28. What is the function of the iris?
29. Name the structures concerned in the sense of taste.
30. Where are the end-organs or taste-buds located?
31. Name the three divisions of the ear.
32. How long is the external auditory canal? What is its direc-
33. Describe the tympanum or middle ear.
34. Where is the tympanic membrane located? What structure
covers its outer and inner surfaces?
35. Through what tube does the tympanic cavity of the ear
communicate with the nasopharynx?
36. What structures are included under the term internal ear?
37. What are the divisions of the osseous labyrinth as regard its
38. Where is the membranous labyrinth located. What fluid
does it contain.
39. What fluid separates the membranous from the osseous
40. Where is the organ of Corti located?
41. What relation do the hair cells in the organ of Corti bear to
the auditory nerve?
42. How many ossicles are there in each middle ear? Name
43. In what state must all external stimuli be in to produce the
sense of sound.
44. How do vibrating bodies affect the atmospheric air as regards
the sense of sound?
45. Give a brief description of how the sound waves are con-
veyed from the external air to the filaments of the auditory nerve
in the organ of Corti.
ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
THE EXTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
The Vulva. The term vulva, or pudendum, includes
the mons veneris and labia, the nymphse and clitoris,
the hymen or its remains, the meatus urinarius, and
the vaginal orifice.
The mons veneris is a fatty cushion covering the
front of the pubes, and after puberty is plentifully
supplied with hairs. Below, it divides into the two
labia majora, which diminishing in size as they pass
downward and backward, unite an inch in front of
the anus. The two extremities are joined, and form
the anterior and posterior commissures. Between the
latter and the anus is the perineum, and just within
the posterior commissure is a transverse fold, the
The nymphse, or labia minora, smaller than the
above, run from the middle of the labia majora up-
ward to the clitoris, each dividing into two folds,
the upper pair of which join to form a prepuce for
that organ, and the lower two to form its frenum.
They are continuous externally with labia majora,
internally with the vagina.
The clitoris is the opposite of. the penis (male), con-
sisting, like it, of two corpora cavernosa united by a
septum pectiniforme and prolonged behind into two
ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
crura attached to the rami of the pubis and ischium
(bones). It also has a suspensory ligament and a
Vulva of a virgin. The labia have been widely separated. Foss. nav.,
fossa navicularis; Int. vag., introitus vaginae; Lab. min, labium minus;
Vestib., vestibule. (Testut.)
glans enclosed by the nymphse. Two erectores cli-
toridis muscles are attached to the crura. It has no
corpus spongiosum nor urethra.
THE EXTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION 419
Between the clitoris and the vagina, bounded on
each side by the nymphse, is the vestibule, a triangular
space, in which, just above the vagina, is the opening
of the urethra, one inch below the clitoris.
The hymen is a mucous fold which more or less
completely occludes the opening of the vagina. It
is generally semilunar in form, concave above, or
it may be a complete membrane, perforate or imper-
forate, or it may be absent. It is usually present in
a virgin, though its absence does not prove that coitus
has been performed.
The glands of Bartholin, the analogues of Cowper's
glands in the male, are two yellowish bodies on each
side of the vaginal opening, each of which dis-
charges by a single duct between the hymen and the
The Urethra. The female urethra is a mucous
canal, 1-g- inches long, running downward and forward
in the anterior vaginal wall from the neck of the
bladder to the meatus urinarius and drains the urine
from the bladder during micturition, and can be seen
as a minute opening just below the clitoris. As in
the male, it pierces the triangular ligament, and is
surrounded by the compressor urethrse muscle.
The Vagina. The vagina extends from the vulva
to the uterus (os uteri), lying behind the bladder and
in front of the rectum, and is about 4 inches long on
its anterior wall, 5 to 0-3- on its posterior, and is directed
from the uterus downward and forward.
Above, it embraces the cervix uteri, and its walls
are flattened from before backward. In front it is
in relation with the urethra and base of the bladder;
behind, it is connected with the anterior wall of the
rectum by its lower three-fourths, the cul-de-sac of peri-
toneum (Douglas') separating them in the upper fourth;
laterally, the broad ligaments are attached above, and
the levatores ani below, as well as the rectovesical fascia.
420 ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
Its inner surface presents a mesial ridge or raphe on
the front and back walls, the columnse rugarum, and
from them on both sides run out transverse folds or
THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
The internal organs include the uterus, tubes, and
The Uterus. The uterus or womb is a hollow mus-
cular organ lying in the pelvis between the bladder
and rectum. In the virgin it is pear-shaped, flattened
from before backward, its upper end looking forward
and upward, its lower downward and backward,
f orniing an angle with the vagina. Above, it is invested
by the peritoneum, which covers its body before and
behind; it covers also the cervix behind, but in
front the peritoneum is reflected on to the bladder
before reaching the cervix. The two folds of peri-
toneum after investing the uterus are applied to each
other, reaching across to the lateral pelvic walls forming
the broad ligaments.
The uterus is 3 inches long, 2 wide, and 1 thick,
and it weighs about 1 ounce. It is divided into a
body, fundus, and neck. The fundus is the convex
part above the entrance of the tubes; the body is the
part between this and the neck. In front of the
Fallopian tubes, at the upper part of the lateral
borders, the round ligaments are attached, and below
and behind them are the ligaments of the ovaries.
The cervix is the lower constricted, rounded part, and
around it is attached the vagina. At its vaginal end
is a round opening, the os uteri.
The cavity of the uterus is small; that part within
the body is triangular, flattened anteroposteriorly,
THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION 421
and presents at the superior angles the openings of
the Fallopian tubes; also, at its junction with the
neck it is constricted to form the os internum. The
cavity of the cervix is barrel-shaped and flattened
anteroposteriorly, presenting on each wall a longi-
tudinal column sending off oblique rugse on each side;
hence its name, arbor vitse uterinus.
VAGINAL VENOUS PLEXUS
|\ : m SUPERIOR VAGINAL
OS UTERI VAGINA CUT OPEN BEHIND
Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view. (Testut.)
The walls of the uterus consist of an outer serous
coat, an inner mucous, and an intermediate muscular.
The muscular coat forms the bulk of the uterus,
and consists of bundles and layers of unstriped fibers
which interlace, and of some areolar tissue sup-
porting them, and of bloodvessels, lymphatics and
The mucous membrane of the body differs from that
of the cervix. The former is smooth, reddish, with
columnar cells, and presents the ducts of a number of
tubular glands which end by blind, sometimes forked,
extremities. In the cervix it is firmer, and presents
422 ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
numerous saccular and tubular glands between the
rugae of the arbor vitse, and below, numerous papillae
The ligaments of the uterus are the round ligaments
and several peritoneal folds, namely, two each in front,
behind, and laterally.
The round ligaments are two cord-like bundles of
areolar, fibrous, and plain muscular tissue, with
vessels and nerves, covered by peritoneum, which
run from the upper angle of the uterus to the- internal
abdominal ring. Each then runs through the corre-
sponding inguinal canal to end in the mons veneris
The anterior or vesico-uterine ligaments stretch bet-
ween the bladder and the uterus; the posterior, between
the uterus and rectum, hence called the recto-uterine,
forming a pouch of peritoneum, the cul-de-sac of
The two lateral or broad ligaments pass from the
sides of the uterus to the sides of the pelvis, thus
dividing the latter into two parts. They are formed
by the coalescence of the peritoneal layers investing
the anterior and posterior surfaces of the uterus, and
contained between the two layers the Fallopian
tube at the upper margin ; the round ligament below
and in front of the tube; the ovary and its ligament
enfolded by the posterior layer; and the uterine
bloodvessels, lymphatics, and nerves.
Appendix. The Function of the Uterus. The uterus
receives and affords a surface for the growth and
development of the fecundated ovum and its mem-
branes, which become the embryo, nourished from the
placenta (after the third month), and retains it until
the foetus is fully developed (nine months), when, by
a contraction of its muscular walls, the offspring is
delivered through the vagina.
The Fallopian Tubes. The Fallopian tubes or ovi-
ducts run from the upper angles of the uterus
toward the sides of the pelvis, and near their termina-
THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION 423
tion bend downward, backward, and inward. They
are 3 to 4 inches long, are at first narrow, then enlarge
near the extremity (ampulla), and end in a fimbriated
margin, one of the fimbrise being attached to the
ovary. The canal is very narrow at the uterine end
(ostium uterinum), begins to widen in the outer half
to form the ampulla, and at its termination again
narrows (ostium abdomiriale) .
The tubes consist of a peritoneal coat, a muscular
coat composed of internal circular and external longi-
tudinal fibers, and a mucous coat. The latter is con-
tinuous at the inner aspect of the tube with the mem-
brane of the uterus, where it opens; and at the outer
extremity is continuous with the peritoneum and
communicates with the peritoneal cavity. The
epithelium is of the ciliated columnar variety, and is
thrown into longitudinal folds, more marked in the
outer half of the tube.
The Ovaries. The ovaries correspond to the
testicles in the male, as far as the sex relation
is concerned, and produce the ovum or germ cell.
They are flattened, oval bodjes, measuring 1^ inches
long, f inch wide, and ^ inch thick; each weigh
60 to 100 grains. They are located in the ab-
dominal cavity on either side of the uterus, lodged
in the folds of peritoneum called the broad ligaments
of the uterus. The sides of each one and the convex
border are free, while the straight border is attached
to the broad ligament and receives the bloodvessels,
etc., at this point.
Its outer end is attached to the Fallopian tube by
the fimbria ovarica, its inner end to the uterus by
the ligament of the ovary, a dense, fibromuscular cord
attached to the uterus below and behind to the tube.
The Structure of the Ovary. It consists of an external
thin connective-tissue membrane, and an internal thin
connective-tissue stroma, which supports the blood-
vessels, nerves, and non-striated muscle fibers, and
424 oAv/.iA'N OF REPRODUCTION,
contain in its meshes the Graafian follicles. These
consist of spheric sacs and are present in large numbers
from the time of birth to the period of the menopause
(change of life). Each follicle consists of an external
investment of fibrous tissue and bloodvessels, and
an internal investment of cells, the membrana granu-
losa. At the lower portion of this membrane there is
an accumulation of cells, called the proligerous disk.
The cavity of each Graafian follicle contains fluid,
Section of the ovary: 1. Outer covering. 1 . Attached border. 2. Central
stroma. 3. Peripheral stroma. 4. Bloodvessels. 5. Graafian follicles in
their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature
follicle. 9'. Follicle from which the ovum has escaped. 10. Corpus luteum.
yellowish in color, alkaline, and is composed of albu-
minous material. -From the Graafian follicle, and par-
ticularly the proligerous disk, the ovum or germ cell
The Ovum or Germ Cell. This is a spheric body
measuring 0.3 mm. in diameter. It consists of a
mass of living protoplasmic material, cytoplasm;
a nucleus or germinal vesicle, within which is seen a
nucleolus or germinal spot.
THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION 425
The cytoplasm surrounding the germinal vesicle
is granular in appearance, and is called the vitellus;
the outer margin of the cytoplasm is surrounded by
a delicately striated border called the zona pellucida.
The ovum is the cell which is fertilized by the
spermatozoon of the male and develops into the embryo
and its ultimate creation, the human being the
Theca _ ^^''
folliculi . ^V^*"^
(fibrous coat] /,' ' 7,'
fuHicnlt I '
roligerus- v '
a, genm- ., .;; % .;.>"'.
',1 vesicle, ScV'^vJ-V:*; /- V.^J. ' ' '-^ /
id germi- ^'>^V^V"'t'i.^'"-''"^*' f V''V
I!/, >(,(!- ^ V. \^^y*V?''l : >vX :; /''; /' f -/.'v
vessel N^^V4\"; V-'4& ''ICV''^^'^"/^''''''^-'-^^.*'^^
- <.*!>*v . > ,, ,'*!','*
' ; ^vi.'.^''
Section through a Graafian follicle from an ape's ovary. X 90.
Ovulation. This is the term used to describe the
process whereby the mature Graafian follicle ruptures
and the ovum is forced through the layers of the ovary.
When the female reaches the age of puberty (which varies
in different races and in certain climates) the Graafian
426 ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
follicle develops and ripens or matures periodically,
about every twenty-eight days. When mature the
vesicle ruptures and the ovum and liquid contents
of the vesicle are discharged. The ovum is received
by the fimbriated extremity of the Fallopian tube,
enters its cavity, wherein it is transferred through the
tube by the peristaltic action of its muscle fibers, aided
by the cilia of the lining epithelial cells, into the
body of the uterus, where it is fertilized, when mature,
by the spermatozoa the germ cell of the male. The
ovum may be fertilized in the Fallopian tube. The
passage of the ovum from the ovary to the uterus
occupies approximately four to ten days. The ovum
undergoes a succession of changes, particularly the
nucleus, after it leaves the ovary before fertilization
can occur. (See Maturation, p. 35.)
Corpus luteum is a yellowish body which is present
in the ovum following the rupture of the Graafian
follicle and the ovum escapes into the oviduct (ovula-
tion). When the follicle ruptures the antrum fills with
blood and forms the corpus hemorrhagicum. This body
becomes organized and the hemoglobin is absorbed,
which leaves a yellowish body, due to the presence
of many large yellow cells called lutein cells. The
corpus luteum occurs every twenty-eight days. If
fecundation occurs the corpus luteum persists in the
ovum as a yellowish body as described above, and
persists throughout the term of pregnancy. How-
ever, if fecundation does not occur the corpus luteum
shortly contracts, becomes whitish and forms the corpus
The latter change is supposed to be due to a fatty
degeneration of the lutein cells. The corpus luteum
is considered a periodic self-developing gland with an
internal secretion. Ovulation and menstruation have
a close relationship. Menstruation signifies a frus-
trated ovulation and the discharge of a hyperemic
membrane from the uterus. Rupture of the Graafian
THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION 427
follicle occurs on an average nine days in advance of
the bleeding. 1 While the ovum is moving along the
tube the transformation of the membrana granulosa,
of the ruptured Graafian follicle, to the corpus luteum
is taking place. The tenth day before menstruation
is the surest time for impregnation.
There are many theories on the above which are not
mentioned as they are beyond the scope of this book.
Menstruation. This is a process characterized by a
discharge of blood from the vagina, which takes place
periodically, except during pregnancy and lactation,
when the mammary glands are secreting milk. It
occurs from the time of puberty to the menopause
(change of live). Ordinarily it comes on every four
weeks and lasts from three to five days. It varies
as to frequency and duration in different individuals.
The age at which the menses (periodic sickness)
commences, varies in different countries, being earlier
in warm and later in cold climates. The average age
in a temperate climate is about the fourteenth to
There have been several theories expressed in
regard to the changes taking place in the mucous
membrane of the uterus at the time of menstruation.
Some authorities claim that the entire mucous mem-
brane of the uterus is broken down and thrown off in
the menstrual flow. Again, others claim that there is
no destruction of tissue, and the menses results from
a thickening of the mucous membrane of the uterus
(womb), engorgement of its superficial bloodvessels,
followed by the escape of blood, due in part to the
rupturing of these vessels, and the passing of blood
through the walls of the arteries (diapedesis) . Follow-
ing the period of hemorrhage a certain amount of
degeneration of the cells takes place in the mucous
1 The above facts as per Dr. Miller, Berliner klinische Wochen-
schrift, May 5, 1913; N. Y. Med. Journal.
428 ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION
membrane of the uterus, which is followed by a period
of repair when an entirely new membrane is formed.
Thus the changes taking place in the uterus during
menstruation last for several days (sixteen) as follows:
Five days for engorgement of the membrane, four
days for the bleeding or menses proper, and seven days
for the repair of the membrane after the bleeding stops.
The menopause is the term given to the cessation
of the menstrual flow. It occurs usually at about the
forty-fifth year. Cases have been reported where it
has stopped as early as the twenty-eighth or thirtieth
year, and extended on the other extreme to the fiftieth
1. How long is the female urethra?
2. Where does it open and what organ does it empty during
3. Name the internal organs of reproduction.
4. Give the location of the uterus. Its dimensions.
5. Name the portions of the uterus.
6. What structures open into the cavity of the uterus at the
7. Into what does the cervix of the uterus open?
8. What forms the wall of the uterus?
9. What type of epithelium lines the body of the uterus?
10. Name the ligaments of the uterus.
11. What structures are found between the layers of the broad
12. How long are the Fallopian tubes?
13. What coats form their walls?
14. Does the Fallopian tube communicate with the cavity of the
uterus? The peritoneal cavity?
15. What variety of epithelium is found in the mucous membrane
of the Fallopian tube?
16. What cell is produced in the ovary which represents the
female portion of reproduction?
17. Where are the ovaries located? Give dimensions, weight.
18. What structure is attached to the outer extremity of the
19. Describe a Graafian follicle. Give contents.
20. From which group of cells in the Graafian follicle is the ovum
or germ cell developed?
21. What must fertilize the ovum to reproduce the offspring?
22. What do you understand by ovulation? How often does it
23. How does a mature ovum reach the cavity of the uterus?
TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Symbols and Abbreviations for Apothecaries' or Troy
gr., Granum. A grain.
9, Scrupulus. A scruple, equal to 20 grains.
5, Drachma. A drachm, equal to 60 grains.
5, Uncia. An ounce, equal to 480 grains.
Ib, Libra. A pound of 12 ounces of 480 grains each.
Table of Troy or Apothecaries' Weights
20 grs. =19.
60 grs. = 1 5 or 3 9.
12 5=1 ft.
Symbols and Abbreviations for Apothecaries' or Wine
gtt, Gutta. A drop.
TTl, Minimum. A minim is the sixtieth part of a fluidrachm.
f5, Fluidrachma. A fluidrachm is the eighth part of a fluid
ounce or 60 minims.
f3, Fluiduncia. A fluidounce, equal to 480 minims or sixteenth
of a pint.
O, Octarius. A pint of 16 fluidounces.
Cong., Congius. A gallon of 8 pints or 128 fluidounces.
ss, means half, as 3ss, \ drachm.
Table of Wine or Apothecaries' Measures
meo = f3j.
f3 8 = f5J or 480 minims.
f516 = Oj.
O2 = 1 quart or 532.
O8 = 1 cong. gallon.
1 teaspoonful = f5J-
1 dessertspoonful = f3ij-
1 tablespoonful = fSss or f5iv.
Wineglass = f5J-
Teacup = f5iv.
Abdomen. (From the Latin word abdere, "to hide.") The portion
of the body included between the thorax and pelvis, which contains
the stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, etc.
Abducens. A nerve to the external rectus muscle of the eye, which
Abduction. (From the Latin word ab, "from;" ducere, "to lead.")
The withdrawal of a part from the axis of the body, organ, or limb.
Abductor. Muscles which draw the part away from the axis of the
body, organ, or limb.
Abductor Hallucis. Abductor of the big toe. See Hallux.
Abductor Minimi Digiti. Abductor of the little toe or finger.
Abductor Pollicis. Abductor of the thumb. See Pollicis.
Absorption. (From the Latin word absorbere, "to suck in.") The
passage from without into the capillary or lymphatic vessels of nutri-
tive or waste materials from the tissues.
Accessorius. (Flexor muscle.) Aids the flexor longus digitorum
muscle to contract. The lumbricales are also called accessory muscles.
Accessory. (From the Latin word accessorius.) Aiding in pro-
ducing some effect, as an auxiliary, to muscles, glands, nerves, etc.
Acetabulum. (From the Latin word acetabulum, "a little cup for
holding vinegar [acetum].")