rounding a muscle.
Epineurium. (Upon a nerve.) The connective-tissue sheath of a
Epiphysis. (From the Greek words meaning upon, to grow.) A
process of bone attached for a time to another bone by cartilage, but
soon becoming consolidated with the principal bone.
Epitendinium. (Upon a tendon.) The connective-tissue sheath
of a tendon.
Epithelial. (From the Greek words meaning upon, a nipple.) Per-
taining to epithelium.
Epithelium. (Upon a nipple.) The group of cells that forms the
epidermis (outer skin), that lines all membranes of canals that com-
municate with the external air, and that are specialized for secretion
in certain glands, as the liver, kidney, etc.
Equilibrium. (From the Latin words sequus "equal;" libra,
"balance.") A state of balance.
Erythrocyte. A red-blood corpuscle (a small body).
Esophagus or GEsophagus. (From the Greek words meaning to
carry, to eat.) The gullet. The musculomembranous canal, about
9 inches long, extending from the pharynx to the cardiac end of the
Ethmoid (bone). (From the Greek words meaning a sieve, likeness.)
Excretion. (From the Latin word excernere, "to excrete.") The
discharge of waste products or excretions resulting from metabolism,
by the skin, kidneys, etc.
Extension. (From the Latin word extendere, "to stretch out.")
A straightening out, especially the muscular movements by which
a limb or joint is extended.
Extensors. (A group of muscles which straighten or extend a limb
or part of the body.
Extensor Brevis Digitorum. The short extensor of the toes (digits).
Extensor Brevis Pollicis. The short extensor of the thumb.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longior and Brevior. The long extensor of
the radial side of the wrist and the short extensor of the same side.
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris. The extensor of the ulnar side of the wrist.
Extensor Communis Digitorum. The common extensor of the
Extensor Indicis Proprius. The extensor of the index finger.
Extensor Longus Digitorum. The long extensor of the fingers
Extensor Longus Hallucis. The long extensor of the big toe (hallux).
Extensor Longus Pollicis. The long extensor of the thumb.
Extensor Minimi Digiti. The extensor of the little finger (digit.)
Extensor Ossis Metacarpi Pollicis. The extensor of the metacarpal
bone of the thumb.
Extrinsic. (From the Latin word extrinsicus, "from without.")
External, not directly belonging to a part.
Facet. (From the French word facette, "a little face.") A small
Elane or smooth surface on a bone, usually referring to the articular
Falces (pi.) Cerebri et Cerebelli. The sickle-shaped processes of
dura mater between the cerebrum and cerebellum, respectively.
Falciform. (From the Latin words falx, "a sickle;" forma, "form.")
Having the shape of a sickle.
Falx, falcis (Latin). A sickle.
Fascia. (From the Latin word fascia, "a band.") The areolar
tissue forming the layers beneath the skin, which forms sheaths for
muscles and vessels.
Fascia Lata. (Broad fascia.) The fascia of the thigh.
Fasciculus. (Dim. of the Latin word fascis, a bundle.") A little
bundle; as of muscle fibers. -
Fauces. (From the Latin word fauces, "a throat.") The space at
the back of the mouth communicating with the pharynx, surrounded
by the soft palate and uvula and tonsils.
Fauces (isthmus of). The opening at the back of the mouth leading
into the pharynx, bounded on the sides by the arches of the soft
palate, the uvula above, the base of the tongue below.
Fecundation. (From the Latin word fecundus, "fruitful.") The
act of making fruitful; impregnation; as the spermatozoon (male)
fecundates the ovum (female).
Femoral. Pertaining to the femur, as arteries, veins, and muscles.
Femur. (From the Latin word femur, "thigh bone.")
Fenestra Ovalis. (From the Latin words fenestra, "a window;"
ovalis, "egg-shaped," from ovum, "an egg.") The oval window
located in the vestibule of the internal ear; which communicates with
the middle ear or tympanum closed in life by the stapes, an ossicle
of the ear. (See Ossicle.)
Ferment. (From the Latin word fermentum, "leaven, yeast.")
Any substance which in contact with another substance is capable
of setting up changes called fermentation in the latter, without
itself undergoing much change. Ferments are classified into unorgan-
ized or soluble, and organized, or living ferments.
Fermentation. The decomposition of complex molecules of chemical
bodies or substances under the influence of ferments called enzymes.
Fetus. (From the Latin word fetus, "offspring"). The unborn off-
spring of vivaparous (producing young in a living state) animals in the
later stage of development.
FibrocartiUge. Cartilage with fibrous tissue intermixed.
Fibrous (From the Latin word fibra, "a fiber.") Containing fibers;
of the character of fibrous tissue.
Fibula. (Latin, "a buckle.") The bone on the outer side of the leg.
Fibular. Pertaining to the fibula.
Filiura Terminale. A long, slender thread of nerve fibers enclosed
by the dura mater, practically the termination of the spinal cord.
Fimbrise (pi. of fimbria). (From the Latin word fimbria, "a fringe").
A fringe. The fimbriae of the Fallopian tube; the fringe-like processes
of the outer extremity of the tube.
Flexion. (From the Latin word flecture, "to bend.") The act of
bending, especially the muscular movements by which a limb or
joint is bent.
Flexors. A group of muscles which bend a limb or part of the
body. The opposite of the extensors.
Flexor Brevis Digitorum. The short flexor of the toes.
Flexor Brevis Hallucis. The short flexor of the big toe.
Flexor Brevis Minimi Digiti. The flexor of the little finger and toe.
Flexor Brevis Pollicis. The short flexor of the thumb.
Flexor Carpi Radialis. The flexor of the radial side of the wrist.
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. The flexor of the ulnar side of the wrist.
Flexor Longus Digitorum. The long flexor of the toes.
Flexor Longus Hallucis. The long flexor of the big toe. (See Hallux.)
Flexor Longus Pollicis. The long flexor of the thumb. (See Pollicis.)
Flexor Profundus Digitorum. The deep flexor of the fingers.
Flexor Sublimis Digitorum. The superficial flexor of the fingers.
Follicle. (From the Latin word folliculus, a dim. of follis, "bellows.")
Arranged in the form of a little sac, as the lymph, hair follicles, etc.
Fontanelle. (From the Latin word fontanella, "a little fountain.")
A membranous space between the angles vof junction of the sutures
of the cranial bones in fetal life and infancy.
Foramen Magnum. The great opening. In occipital bone.
Foramen Ovalis. The oval opening. In the wall between the
auricles of the heart in the fetus, and for ten days to two weeks it
persists in infant hearts.
Foramen Rotundum. The round opening. In sphenoid bone.
Foramina or Foramen. (From the Latin word forare, to pierce.)
An opening or perforation, especially a bone.
Fossa (pi. 2e). (Latin, fossa, "a ditch.") A depression or ditch.
Fossa Ovalis. The oval ditch.
Fovea. (From the Latin, "a small ditch.") A small depression.
Funiculus. (Dim. of the Latin word funis, "a rope or cord.") A
Fuse. (From the Latin word fundere, "to pour out.") To unite with.
Fusiform. (From the Latin words fusus, "a spindle;" forma,
Ganglion or Ganglia. (From the Greek word meaning a knot.) A
well-defined group of nerve cells and fibers forming an underlying
Gastric. (From the Greek word meaning stomach.) Pertaining to
Gastrocnemius. A double-head muscle forming with the soleus
the calf of the leg.
Genitals (Genitalia). (From the Latin word genitalis, "pertaining
to generation," from gignere, "to beget.") Relating to the organs of
generation or reproduction in the male or female.
Genito-urinary. Relating to the genitalia and urinary organs.
Germinal. (From the Latin word germen, "a germ.") Pertaining
to the development of a tissue or organ.
Gestation. (From the Latin word gestare, "to bear.") Pregnancy.
Glenoid. Resembling a shallow cavity.
Glia (cells). (From the Greek word meaning glue.) The cells
found in the neuroglia (the tissue which forms the basis of the sup-
porting frame- work of the nerve tissue of the cerebrospinal system).
Globule. (From the dim. of the Latin word globus, "a ball.")
A small spheric body, as fat globules, etc.
Glomerulus. (From the Latin word glomemlus, "a little ball.") A
small, rounded mass, as the coil of bloodvessels projecting into the
expanded end of each uriniferous tubule and with it forming the
Malpighian body or corpuscle.
Glottis, idis (Rima). The space between the vocal cords.
Gluteus. (From the Greek word meaning buttock.) Referring to
muscles of the buttock.
Gluteus Maximus. The greatest of the buttock. (Literal trans-
Gluteus Medius. The medium-sized of the buttock.
Gluteus Minimus. The smallest of the buttock
Glycogen. A carbohydrate found in the liver cells. It is stored
in the liver, where it is converted, as the system requires, into sugar
Gramme (gin.) . The unit of the measurement by weight of the metric
system of weights and measures. 1 gm. = 15.432 grains.
Granular. (From the Latin word granula, "a little grain.") Per-
taining to granule. As the granular appearance of a cell.
Granule. (From the Latin word granula, "a small grain.") " A
small body or grain, as the granules of a cell.
Gustatory (nerve). (From the Latin word gustare, "to taste.")
Pertaining to the sense of taste, as the gustatory nerve the nerve
of taste in the tongue.
Gyrus (pi. gyri or gyre). A convolution of the brain.
Hallux, Hallucis. From the Latin. The great toe.
Hemoglobin. The coloring matter of the red cells of the blood.
Hepar. From the Greek word meaning liver.
Hepatic. Pertaining to the liver, as hepatic artery, hepatic duct,
and hepatic vein.
Hiatus (Fallopii). (From the Latin word hiare, "to gape.") A
space or opening. Hiatus Fallopii: A shallow grove on the petrous
portion of the temporal bone for the passage of a nerve, etc.
Hilum. A pit, recess, or opening in an organ, usually for the entrance
and exit of vessels or ducts, as the hilum of the kidney, spleen, etc.
Histology. The minute or microscopic anatomy cf the tissues.
Homogeneous. Having a uniform appearance or character in all
its parts or substance.
Humerus (bone). (From the Latin, "arm.") The long bone of
the arm extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
Hyaline. Resembling glass.
Hymen. The portion of mucous membrane which partially occludes
the opening of the vagina.
Hyoid (bone). (Having the form of the Greek letter upsilon T.) A
bone situated between the root of the tongue and the larynx, supporting
the tongue and giving attachment to some of the muscles of the tongue,
pharynx, and floor of the mouth.
Hyperemic. Pertaining to the excessive blood in a part (hyperemia).
Hypochondriac. Pertaining to the hypochondrium.
Hypochondrium. The upper lateral surface of the abdomen and
thorax corresponding to the lower ribs.
Hypogastrium. The lower anterior surface of the abdomen above
Hypothenar. The fleshy eminence on the palm of the hand over
the metacarpal bone of the little finger.
Ileum. (From the Greek word meaning to roll.) The lower portion
of the small intestine ending in the cecum.
Hiopectineal. (From the Latin words ilium, "flank;" pectens,
"comb.") The line pertaining conjointly to the ilium and os pubis
Iliotibial (band). (From the Latin words ilium, "flank;" tibia,
"tibia.") The thickened portion of the fascia lata of the thigh which
extends from the ilium to the tibia.
Ilium (bone). Latin, "the flank.") The superior expanded portion
of the innominate bone.
Impregnation. (From the Latin word impregnare, "to impreg-
nate.") The act of rendering pregnant; fecundation.
Inferior Obliquus Oculi (muscle). The inferior oblique of the
Infundibulum. (From the Latin word infundere, "to pour into.")
A funnel-shaped passage or part.
Inguinal. (From inguen, "the groin.") Pertaining to the groin.
Inhibitor (nerve). (From the Latin inhibere, "to check.") To
check or hold back. Inhibitor nerve: One which has a controlling
influence upon a nerve conveying impulses to certain organs and
tissues of the body.
Innominate. (From the Latin words in, "without;" nomen, "a
name.") Unnamed, unnamable; as innominate bone or artery, due to
its not resembling any known object.
Inorganic. Not organic; not produced by animal or vegetable organ-
isms, as an inorganic compound.
Insalivation. (From the Latin words in, "in;" saliva, "the spittle.")
The act of mixing the food with saliva when chewed (mastication) .
Inter. (From the Latin word inter, "between.") Between any
Interarticular. Between joints.
Interauricular. Between the auricles of the heart.
Intercellular. Between the cells.
Intercondylar. Between the condyles, as the intercondylar notch of
the femur bone.
Intercostal. Between the ribs, as intercostal muscles, arteries, nerves,
Interlobular. Between the lobules of the liver, referring to inter-
lobular veins and arteries.
Intermuscular (septa). Between muscles.
Interosseous. Between bones.
Intertrochanteric (line). Between the trochanters of femur.
Interventricular. Between the ventricles of the heart.
Intralobular. (From the Latin words intra, "within;" lobulus, "a
little lobe.") Within a lobule, as an intralobular vein of liver.
Intrinsic. (From the Latin word mtrinsecus, "on the inside.")
Inherent, situated within; peculiar to a part, as the intrinsic muscles
of the eye.
Involuntary. (From the Latin words in, "not;" velle, "to will.")
Performed or acting independently of the will, as involuntary muscle.
Ischium. The bone forming the back and lower part of the innomi-
Jejunum. (From the Latin word jejenus, "empty;" because it is
usually found empty after death.) The second portion of the small
intestine extending between the duodenum and ileum and measuring
about eight feet in length.
Katabolism. Physiologic disintegration of the products of metab-
olism. The opposite of anabolism. (See Anabolisrn.)
Kinetic (energy). (From the Greek word meaning to move.)
Labyrinth. (From the Greek word meaning a maze.) The name
fiven to the series of cavities of the internal ear comprising the vesti-
ule, cochlea, and semicircular canals.
Lacrimal. (From the Latin word lacrima, "a tear.") Pertaining
to the tears, or the organs containing or secreting them.
Lactation. (From the Latin word lactere, "to suckle.") The
period during which the child is nourished from the breast.
Lacteal. (From the Latin word lac, "milk.") Resembling milk.
Any one of the lymphatic ducts of the villi of the small intestine which
take up the chyle; the chyle resembling rnilk as to color.
Lacuna (pi. SB). (From the Latin word lacus, "a lake.") A lake,
as the lacuna? of bone construction.
Lamella (pi. ae). (Dim. of the Latin word lamina, "a plate.") A
thin scale or plate.
Lamina (pi. se). Latin. A plate.
Lamina Spiralis. A spiral plate.
Larynx. The organ of voice situated between the base of the tongue
and the trachea.
Lateral. (From the Latin word latus, "the side.") At, belonging
to, or pertaining to the side. Situated on either side of the middle
Latissimus Dorsi (muscle). The widest of the back.
Levator Anguli Oris. The elevator of the angle of the mouth.
Levator Labii Superioris Alseque Nasi. The elevator of the upper
lip and the wing of the nose.
Levator Menti. The elevator of the chin.
Levator Palati. The elevator of the palate.
Levator Palpebrae Superioris. The elevator of the upper eyelid.
Leukocyte. A white-blood cell or corpuscle, seen in the blood;
Ligamentum Patellae. The ligament of the patella (knee-cap bone).
Linea Alba. White line.
Linea Aspera. Rough line on the posterior aspect of the femur.
Linea Semilunaris. (From the Latin words linea, "a line;" semi-
lunaris, from semi, "half;" luna, "a moon.") The line resembling
a half moon in shape.
Linea Transversa. The transverse line.
Liter. (From the Latin word litra, "a pound.") The unit of capa-
city in the metric system. One liter equals 1.76 pints.
Lobule. (From the Latin word lobulus, dim. of lobus, "a lobe.")
A small lobe.
Locomotion. (From the Latin words locus, "a place;" motio,
"motion," from movere, "to move.") The act of moving from place
to place, as in walking, etc.
Lumbar. (From the Latin word lumbus, "a loin.") Pertaining
to the loins or lower part of back.
Lymphocyte. A lymph cell. Belonging to the group of white cells.
Seen in the blood; microscopic.
Lymphoid. Having the appearance or character of lymph.
Major Calices. The larger calices (see Calices).
Malar. (From the Latin word mala, "cheek.") Pertaining to the
cheek bone. The bone of the prominence of the cheek.
Malleolus. (Dim. of the Latin word malleus, "a hammer.") A part
or process of bone having a hammer-head shape. As the malleolus
of the tibia and fibula.
Mandible. (From the Latin word mandere, "to chew.") The jaw
Mastication. (Frpm the Latin word masticare, "to chew.") The
act of chewing.
Mastoid. (Resembling the shape of a nipple.) Pertaining to the
Maxilla (jaw bone). The bone of the upper or lower jaw.
Maximus. The greatest.
Meatus. (From the Latin word, meare, "to flow or pass.") An
opening or passage. Auditory meatus, etc.
Medius. The middle.
Medulla. The marrow. Anything resembling marrow, as the
medulla oblongata. Also the central part of an organ.
Medullated. Containing or covered by a substance resembling
medulla or marrow. Medullated nerves covered with a myelin sheath.
Mediastinum. (From the' Latin words in, medio, stare, "to stand
in the middle.") The space in the middle of the chest between the
two pleurse, divided into anterior, middle, posterior, and superior
Membrane. (From the Latin word membrana, from membrum,
"a member.") A thin layer of tissue lining or surrounding a part or
separating adjacent cavities.
Mesentery. A fold of peritoneum which connects the intestine
with the posterior abdominal wall.
Meshes. Net-work, reticular.
Mesocolon. The fold of peritoneum connecting the colon with the
posterior abdominal wall.
Mesoderm. The middle layer of the blastodermic vesicle of the
embryo, derived from both the ecto- and entoderm.
Mesogastrium or Umbilical. The region corresponding to the
part of the abdominal wall surrounding the umbilicus (navel).
Metabolism. The group of phenomena occurring in the tissues
whereby the organic beings transform foodstuffs into complex tissue
elements (anabolism), and convert complex substances into simple
ones in the production of energy (katabolism) .
Metacarpal. Relating to the metacarpus.
Metacarpus. (From the Greek words meaning beyond the wrist.)
That part of the hand between the bones of the wrist and the bones
of the fingers.
Metatarsal. Pertaining to the metatarsus.
Metatarsus. (From the Greek words meaning beyond the instep.)
That part of the foot between the bones of the instep and the bones
of the toes.
Micturition. (From the Latin word micturire, "to pass water.")
The act of passing urine.
Millimeter (mm.). The thousandth part of a meter. Equal to
Minimus. The least, smallest.
Minor. The lesser, smaller.
Minor Calices. The smaller calices.
Mitral (bicuspid). (Resembling a miter, a covering for the head
worn by popes, bishops, and cardinals.) The valves of the left auriculo-
ventricular opening of the heart.
Molecular. (From the Latin word mole, "a mass"). Pertaining
to or composed of molecules.
Molecule. (From the Latin word, a dim. of moles, "mass.") The
minute portion of matter. In physics the smallest quantity into which
a substance can be divided and retain its characteristic properties;
or the smallest quantity of any gas, liquid, or solid that can exist in
a free state.
Motor. (From the Latin word movere, "to move.") Moving or
causing motion. Concerned or pertaining to motion, as motor cells,
motor nerves, motor centre.
Mucous. Containing or having the nature of mucous.
Multipolar. (From the Latin words multus, many; polus, "a pole.")
Having many poles, as multipolar nerve cells, having many processes.
Myelinic. Relating to myelinic nerve fibers, those possessing a
Myocardium. The muscular tissue of the heart.
Myosin. (From the Greek word meaning muscle.) A protein
of the globulin class, found in coagulated muscle-plasma, and formed
from the antecedent globulin myosinogen. "
Naris (pi. es). (From the Latin word n-aris, "the nostril.") One
of a pair of openings at the anterior or posterior part respectively of
Nasal. (From the Latin word nasus, "the nose.") Pertaining to
Nervus Intermedius. The nerve situated between, as the Nervus
intermedius between the facial and auditory nerves.
Neural (canal). Pertaining to nerves. Neural canal: The bony
canal comprising the cavity of the cranium and vertebral column
which contains the central nerve system.
Neurilemma. The sheath encasing a nerve fiber.
Neuroglia. The tissue forming the basis of the supporting frame-
work of the nerve tissue. It consists of glia cells.
Neurone or Nerve Cell. One of the countless number of units of
which the nerve system is composed. The basis for all nerve tissue
Node. (From the Latin word nodus, "a swelling.") A knob,
swelling, or protuberance.
Nodule. (Nodulus, dim. of nodus, "a swelling.") A small node or
Nucha (pi. se). (Ligamentum nuchae.) (From the Latin word nucha,
"nape of neck.") The ligament of the nape of the neck.
Nucleated. Possessing a nucleus.
Nucleolus. (Dim. of nucleus from nux, " a nut.") The small rounded
body within the cell nucleus.
Nucleus. (From the Latin word nux, "a nut.") The essential part
of a typical cell, usually round in outline, and situated near the centre.
Nutrient Canal. One that affords nourishment, as the nutrient
canal of a bone, which contains a nutrient artery.
Obturator. (From the Latin word obturare, "to stop up.") That
which closes an opening; as obturator membrane or foramen of innomi-
Occipital (bone). Pertaining to the occiput. (See Occiput.)
Occipitofrontalis (muscle). From the occiput to the forehead.
Occiput. (From the Latin words ob, "against;" caput, "the head.")
The back part of the head.
Odontoid. Resembling a tooth.
Olecranon (process). The large convex portion of the back part of
the upper end of the ulna. The point of the elbow felt beneath the
Olfactory. (From the Latin word olfacere, "to smell.") Pertaining
to the sense of smell.
Omentum. Any fold of peritoneum attaching an organ to the
stomach. The greater omentum overlies the small intestines like
Opponens. (From the Latin words ob, "against;" ponere, "to
Opponens Minimi Digiti (muscle). The muscle which places the
little finger opposite to the thumb.
Opponens Pollicis (muscle). The muscle which places the thumb
opposite to the little finger.
Optic Chiasm. (See Chiasm.)
Orbicularis Oris (muscle). From the Latin word orbiculus, a dim.
of orbis, "a circle.") The circular one of the mouth.
Orbicularis Palpebrarum (muscle). The circular one of the eyelids.
Orbit. (From the Latin word orbita, from orbis, "a circle.") The
bony pyramidal cavity containing the eye and its muscles, etc.
Orbital. Pertaining to the orbit.
Organic. (From the Greek word meaning an organ.) Having or
pertaining to, or characterized by organs; relating to the animal and
vegetable worlds; affecting the structure of organs.
Orifice. (From the Latin words orificium; os, "a mouth;" facere,
"to make.") An opening or outlet of hollow organs, or between
Os Innominata (bone) (pi. ossa innominatse) . (From the Latin
os, "a bone;" innominata, in, "without;" nomen, "a name.") The
nameless bone, due to its not resembling any known object.
Os Magnum. (The great bone.) The third bone of the second
row of carpal bones (bones of the wrist).
Osmosis. (The passage of liquids and substances in solution through
porous septa (a partition) .
Osseocartilaginous. Formed of, or pertaining to bone and cartilage
Ossicle. (From the Latin word ossiculum, a dim. of os, "a bone.")