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The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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fociali vita mulierem fuifle fubditam viro, ipfumque fuper earn habuille prelatiam, rationis
difcurfu eft fuperius revelatum ; focialis etenim ell: vita civium fupremorum, ad quorum
focietatem deprecatur Ecclefia nos venire ; focialis eft vita anima; cum corpore et rationis
partis fuperioris cum inferior!; tamen in hiis omnibus non deeft elTe prelacii, quia, ut
fuperiori Traftatu oftenditur, prelacia focietatem roborat et non disjungit. Qiiare cum Lex
Natura; fit J uftitias Veritas quas reda ratione poterit revelari. Lege Natura; jam eft oftenfum
mulierem viro naturaliter efle fubjedam, et virum fuper earn habere prelaciam.




PARS SEC



UNDA.]



De Naturd Leg-js Natures.



1 1 1



Cap. LXVI.




Ecclefia -per MuUerehi prefigiirata probat Mulieris Jubjetlionem Viro.

?pRETEREA prima mulier ab Adsdonnicntis latere produifla Ecclefiam a fecLiiidi
Adas in cruce dormituri latere producendam figurabat. Sed mulier ilia, fic a viro

^ produfta, Sanfta; Ecclefut figura non fuifTet, fi ipfa viro, iit Ecclefia Chrifto, fub-
dita non fuifTet. Non enim leoaut cruenta beftia mitiOimi Jefu, Deo Patri immolandi, typuy
fuerat ; fed agnus, animalium mitiilimum ut Ipfe tuit hominum, Ipfum typice prefignavit.
Qiiid elT: figura nifi futurorum reale prefagium, ficut prophefia eft vocale ? Unde fimili-
tudinibus, ut prophecia; verbis, figura; loquntur. Quare quod future omnino erat diflimile,
ejus nullatenus potuit fuifle figura. Primoruni nanique parentuni matrimonium Chri li et
Ecclefia; conjugii non fuifiet facranientum, \\ prima conjunx Adit, ut Ecclefia Ch.ifto,
obedientiam non debuit in ordine luo. Obedientiam igitur debuit prima mulier viro, ut
Ecclefia Chrifto, talem fed non tantam ; nam qualitatem plus quam quantitatem folent
fi militudines demonftrare.



Cap. LXVII.

Nepotis tituliis antea ejficaciter improbatur.

vjl^l^A vero quce tarn induftriofe peroravit Nepos Regis, quibus ratione matris fua;
Y^^^ optinere fperat Regnum quod petitur, licet ipfa inde omni jure penitus fit exclufa,
5=^^.^ tot inevitabilibus reprehenduntur argumentis, ut non difputatione cgeant
ampliori. Quare id folum reftat ut quid in hac caufa fancciemus partes aufcultent.



Cap LXVIII.




Materia indiittiva ad 'Judicium.

,^URI metallorum eximii, licet obfifi, puritas ignoratur, donee candentis camiiii illud
probetur examine. Campanarum confonantiam non novit earum artifex ante-
quam pulfentur, nee cordarum cithereda concordiam, quoufque ut altiilbni itn et
fubfonantis ipfe fenferit fonum. Quis fine examine tantit caufe merlta poterit contempiari,
aut, non auditis partium rationibus, ejus enucleare valuit abfconditam veritatem ? Dec -pit
patriarchiam Ifaac veftimentorum filii tragrantia, decepit et eum taftus fenfuum amplillimus ;
non caligantem eum juvavit vifus ; nee guftus edulium quod attulit filius minor venationem
non efic fratris fenioris decrevit. Solus auditus erat fenfus ille qui non fefellit fenem. Hie



^^.'^



^i-A^r






rr:i'([



1 82 Da Natni'd Legis Natiirce. [pars secunda.

fenfus fubplantatorem efle perfpiciie deprchcndit filiiim, patre fubdole connivente. Auditu,
ut dicit Apoftolus, addifcitur fides noftra; reiigionis fundamentum. Vcium et ex auditu
profundilTimarum fententiarum et rationuin, qiias in lioc examine partes predicta: profiiderun ,
nos jam hauhmus quam qiierit propofita qucftio veritatem ; qua; etfi in potentia nobis
femper afi-uerit, non fe palam exhibuit, donee argumentorum viribus agitata, quafi a fompno
gravi fuerat excitata. Harum tamen expergefacia clamore, fe jam nobis nudam nitidamque
revelat, quo non amplius eft nobis amodo pro ejus iiweRigatione fudandum ; fed earn potius
judicii prolatione jam fore fentimus cundis polleris promulgandam. Qj.iare duni in caufa
hac tarn mature ventilata, ex mutuo partium prediftarum alTenfu, conclufum efi:, ulterioribus
quoque allegacionibus reniinclatumj Nos ad Judiciuna in eadem reddendum proeedimus in
hunc modum.

Cap. LXIX.
Judicium.

|'«?N Dei Nominej Amen. Qiiia AfTiriorum Rex, fuperiorem in temporalibus ion
recognofcens, fdiis orbatus in fata dccenit, Filiam folam, et Kratrem, necnon de ilia
ilia Nepotem poll; ie relinquens, qui omnes fuper jure regni ejus i"e noftri a^-bi rio
fententise et decreto fubmiferunt ; nos deliberatione matura, auditis eoruni allegationihus et
refponfis, necnon rationibus fuperinde, et qua; iccerunt argumentis, dum, nedum ex eis, verum
etiam ex hiis qua; nos jam pandimus, certiirime comperimus, et nobis conllat incundanter
quod femina non efl: capax regni luperiori non iubjecfti ; quo nee filius ejus naturas kge
in regno hujufcemodi fuccedere poteil matris iux- ratione ; judicamus, arbitramur, et loi ra
fententia diffinitiva decernimus, Fratrem predi(ftum jus habere ad regnum et in regno quod
petitur, fuccedionis titulo ut ha;res defundi Regis olim fratris fui. Qiiare et eum de, et in
plena, ac pacifica Regni illius pofTertiGne invefliri jubemus ; predic5tos Filiam et Nepctem
inde omnino excludentes, quos omnis juris et tituli ad regnum illud expertes effe, declarajnus
fimiiiter et immunes.

I
Cap. LXX. '■

Hie AuBor remittit Opus Juum examinationi Siimmi Ponlificis. I

f^r^^M fi pretradata firme inexpugnabiliterque fint concluia, ibpitus efl fomes ille
\ 1^ fii^l'cia^ quo inter reges bella tarn fedulo liucufque fulcitata funt ; err ir videlicet
mveteratus, quo femina-, earum que heredes per eas, in regnisfuppreme fuccedere
pofle arbitrata; funt. Hie erat ferpens ipfe verfutus ambitionis veneno educatus, quianimos
principum furrepens eas tanta virus fui malicia venenavit, ut vix effet regum aliquis qui non,




'. ^ f \



PARS SECUNDA.] De NatU7'd Legis Nattwcc. 183

tumoris inde exuberantis vehementia concitatuSj ad armorum fremitum fe cotUulit, quo
veneni hiijus ardorem fe fedare pofTe credebat. Sic pax hominum undique tiirbata eft in
terr.i, (ic et Ecclefui; robur attenuatuni ell:, ut vix reperiri polTct Priiiccps qui non tantis
bellorum difcriminibus prepeditus fe poflet deffencioni Ecclefui: conferre ; quo erga earn
aggravata eft niauus inimicorum ejus, ita ut neduni barbaroruni et infidelium blafjihemiis et
contumeliis, fed et propriorum filioruni lacelfita injuriis, confolanteni non iuvenerit ex
omnibus caris ejus. Et fi fupradifti erroris iniquitas diutius invalcfcat, non dubium inajora
hiis incomoda fuftinebit Ecclefia, a nullo fere Priiicipum detenfxta. Proficifcere igitur huji;,s
Tratlatus Libellule,et concito Urbem pete, ubi ad pedes Vicarii Chrifti, Ecclefife Sponfi,provo-
lutus, humillime ora ut te oculis fua; pietatis dignetur afpicere ; et, fi te reftum juftum que
reperierit, hoc omnibus ejufdem Ecclefux; filiis intimare dignetur ; et, {\ quid in te devium
confpexerit, quod ablit, hoc fua; lenitatis correftione reicindat, cum non illud de mali ;ia, fed
ex ignorantiffi folum nebulis fit dilapfum. Ad eum namque, ut in priori Tradatu men oratur,
remittit Moyfes omne judicium difficile et ambiguum quod efte poffit in Curiis hominum,
volens ut quidquid ipfe judicaverit docuerit ve juxta Legem Dei, hoc judicent onmes
hhi hominum, ejus fententiam fequentes, nee decHnent ad dexteram vel ad finiftram.
(Deutron. xvij. C".)



Cap. l.XXI.

Conjiietudo nequit hereditare Mulierem in Re^jw quod fuperius nejcit.

EC beatiftimi Patris movere poterit Sanftitatem, quod feminas, quandoque rtian) et
X viros titulorum colore feminarum, ipfa conlpexerit regali folio coniedere. Nam
^ fi hie trattata errore careant, licet femina principare prefumpferit, diademate,
ceteris quoque omnibus infigniis regalibus redimita, ac ut Rex verletur in regno fuperius
nefciente, ipfi tamen regis non potitur officio, neque regno illo tali medio inveftitur, cum
non fit inde capax muliebris fexus. Virum quoque mulieris titulo regnum hujufmodi obtinere
non pofie in hoc Traftatu folidiffime eft conclulum. Uuo mulierem pariter et virum regna
taliter ufurpantes injufte agere, quo et peccare, lata hie fententia, fi re6la ipfa fuerit, neminem
patitur hefitare. Quid tunc juris conferre poterit mulieribus aut viris hujufmodi ulus vel
confuetudo longeva, qua: non nifi in peccatorum aggere inolevit ? Num poterit ipfapeccatum
in virtutem transferre aut in tas nefas commutare ? Iteratum facinus profundius ledit i uam
quod primitus eft commifium. Ulus igitur reatum aggravat, fed nequit delere peccatimi.
Unde folum bona fidei pofiefibr eft qui prefcriptione jus adquirit, dicente Juris Regula, '' i'of-
fefibr mala; fidei uUo tempore non prtefcribit ;" et alia, " Non firmatur tradtu temporis quod de
jure a principio fubfiftit." (^are confuetudo non ahquid transformat in legem, nifi quod
originem fortiri poterit juftam. Et nonne in Tradtatu ifto probatum eft, muliebre regimen




; .1 ■ i



1 I-IM 'V



s: ■••i.ri



184 De Naturd Legis Naturce. [



PARS SECUNDA.



fiiper homines fuppremum non clTe de natura entis, quo nee de natura rerum. Ouoniodo
tunc in ufuin vergere poterit t[uod oninino non eft ? An poterit plel)eius in regis peiibnatum
fe transformans in coniediis, et fi anteeelTores fui confimiliter fecerint a tempore longiirinio,
per hoc in regia prelcribcre dignitate ? Revcra ut perfonatus in comediis, apparcnciaai
habens, et reaiiter non exiftens, eft mulieris imperium fuppremum fuper virum. Inter anti-
quos fi quidem ydolatria ritu celeberrimo colebatur, qiiam et confuetudo inter eos ita ut legem
extulitj ut fpernentes cam, nedum ut in lege committentes, fed et ut blasfemos, restores orbis
perimebant; quid tamen hoc fcelere fceleft:iLis et remotius a lege? Ydolatriam jam Ecclefis
fancflitas, ejus quoque indiiftria et doiflrina, quafi ab omnibus mundi finibus effugavit.
Utinam et ipfi erroris qui hie deprehenditur maliciam eliminaverit ab omnibus finibus iuis !
Ydolatria Ecclefiam de foris laceflivit forinfeco bello. Error ifte earn interii .^ dilfipat et
infirmat bello inteftino, qualiter hucuft|ue non gravavit earn peceatum aliud q.iod unquam
a Chriftianis erupit. (^lare ficut ejus iniquitas Ecclefiam maxime Ltfit, (\z ejus evaeuationem
maximum conferre Ecclefis relevamen polTe, non ambigitur. F.ija ergo Pater Sande, et luiie
Ecclefias languori adhibe medelam, ut ficut fiiuftis predecelToribus tuis, qui ydolatriam debella-
runt, Sanftitas tua fuccedit in aurtoritate et honors, ita et in hoc genus demonii ejiciendo eis
fuccedat in vita; meritis et laude perhenni. Ad cujus rei prelagium eflimabit Beatitudo lua
tibi hucufque refervari hujus infirmitatis curam, cui vix fimile virus aliquem predecefibri m
tuorum legitur in Ecclefia extinxifl'e ; quo Sanftitas tua^ qua; quafi fero venit in hanc
culturam vineoe Dominies, tantam promerebitur mercedeni quantam meruit qui primo '
mane earn colere eft conduc5lus.



■,l .)



n.\



fortescup:
DE NATURA LEGIS N A T U R y^.

TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN BY
THE RIGHT Ht)N, CHICHESTER EORTESCUE, M.P.

LATt STUDKNT Of CHKIST CUl'IiCH.



I.

Ft



TREATISE CONCERNING THE NATURE OF THE LAW OF NATURE,

AND ITS JUDGMENT UPON THE SUCCESSION

TO SOVEREIGN KINGDOMS.



INTRODUCTION.



Here follows a fort of Summary of the Contents of the following Book.





FIIS finall book is divided into two Parts, in the firft of which a queftion is
\rt/'0/*^ propofed concerning the right of fucctHion in fupreme kingdoms ; and



fit is fhown how that that queftion cannot be refolved by any other human
\t '-o-^.^ law than the Law of Natiu-e only.



m . . .

pW;i^ Next, the Author inquires what that Law of Nature is, and he finds it
demonflrated not only out of the facred Canons, but aifo in the Gofpel.

He finds alfo a long period of time during which in things temporal the world was
governed by that law only, laws of cuftom and fl:atute not having been yet produced, nor
the Mofaic law yet promulgated.

And he tells what the facred Canons fay, that the law of nature is a 13ivine law, and how
it took rife from the firft beginning of human nature, and endures unchangeable; and how
all other human laws follow in the train of that law, and how under it and by it the kingly
dignity firil Ifarted into exigence, ever after regulated by the fame.

And then he fhows who was the firft king, whom, as well as many other kings, as he
recites, of whom fome were juft, fome unjuft, he proves to have reigned under the law and;
by the law of nature.

Then the Author oppofes to the excellency of the law of nature difplayed in the rights
of a king that which the prophet Samuel by God's command prediifted to the people of
Ifrael ; and againft the goodnefs of the kingly dignity he brings forward by way of objeifl on
the penitence of that people, wlien they faid, " We have added an evil thing to all our fins,
by afking a king over us."

And, in difculling thefe objcftions, he treats incidentally of government political and
royal, and alfo ot government merely royal.



./:-.yJiT



^■-:''^



■-;, , '«■■ -«■>




... ''.oa


1 ■■>: 'jdi



I -I I (■



1 88 On the Law of Natin^e.

And in the fame Treatife he proves that neither of thefe is more potent than the other ;
but, although under good princes they may be equal, he yet affirms that under unjuft princes
the political and royal government is Icfs capable of doing injury to its fubjcfts ; and in the
courfe of this contraft he proves among other things that by the law of nature contrads were
formed among men and kingdoms eftablifhed in the world long before the Law of Natii. as
began to exift : and he proves that, although the ilate of man had been changed by fin, yet
the law of nature has ever endured the fame, and ftill endures, although in a different ftate
of grace.

Next he lays down the difference between 'Jus and Lex^ and then defines the law of
nature, and at no fmall length fhows when and how it took its origin and its name. And
afterwards he flates that the law of nature and natural juftice are of one effence, althoi gh
accidentally fo, and, among other tilings, that that law is derived from ji Iticc, as brightnefs
from light, flame from fire : and he fets forth many fuch fimilitudes ; and fliows how juftice
remained in man alter man had abandoned her.

And next he fhows how this juftice difters from original juftice, and aflerts that there
were not two kinds ot juftice created, but one only.

And then he ftiows why the Law of Nature is Divine, alfo why it is called the daughter
of the Divine law; and among other things he fays that that law is related to th; tternal
law as the moon is to the fun, which hath her light only from him. And nroreovcr hj fays
that he who takes human law out of the world is as one who would rob the fky of the
adornment of moon and ftars. Very many other matters alfo, not lefs clouded over than
t.hefe, he makes clear, which we leave for the reader.

F'inally, he fhows what are the bounds of Divine law and of human l;iw ; and in what
fubjeftion human law fubmitteth itiell to the law Divine , and he proves by facred authority
that every doubtful matter in human courts of juftice ought to be referred to the judgment
of the Supreme Pontiff". And in conclufion, he fays that the law of nature bereft of the
(ateguard ol original juftice was never iuffici'-nt, nor is now lufncicnt, to juftify man 'or his
adlions without Grace, fo as that by the merits of that law he fhould be able to deferve
eternal life. Very many other things alfo, which reveal the facred myfteries of the llsw of
Nature, are unfolded in this Firll Part, fo that they will lie open to him who reads 'x through ;
wherefore the Author would have this Part called A Treati/e loncemDig the Nature of the
Law of Nature.

lx\ the Second Part of this book the Author firft conftitutes a judge in ti.e cafe of the
queftion propofed, before whom the faid queftion is argued by three conipetitc s- contending
for a certain kingdom which acknowledges no power above it, by means ot arguments
flowing out of the bofom of the Law of Nature ; though the Author iliows, by (ome other
authorities, that thofe arguments only are right by which a woman is proved incapable of
fucceeding to the kingdom in difpute, or to any one of like kind. And then he proves that



0?i the Law of Nature. 189

coiulufion to Ivc riglit, not only by the Law Divine, but alio by the Canon and Civil Law.
In like nunncr he proves that the children cannot enjoy fuch a kingdom in right of their
motlicr. Of by rcafon of dcA-cnt through her. Wherefore the Daughter of th^- king who died
fcL't.! ul the kingdom .iforcfaid, and in the fame way his Grandfon by her, two of the laid
MKUcmJing jurlicj, arc by the judgment ot the above-mentioned judge excluded from the
kinKiiom which they fought, and it is adjudged by definitive fentence to the Hrother of the
kb,;.

l^tlly, it is rtiown why neither cuitom nor prefcription can have any force or ph.ce
•^» r.«l the cft'cd of this fentence.

ThU Second I'art the faid Author wifhes to be called A Treanje concerning the rr^ht of
J*.itJ,l^ in Sdtcreign Kingdoms, m which Part the reader, if he reads it laborioufly, will rind
«>■! > (c^'J things which, before it was put forth, were hidden, as it were in fliades of c arknefs,
jWnj iij&ll men's eyes.



FIRST PART.



CONCERNING THE NATURE OF THE LAW OF NATURE.




KING, acknowledging no luperior in things temporal, has a daughter
and a brother ; the daughter bears a fon. The King dies wi hout
fons. The queftion is, whether the kingdom of the King (o dec-;afed
delcends to the Daughter, the Daughter's Son, or the Brother of the
King.



Chap. I.



Here the AiuJior Jho-ivs tlie motive of his IFor,
TTP'HIS queftion, although it be propofed in few words, can be refolved, it is



-<^ believed, by no fmall difcourfe, feeing that it inquires into rights belonging to
the higheft fummit, the higheft potency, and the thing which the human mind
defires above all things on earth ; even as the Philofopher fays, " We defire everything, but
moft of all to be firft." An angel coveted exaltation ; fo did tlie lirlT: created of men,
whereby he hath fo diffufed the lulf of domination throughout all his progeny, that hardly
can a man be found whom the ambition of dignities hath not inteded.

Oh, then, what a pious and holy thing it would be to reveal the truth which here
is fought, ftripped of every veil of error, naked and fliining ! feeing that under the cloud of
this ignorance fo many hard-fought wars, fo many civil contefts, pervading the whole world,
have prevailed, not only in the moft noble kingdoms of France and England, but in very
many other regions alfo, where the bloody fword, accompanied only by the jullice of this truth,
has devoured thoufands upon thoufands of men. Tliis truth, therefore, if it can be m.ide
plain by a definition beyond doubt, will, by the guidance of God, appeale wars not a ,'ew
already begun, and will withdraw material for the beginning of the like hereafter; wherrby
will arife a firmer peace between kingdoms, and the Church, for this long time weakened by
the effeifts of fuch wars, growing in Ifrength beyond her wont, will more itoutly than ever
do battle with her enemies. Wherefore, although the purfuit o( this truth may not be
meted by the knowledge of him who propofes the queftion of which you have now had the



( f 1



192'" 071 the Law of Nature. [part i.

firft taftcj he, neverthelefs, Inflamed by the defire of fo great a good, recalHng that fentence
of the great moralifl; Seneca, when he fays, " I have {ctn nothing wonderful in the world
except the foul, to which, being fo great, nothing is great," tripling in God's aid, whofe grace,
humbly prayed for, never failed any man in time of need, fets himfelf to this work, though
it be a great one, in the following tafliion.



CflAI'. II. i

Although this be a quejlion of Law, tlie Author refujes not the aid of other Faculties.

?1F^EEING that the above quefl:ion is one of law only, its folution requires not the
j'^^^Oi j'-iJg'''''S"t of many or difficult faiences. The laws only can determii e it. What
^^^<Sr-<W% fick man feeking to be healed coniults the mathematicians, feeing it is phyfic
only which knoweth to cure dileafes ? or what agriculturift deilring to fow the ground
looks for the opinion ot philofophers ? for his mechanic art can teach him knowledge
enough of the matter. Neverthelefs natural philofophy inveftigates the nature of feeds
and of tillage more iubtiy than doth the art of the huflKuidman ; and the aftrononier
knows more furely than the phyfician the courfes of the planets under which the fick n an
can be hurt or healed. By the help of thefe, therefore, if they confult them, the fick man
and the mechanic will be able more furely to accomplifh thofe things which they defign.
Even fo the lav.'s, to which alone the treatment of our prefent cafe is left, if they be '
fupported by the aid of the other fcicnces, will be able to deal with this difpute more
furely, and with ampler authority, fmce there are no faculties which are not f.ibiidiary in
fome diretftion or other to other arts. Let us, therefore, fo feek the fentence of the laws m
this difpute, as not to refufe the fupport of other faculties. And firft let us inquire what law
is capable ot determining it. '

'i
Chap. III.

The folution of this queftion calls for a la'iv otJ'.er than the Canon or the Civil.

^^ll'^pM^'^i'^O^GVi the Imperial Laws, which bind in the ftrongeft manner the fubjetfls
}^i^^C0A of the li,mperors, are capable ot unfoldinc; and illuftratin" the merits of ;his cafe
%M^^^ in a clear and beautiful fafhion, yet they do not feem able to decide it aLfolutely
by their own authority, forafmuch as the parties contend for the fucceffion to a ki ifrdom,
which IS under no iubjecT:ion whatever to Cafar's fway. Although, again, the facred Canons
are richly ftored with fentences which might unlock the merits of the cafe; yet ChriiVs
Spoufe the Church, bccaufe, looking to heavenly things, intent upon matters of higher
refearch, namely, ijiiritual matters, like to a mother of a famil\' full of dotneftic cares, flie is



Hi'.



PART I.] 0?i the Law of Nature.



193



not wont to entangle herfelf with things out of doors, hath hitherto given no pains to the
difcullion of this earthly biifinefs. We are compelled, therefore, in this matter to inquire
after the decifion of another law ; to do which we choofe this manner of pro. eeJing wliich
follows.

Chai>. IV.

The Lo.iv of Nature atone governed the World until the Laio given by the hand uf Mojes.

f^jET^r^HE human race, from the time when it went out from Paradife, even until the
CTf\ "*^ people of Ifrael received by the hand of Mofes at Mount Sinai the law written
■^1^:^^ by the Lord, was governed by the law of Nature ; during which time more than
J644 years elapfed, as may be colleeled from the writings of St. Augurtine in the 15th and
i6th books of the De Civitate Dei ; and nearly in like manner counts Jofephus in hi book
Concerning the Hiftory of Antiquities, according to whom all that period is called tl .; time
of the Law of Nature. And although the fucceeding period to the coming of Chrill: be
named the time ot the Law, and the whole period trom then until now the time of Grace,
neverthelefs the law of nature itfelf was not in thole fucceeding times abolifhed, but con-
tinued through them all, and flill continues in its own force and effect. The Lord alfo
confirmed it, and enjoined it to be obferved, faying, " All things whatfoever ye would that
men fhoukl do to you, do ye even fo to them; tor this is tlie law and the prophets"
(Matt, vii.) ; and the law which the Lord thus declared and commanded men to keep the
Canons exprefOy declare to be the law of nature, when they thus fpeak, " Natural law {jus)
is that which is contained in the Law and the Gofpel, according to which every man is com-
manded to do unto an'other what he would have done unto hlmfelf, and is forbidden to
inflift what he would not have done unto himielt :" tor although thefe words of prohibition
be not expreltly ufed in the Gofpel, yet are they tacitly included there, fmce when one of
two contraries is commanded the other is itecefl'arily forbidden. Nor is it any marvel that
this law, although it was enough to rule the world in civility, is expoLuided in the Gofpel in
fuch few words, fmce upon the two greateft commandments, alfo repeated in few words, the
Lord fays that all the Law and the Prophets hang ; and, in itill fewer words, the Apottle,
embracing all thefe things, fays that " Love is the fulfilling of the law.''

Chap. V.

The Laiu of Nature excels all other h.unian laws.



W:



TT^WVi Law of Nature all the laws of the Old and New Teftament approved,
f^Vi r^^ diminilhing nothing therefrom; nay, the Lord fays of it, as of the rell; of his



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