John Fortescue.

The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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Table of ^iotatio7is.



35'*



CHAP.

XVIII.



XIX.



XX.



XXII.



XXIII.
XXIX.



XXX.

XXXI.



XXXII.
XXXV.



XXXVI.



XLII



XLV.



Hugo Dc S.iiiflo Viftore, Eruditio Theologica, De Sacramentis, lib. i, pais vi. cap. 35,

cd. X'ciiict, 1588.
Canon L.iw, I^lL-cretum, pars ii. caula x.xxiii. qu.x-tl. 5, cap. ij, ILec iinag')-
Vinccntius Bellovacenfis, Speculum Hilloriaie, i. 41.
Hugo dc Sanflo Viftore, De Sacramentis, i. vi. 34.
Cajion Law — as above.
Ariftotle, "Semen viri," c\'c. De generatione Animalium, 1. 22, and ii. 2, and Meta-

pliyfics vii. iv. 4, 5.
•' S.iiii^liis Auguftinus in lihro Ixxxiii. qu.tftionum," Dc Idcis, " rellat ut omnia lationc

fmt condit.i ; nee cadem ratione Homo qua Equus." De Divcrii?. Q^i;vllionibus,

qu:elK xlvi.
Augulline De Civ. Dei, xviii. 2.
" Turpis eli pars qu;e non conveni: fuo toto," found in Aquinas, De Reg. Pnn. i. j,

probably fioni the Metaphylics.
Diodorus Siculus, ii. 46.
Au(5lor De Caufis. See Note.
Canon Eaw, Decretum, parb i. dift. v. i.
Ifidore, the law ot' nature a '7/n D'lvinum. The reference is taken from the C.mon

Law, Deer. i. did. i. can. i., wiicre it is referred to Ifidore, Etymolog. v. 2, and is

there to be found, though not t'Aukm vefbii.
Boethius, De Cons. Phil. iv. prola li.

Civil Law, fl". (Digefts.) De Regulis Juris, lib. I. tit. xvii. lex 120.
Same title, lex i. Riguhi cjf, Sic.

Inilitutes, lib. ii. tit. xix. De Hercdum Qiialitate et Differentia. Sui aiitein.
Leonardus Brunus Arctinus, In Libros Morales Ariftotelis \'fagogicum. " Hmc igitur

vides tot ell'e fincb quot funt actus, aliofque fubelle aids ; finem autem appello cujus

gratia quid agimus." Edited by John de Weftphalia, fine loco et anno.
Ariftotlc, Metaphyfics, "a prlmo principio dependet ccelum et tota iiatura," See xi.

chaps. 4 and 5, not verbally correift (?).
Homer, Iliad, q, 18, 19.
Macrobius fuper Somnium Scipionis, lib. i. cap, xiv. § 15. The pallige ot the Somnium

is in chap. 4 of the old editions, but in lib. vi. c. 17 ot the De Republica, cd.

Orellius.
Aquinas, Prim. Summns, qurell. xcvi. arr. 4.
Aquinas, De Regimine Principum, iii. 9.
Auguftine, De Civ. Dei, xix, 14, 16.
Arillotle, "Semper eli'c aliquod prlmum et dirigens," an " .Aucforit.is," from the ill

Book of the Politics, quoted by Aquin.is in Prim. Summ.e xcvi. 4, above.
Aquinas, De Reg. Prin. ii. 9, " regimen politicum prsponitur regali."
Auguftine, De Civ. Dei, xiv. 10.
Augulline, De Civ. Dei, xix. 15.
Aquinas. (See above at chap, xlii.)

u u * C



i.ir



352* De Natiird Legis Nuttirce.

C H A P .

XLV. Ariftotle, Politics, i. 2. See Part i. ch. xxxiv.
Auguftine, De Civ. Dei, xix. 15, as above.
Aquinas, De Reg. Prin. ii. 9.
XL VI. Auguftine, Dc Civ. Dei, xvui. 21.
Aquinas, Dc Reg. Prin. i. i.
Ariftotle, Politics, iii. 7.
Auguftine, De Civ. Dei, xv. 8.

Canon Law, Decretum, pars ii. caufa xxxiii. quasft. 5. Hac Imago.
XLVin. Civil Law, Authenticae or Novelhe (Novels), Collatio ix. tit. i. cap. 5, De legitimd
tutelii, &c. The true reference is Novella Conllit. cxviii. De Heredibus ab in-
teftato, &c. cap. 5.
XLIX. Auguftine, De Civ. ]Jei, xix. 21.

LI. Canon Law, Deer, pars i. dift. i. cap. Oiima leges.
LIL Civil Law, Codex, lib, xli. tit. i. lex i. De Dignitatibus, " et glofa ordina la ibidem."
Digefts, (ft'.) lib. i. tit. 5. De ftatu Hominum, lex 19. Ctun Icghbiuv.
Inftitutes, lib. i. tit. 15, De legitima agnatorum tiitcla.
Digefts, (ft"), lib. i. tit. 8, De Senatoribus, lex 10. Liberoi.
Codex, lib. X, tit. 31, De Decurionibus, &:c., lex 36. Exemplo or Exeniplum.
LIIL Digefts, (ft") lib. v. tit. I, De Judiciis, lex 11. Cum Pra'tor.
Codex, lib. ii. tit. 56. De Arbitris. (1. h. = lex fiiialis.)
Digefts, (ff.), lib. 1. tit. 17. De Regulis Juris, lex 2. Femime.

Alfo, tit. 4, De iVlunetibus et Honoribus. Leges 3, Et qui originem, and 14, Honor.
Codex, lib. x. tit. 40, De Honoribus et Muneribus non continuandis, glofl"a ordinaria.
Digefts, (ft".), lib. i. tit. g. De Senatoribus, lex 8. Femiiuf.
" (^)ui profeffione," kc. A wrong reference to the Codex. The right one is lib. <.

tit. 39. De Incolis, law q.
Authentic^, Coll. iv., De Confulibus. Si vera. See Note.
Codex, lib. X. tit. 62, De Mulieribus, in quo loco, c^'c. ("lege unica,"' there being -but

one law under the title), and the glofs at the word honores.
Codex, lib. V. tit. 4, De Nuptiis, lex 23, Imperialis, and the glofs at the word dignitaie.
Codex, lib. xii. tit. viii. Ut dignitatum ordo lervetur, lex 2. '

Digefts, (ff.), lib. li. tit. I, De Jurildiiftione, lex I, and the glofs. '. |

Same title, lex 3. Imperiu/n.

Digefts, (ft".), lib. i, tit. iv. De Conftitutionibus Principum, lex i.
Codex, lib. i. tit. xiv. De Legibus et Conftitutionibus Principum et Edidlis, lex

fin alls.
Digefts, (ft".), lib. xlviii. tit. 2, De Accufationibus et Infcriptionibus, lex 8. i^ui accufare,
and the glofs.
LIV. Digefts, (ft".), lib. i, tit. i., De Jufticia et Jure, lex 6.
LV. Canon Law, Deer, pars ii. caufa xxxiii. quicft:. v. c. 17.
LVIL Auguftine, De Civ. Dei, ii. i.

Dionyfius Cato, " moralis Catonis verficului."



Table of ^hiotatioiis. 353*

CHAP.

LVII. " Virtutem priniam efl'e puta compefccre liiiguam ; Proximus ille Deo eft, qui fcit ratione

taceic," lib. i. Jiltich. 3.
LIX. AriHotle, Dc Ccelo et MiJiiJci, iii. 2, Metaphyfics, xi. x. 2. " km yap ^i n] Ta^fi to eIxj*!
irT.iTH7(3;."
Auguftinc, Dc Civ. Dei, XV. 22 .iiiJ xix. 13.
LXII. Canuii Law, Deer, pars ii. caufa xxxiii. quail. 5, Afiilit-rc/n fcf. cli.ip. ix.)
LXIII. St. Cjregory's Tliird Letter to Augulline. See Bede, HilL Eccl. Gentis Anglorum,
i. 27.
Peter Lombard, lib. ii. dift. 22, Cj.

Augulline, Comniciit on John i. 14 (Opp. Aug. ed. Bened. vol. iii. part 2, p. 303.)
Peter Lombard, lib. ii. dilL 23 G, and Comment on i Cor. xi. 8, q. Ed. 1535,
t'ul. xcvi.



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. ;

PART L

Chap. I. Philcfopho.'] " Sicut enim Urln Romani, Maroneni Poeta exprimit, fic et P 'Uofophi
nomcn circa Arilloteleni, uteiitium placito, contraiilum ell." John of Saliftury (iiio-iiBo). Poly-
(raliiUs, vii. 6.

Chap. I. Diceute Philofcpho, '•'■ omnhi anuimui^ fed principari mi/iui."] This has not been
identified in Ariftotle, but there are pall'ages hke it, to which Fortefcue may allude ; as Rhetoric, i. 38
TO cifx^iv viiiaTov, and Politics, vii. 14. § 17 ; uj-tte^ 0! TrXsiinoi toiv avS^uivraiv ^uTOi/j-i ruv 'no'ijZv oi'XTrorEi'v.
It is not among the Aiiiioritatei.

Chap. I. Tothella civilia^toti mundo pervulgata.'\ Upon this ProfefTor Stubbs fends me the following
remarks : " As to t)ie wars of fucceiTion to which your anccftor refers, I tliink he has gone a little
beyond the record. For I can remember no great war in Europe before his da)'s which originated in a
queftion of fucceffion iuch as he was at work upon, fave the Knglilh wars in France and thofe of the
Rofes. The war between Stephen and Alatilda is excluded by his words. Certainly in Germany and
the North there was no Iuch war of fucceffion. To look for precedents in Spain and Italy woidd feem
far-fetched ; and in Spain, certainly, the rights of women were freely eftabliflied. In Sicily, there was
the war between Tancred and Henry VI., ii8g — 1192, into which the rights of the heirefs entered,
but the claim there was embarralTed by qucftions of legitimacy and alfo of ufurpation. Any
real precedents, I think, would have to be fought among the hiftories of the French dukes and
counts, who varied in their treatment of fiefs, male and female, and in the recognition of reprejentiiUori.
And from them, perhaps, we might proceed to the petty quarrels in Northern Italy, about Alilan, c^c,
which were going on in Sir John Fortefciie's own time. Hut none of them could be called great wars,
and I am inclined to think that his words are a rafh generalization. I feel convinced that the Itatement
is a rhetorical one."

Chap. IV. Camncs. Dh. i.] The Corpus Juris Canonici comprifes five Codices : the firft being
the Decretum Gratiani, which is divided into three parts. Fortefcue refers to the Decretum onl\ , and
to the two firfl: of its parts. The Firlt Part is divided into DiJlinSftones^ and Capita or Canones ; the Second,
into Caufts, ^ucejliones^ and Capita. For the eltahlifhed mode of quotation from the Decretuii, fee
Scavini's Theologia Moralis, Traiil:. Sec. De Legibus, cap. iv. art. i. Fortefcue quotes from the Corpus
Gloffis Diverlorum Illuilratum, publillicd by order of Pope Gregory XIII.

Chap. V. Ut Dldt Saju'tui Thomas in Prima Summa-.] Fortefcue makes fevernl references to the
Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. (Born 1227, died 1274). It is divided into three parts, each of



356* De Naturd Lcgis Natu7'ce. [part j.

thefe into ^iiaft'tones, and thefe again into //rtimli. The fecond part contains two fubdivifions, unc'er
the titles of Prima and Secunda Stxunda.

Chap. V. DictiUi /'tirri>u\] M. Terentlvis Varro, (born B.C. i 16, i!ied B.C. 28,) whole vafl aid
varied erudition earned for him the title of the "molt learned of the Romans," author of the De Re
Ruftica, De Lingua Latina, the Antiquitates Reruni Humanarum, and Rerum Divin.irum, (from which
h{[ Auguftine drew very largely in his City of Cjod, and which is one of our fevereit lolles in the field of
clafTical literature) befides a large number of other works. In this, as in other cafes, a reference,
however trifling in itfelf, may be worth notice, as fliowiiig the nature and extent of Fortefcue's reading.
But there is no neceflity to fuppofe that he was acquainted with the writings of Varro, for the reafon
that the d'lLlum which he quotes is to be found in the Speculum H'ljloruile of Vincent of Beauvais, who
has there inferted a collection o( Seitti-ntia^ which he attributes to Varro.

Chap. VII. Nemhroth rohujhis vcnatar . . . id ejl opprejfir.] Compare Harrington's (Grounds
and Reafons of Monarchy. " As for thofe kings that intrude by force, they cannot certainly have th ■
forehead to infer any right, they being but, as the pirate laid to Alex.uider, public and more magnihceiM
robbers. Certainly thefe are the Ninirods, the great hunters, God's fcourges," ,5cc. Alio Algernon
Sydney's Dil'courfe concerning Government, chap. i. feft. viii., and iii. feet. x.x.\i. Fortefcuc brini'^s in
" Nembroth" in the De Laudibus (chap, xii.) ; and he furvivcd as a topic tor writers on Cjovernment
down to the leventeenth century.

Chap. VII. Difculos.l In the Laud MS. improhos, introduced no doubt on account ol the
obfcurity of the word ufed by the writer. But " d)'fculus " is to be found, as a tranflation o' j i-\iOi
in the Vulgate of I Peter ii. 18, " non tantum bonis et modeftis fed etiam dyfcolis."

Chap. VII. ^od dicit Sandus Thomas.'] The firft reference to the treatife of Aquinas, c.dled Ad
Regein Cypri de Regimine Prineipu?ii^ upon which, more than upon any other authority, Fortefcue
relies in the firft part of the De Natuia. The King of Cyprus was either Hugo II, or Hugo III , of
the Houfe of Lufignan. The treatife is curious and readable, baled to a great degree on the Politii s of
Ariftotle.

Chap. VII. Arljhteles plures yiumcrani tyyiiuuos.] "kscitoi TrajiiJv 6>.iyox^<:'-''i^Tipji.t rojv TTof.ViTnuv eiVIv
6?uyac'yja na't Tu^aivti;." Politics v. 12.

Chap. VIII. Vincentius.'] Vincent of Beauvais, a learned Dominican, of the 13th cehtury.
(Died A.D. 1264, or 1256.) He was reader to St. Louis, under whole aulpices he compoled his great
work, the Speculum Majus, the Encyclopedia of that age. It was divided into the Speculum Naturale,
Morale, Do£trinale (Icientific), and Hiftoriale, and was firft printed at Strafburg in 1473. Hallam gives
an account of this vafl compilation, lb characteriftic of the period which produced it. (Literat'iie of
Europe, Part I. chap. 2, ^ 38.) But it was by no means the only work ot Vmcent. " Non folum,"
to ufe the words of Echard and C^uetif (Scriptorcb Ordinis Predicatoruni), " tria Specula protata
Vincentius, fed et, quo erat laboris vigore indetello, plures traiStatus eodem methodo, il ell, totos ex
SS. Patrum auiSloritatibus fibi invicem connexis conltantes, compofuit, quorum aliqui t\ pis prodierunt,
alii delitefcunt adhuc in bibliothecis MSS." Whether the treatife De Aloi-n/i Lif/ituliine Priucipuyu,
quoted by Fortefcue, comes under the firft or fecond of thefe heads, I have not been a ile to alcerrain
with certainty. At firfl I took it to be identical with a fmall work of Vincent's, of which the title
varies in difi'erent MSS., but which is cominonly called De Eruditione Filiorum Regalium. This, however,
is not the cafe. The latter will be found in a fmall volume of Opufcula (in the I^ritilli Muleum),



PART I.] Notes and Jllujlratiojis.



357^



primed by John Amerbach, at Bale, in the year 148 1, where it forms the fourth in a colledion of five
treatifes. Hut tlie Z)<.' Morali Prlncipis Inj/itiitioHck defcribeJ by EcharJ and Ouetif, and in tlie Hiiloire
htteraire dc la France, as exifting in MS. only. '^Vincentii traftatus nondum tyjjis ej.cufi quinque
mihi veniunt recenfendi," fays Echard, after defcribing the five treatifes printed in the volume of
Opufcula i and having given an extrafl from the Preface of the Tra(5latus de Morali Principis Inltitu-
tione, one of the five unprinted, he adds : " Hoc agente cariflimo fodali noftro Michaele Lequicn accepi
ex Anglia." In the fame way the Hiftoire litter.iire (torn, xviii. 410. Paris, 1835) fjieaks of "Tinltitu-
tion ou inftrui5tion morale du prince" as " le fujet d'un cinquieme traite qui fe conferve manufcrit en
Angleterre " (p. 463), which it carefully diilinguillies from 'Me volume public en 1481, par J. d'Amer-
bach, De Eruditione feu modo InJIniendorutn Filiorum Regaliurn" giving an interefting account of each
work (p. 466). The MS. of which Echard's " fodalis," Father Le Quien, fent him a defcription and an
extraft, is probably one now in the Library of Merton College, Oxford, " a beautiful MS. in folio contain-
ing twenty-two leaves, thirteenth century hand," fays Profelfor Stubbs, who writes thus upon the pi int :
"•The two paflages are found in the Merton MS. of Vincent of Beauvais de Morali Principis In.Htu-
tione. The hrll, about Belus, Nembroth, and Ninus, in the fecond chapter of the work, the title of
which is ' De Prima Re-i^ vel Principis Inftitutione.' The fecond is in chajjter vii. : ' Ouod omnia
regna terrena diiponuntur nutu divin;e providentix.' I copy it in full : ' Hos quidcm duos principes
Gra;corum fcilicet atque Perfarum dicit Jeronimus angelos malos fuilTe, qui regnis illis appofiti funt ad
excidium. Dicit enim et Origenes fuper Luc. Omel. xii. ' Quo modo,' inquit, ' per Imgulos homines
boni funt Angeli, fie opinor etiam in fingulis difpares efl'e provinciis, ut funt boni et mali. Laborabat
itaque Perfarum angelus ne jiberarentur Hebr.Tei a dominio Perfarum, tum quia deleftabatur affliftionibus
eorum, tum etiam ut Perfe, affligentes illos diutius, peccarent graviub. Laborabat etiam angelus
Grxcorum ut Perfae fimul et captivitas Hebreorum cum eis tranfircnt in dominium Grrecorum.' At
veto Gregorius illos fuille vult Angelos bonos, qui fatagebant ne tarn cito Hebrai liberarentur, ut fi quid
erat purgandum in eis purgaretur et ad igneni tribulationis decoqueretur.' There is very iiti'e in
Echard and Qiietif, i. 236, about the Eruditio Filiorum Regalium, and they fimply give the Prologue to
the De Morali Principis Liftitutione. On looking at the two I find that — i. De Eruditione Filiorum
Regalium, is addrelTed to Margaret Queen of France, and is chiefly educational, good for girls as well as
boys, contains moral and difciplinary lelFons, but Ifeers clear of politics. It was printed at Bafle, in 148 1,
by John Amerbach, and is in the Bodleian, bound up with yEgidius Romanus de Regimine I'rincipum,
containing fifty-one chapters. 2. The De Morali Principis Inftitutione, or Inllruifione, is (lill in MS.
It is addrelTed to Lewis King of France and Theobald of Champagne, and is mainly on political prin-
ciples, for grown-up people, and illuftrated largely with hiftorical and theological examples. It contains
twenty-eight chapters, and is found in the MS. Merton 1 1 1 (cxi.)." So much for the MS. But Brunet men.
tions a volume entitled '■'■ Libri III. de Alorali Principis Inftitutione., de Nohilium Puerorum Jn/iitutione, et de
Confolatioriibuifpecialibus de Morte Filii" (" fans lieu ni date," but like the LaiSt.mtius printed at Roilock in
1476) ; from which it would appear that the firfi: of thefe Libri III. was identical with the A'lerton A'l S.
(See alfo Panzer, Annales Typographici, ii. 558, and iv, 18.) The volume thus defcribed by two fu. li
high authorities, although not in the Britilli Mufeum, the Bodleian, or at Cambridge, and aIthou;_,h
not found, upon inquiry, in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, or the Bibliothequc Mazarine, at Paris,
probably lies hidden among the uncatalogued ilores of the French libraricb.

ChaI'. XIV. Cum dicut Scriptura, rnalediilui qui partem f nam facit deteriorein.] " I conjecture this






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^58* De Natwd Legis Naturcc. ' [va



RT I,



to be a Rabbinical generalization of Naboth's reply to Ahab," 1 Kings xxi. 3 ; " Tlie Lord forbid it
me, that I ihould give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee." (Dr. Ullathoriie.) Tlie words in th.-
text are not to be found in the Vulgate.

Chap. XV. *' ^jA/ c/ii/n virtm ej/," [ut alt Phibfophus et Aiigii/I'rmis) '■'•qua iion lin't male uti."]
Upon this I am favoured with the following note by Bifhop Ullathorne : " VVlien writers of the period
quote St. Augulline and the Philofopher jointly, we may conclude that they have been reading St.
Thomas Aquinas. Accordingly, I find in St. Thomas on the Mafter of the Sentences (Peter
Lombard), In 2" Ubruin Sc-ntentiannn., Dill, xxxvii. OiiElt. I, in the text of the Sentences, the two
following quot.itions — from St. Augultine, lib. ic, Retra'tatloiiiirn, ' V'irtutibus nemo male utitur,' and
trom his De Libera Jrhitrio^ lib. ii. c. 18, 'Virtus eft bona qualitas mentis, qua recfe vivitur, et qua
nullus male utitur.' This laft is evidently Fortefcue's feiitence. On the fame xxxviith Diftiniition of
the 2nd Book of the Sentences, Article 2, St. 'I'homas treats the point, and quotes Arillotle : 'Eft
enim virtus, ut Philol'ophus in Ethic, dicit, qua quis bonus eft, et qure opus bonum uddit,' a dehnitioi
which Fortefcue feems to confider identical with that of St. Auguftine, although St. ' homas, by one if
his fubtle diflincffions, concludes otherwife. 1 fubjoin the pall'age in the Ethics, IL vi. : ttjcjo. apnyi,
l'u av n i^irr!, auto te £u e'xsv iiTroTtAir, km to ejj'/cv aurou tii aToJi'JiiJ'i ; and again, i'l tou av'j^'uiTrou i^en £i">i
e"|i{ ap' r,; ayaflo; avS^aiTTJi yivsTJii, y.a] ap' rj; il to iauTOu i^ycv aTrcCu^ja. But the point ot our autUor's
faying is due to Auguftine, and not ' the Philofopher.'"

Chap. XV. Boetim.] This once fomous and favourite writer (born about 470, died 524) is ifteii
quoted by Fortefcue. He left behind him various tranflations of, and Commentaries upon Ariftotl.-, w hich
formed part of a noble undertaking which he had defigned, that of rcftoring to the Latin world the beft
produiftions of Greek Philofophy. (Hampden's Bampton LeiStures, p. by.) But the work which
made his name for many centuries a houlehold word throughout Europe was the Confolation of
Philofophy, "a golden volume," fays Gibbon, " not unworthy of theleifure of Plato or Tully." " L the
total ignorance of Greek writers, which prevaded from the fixth to the fourteenth century, he was lo^iked
upon as the head and type of all [ihilofophers, as Auguftine was of all theology, and Virgil ot all
literature, and hence the tendency throughout the middle ages to inveft him with a diftin£fly Chriftian
and almoit miraculous charaiSler." Whether he was a Chriftian by profcflion, or a ftrongly religious
Theift, deeply affefted by the influence of Chriftianity, it is impoffible to lay. And the middle pofition
which he thus occupied by charaiRer and belief, he alfo occupies in the hiftory and literature of the
world. Being the laft Roman of any note who underftood the language, and ftudied the literature of
Greece, and living on the boundary of the ancient and modern world, he is one of the moft important
links between the two. After the introduction of the works of Ariftotle into Eurojje, in tht 13th
century, his fame gradually died away. (Smith's Dift. of (ireek and Roman Biog.)

Chap, XVI. O Samuel.] Compare Milton on the fame topic, in the Defence of. the People of
England, ch. ii. "You fay, that when Samuel would deter the people from choofiig a king, he
propounded to them this right of kings. But whence had Samuel it.' Had he it from t le written law
of God .'' That cannot be. We have obferved already, that the Scriptures aft'ord us a quite other
fcheme of fovereignty. Had Samuel it then immediately from God himfelf by revelation: That is not
likely neither; for God diflikes it, difcommends it, finds fault with it, fo that Samuel does net expound
to the people any right of kings appointed by God ; but a corru|)t and depraved maimer of governing,
taken up by the pride and ambition of princes. He tells not the people what their kuigs ought to go



PART I.] Notes a?id lllujlratmis.



359^



but what they would do. He told them the manner of their king ;..-.. that manner was wicked, and
odious, and tyrannical ; it was no right, but great wrong. ' Compare alio the following pafFages from
Algernon Sydney's Difcourfc concerning Government: "The government inllitutcJ b\' Ciod over the

Ifraelites was arirtocratical I may lafely fay, the Hebrew kings were not iiiftituted by (jod,

but given as a puniflunent of their fm, who delpifed the government that He had inllituted." (Ch.ip. ii.
fed. ix.) "Samuel did not defcribe to the Ifraelites the glory of a free monarch)', but the evils the
people fhould fuffer, that he might divert them from defiring a king." (Chap. ii. feiit. iii.) " \\ hen the
Ifraelites afked for fuch a king as the nations about them had, they afked for a tyrant, though they diJ
not call him lb." (Chap. ii. feif. vii.)

Chap. XVI. D:iiih:iuin regale et dominium politicum.] With this and the following chapters
compare the De Laudibus, Chap. ix. xii. cVc, where the author quotes the De Reg. Principum,
and refers to this treatife as the " Opufculum quod Tui contemplatione de Natura Legis Natur;e
exaravi." Compare alfo the three firll: chapters of Fortefcue's Ablolute and Limited Monarcl y, where
the lame difculTion about Dominium Hegale and Dominium Politicum et Regale is bafed, as h ;re, upon
Aquinas's Treatife. I do not, however, difcover Fortefcue's " Lordlhip Royal and FolitiKc,'" (the
" terlium dominium Jion minus his dignitate et laude'') in the De Regimine Principum. There is,
indeed, in the 3rd Book, a defcription of the Imperial Government (Roman and Mediaeval), as partly
" royal" and partly " political ;" but the quefHon of limited monarchy is not there railed. I may add
that Book III. is not written by Aquinas, as it mentions (chap, xx.) the death of Rodolph of Hapfburg,
which took place in 1292, Aquinas having died in 1274. (See Biog. Univ.) In the two iirft Books,
Aquinas repeats Ariflotle's divifion of forms of government into Monarchy, Anltocracy, and Politia
with their 7Ta;£K(3i7£if, Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy i. I.) and (while admitting that " ficut
regimen Regis ell optimum, ita regimen tyranni eft peffimum," and that " inter mjiifta regimina tolera-
bilius eft democratia, pefTimum vero tyrannis," i. 3.) comes to the conclulion, " magis elle expediens
tub uno Rege vivere quam fub regimine plurium." (I. 5.) Again, (ii. 9.) admitting that the ■•' prui-
cipatus regalis" is, or is liable to be, identical with the " principatus dcfpoticus," he contenc's that the
"regimen politicum" was beft for the times of man's innocence, or even " apud f.ipientes, et homines
virtuofos, ut tuerunt antiqui Roniani," but that " in naj-ura corrupta regimen regale eft fruifhiofiub."
He does, indeed, lay down the neceffity of taking precautions againft the danger of the king turning into
the tyrant; " laborandum eft diligcnti ftudio ut fic multitudini provideatur de Rege, ut non incidant in
tyrannum;" (i. 6.) but what thofe precautions fhould be, he fails to fuggcft ; except that he alTcrts the
right of a people which has chofen a king to depofc or put hiin to death, " li potellate regia tyrannice



Online LibraryJohn FortescueThe works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) → online text (page 46 of 87)