John Fortescue.

The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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CHAI'. II.

Why one King reynith Regnliter tantum, and another rey)iith, Politiee et
Regaliter.

kM \S^ ^^'^ "i''^.V peraventiire be jiiarvelid by fome men, why one Realme is a Lord! lyji
l^j [JR^ [§ only Royall, and the Prynce thereof rulyth yt by his Law, callid Jus Reg -le



r=^i



and another Kyngdome is a Lordfchip, Royal and Politike, and the Pr.nci
thereof rulyth by a Lawe, callyd Jus Politicum et Regale; fythen thes two Princes beth of
egall Aftate.

To this dowte it may be anfweryd in this manner; The firll Inftitution of thes two(
Realmys, upon the Incorporation of them, is the Caule of this diverlyte.

Whan Nembroth by Might, for his own Glorye, made ai-.d incorporate the firft Realme,
and fubduyd it to hymlelt by Tyrannye, he would not have it governyd by any other Rijile
or Luwe, but by his own Will; by which and for th'accomplifhment thereof he made it.
And therfor though he had thus made a Realme, Holy Scripture denyyd to cal hym' a
Kyng, !^iia Rex dicitur a Regendo ; Whych thyng he dyd not, but opprelTyd the People by
Myght, and therfor he was a Tyrant, and callid Primus "PyraJinorum. But Holy Wr'tt
callith hym Rohuftus Veiialor coram Deo. I''or as the hunter takyth the wyld befle for to
fcle and eate hym; fo Nembroth fubduyd to him the People with Mi^ht, to have their
fervice and their goods, ufing upon them the Lordichip that is callid Domini cm Regale
tantum. After hym Belus that was callid firlt a Kyng, and after hym his Sone IN ynus, and
after hym other Panyms ; They, by Example of Nembroth, made them Realmys, wo'ild not
have them rulyd by other Lawys than by their own Wills. Which Lawys ben right good
under good Princes ; and their Kyngdoms ar then moll: refembU\i to the Kyngdome of
God, which reynith upon iVlan, rulyng him by hys own W'ill. Whertor many Cryflyn
Princes ufen the fame Lawe; and thertor it is, that the Lavv)s fa\-en, i:hiod Principi placuit



On the Monarc/iy of Enghuid. 4 1; i

Legis hahet vigorem. And thus I fuppofe firft beganne in Realniys, Dominium tantuin
Regale. But afterward, whan Maiikynd was more nianfuete, and better difpofyd to Vertue,
Grete Comnuinalties, as was the l-Yhlhip, tliat came into this Lend with Brute, wyllynn- to
be unyed and made a Body Pohtike calhil a l\eahne, havyng an Heed to governe it; as
after the faying of the Philofopher, every Communaltie unyed of many parrs muil needs
have an Heed ; than they choil- the fmie Brute to be their Heed and Kyng. And they
and he upon this Incorporacion and Inftitution, and onyng' of thcmfelf into a Keahne,
ordeynyd the fame Realme fo to be rulyd and juftylyd by fuch Lawys, as they al would'
affent unto; which Law therfor is caHid Politician: And bycaufe it is mynyftrid by a Kyng,
it is calHd Regale. Dominium Polilicnni dicitur quafi Regimen., pturium Scientia, five
Confilio minijiratum. The Kyng of Scotts revnith upon his People by this i^awe, videlicet,
Regimine Politico et Regali. And as Diodorus Sycuhis iaith, in his Boke de prijen Ihf-
ioriis, The Reahne of Egypte is rulid by the lame Lawe, and theretor the Kyng therof
chaungith not his Lawes, without the Afient of his People. And in like forme as lie ffith
is rulid the Kyngdome of Saba, in Pelici Arabia, and the Lond of Libie-; And alfo the more
parte of al the Reahnvs in Afi"'rike. Which manner of Ivule and Lordfliip, the fiyd Dio-
dorus in that Boke, prayfith gretely. l'"or it is not oidy good for the Prince, that may
therby the more fewerly do Jultice, than by his owne Arbitriment ; but it is alfo good tor
his People that receyve therby, fuch Juftice as they defyer themielh Now as me iemyth,
it ys fliewyd opinly ynough, why one Kyng rulyth and reynith on liis Pcojile Dominio
tantum Regali, and that other reynith DonuJiio Politico et Regali : For that one Kyngdome
beganne, of and by, the Alight of the Prince, and that other beganne, by the Defler and
Inftitution of the People of the fame Prince. ;



Chap. III.

Hereafter be J'cheivyd, the Friites of Jus Regale, and the Frutes of Jus Politician

et Regale.

^s^WjmND hou fo be it, that the l-'rench Kyng reynith upon his People Domi)iio Regali :
^yj^^^N^], Yet Saynt Lewes fumtyme Kyng ther, ne any of his Progenytors fett never
^is^-'^^^^fe^ Talys or other Impofitions, upon the People of that Lond, without the ATent
of the three Aftatts, which whan thay be aflemblld ar like to the Court of Parlemen in
Englond. And this order kept many of his Succefiburs until late days, that Lnglilhi leii
made fuch a War in Praunce, that the three eftats durft not come to geders. And t lan
for that Caufe and for grete Necellite which the Inench Kyng had of Goods, for the



L'nitmi;



45 2 On the MonarcJi]' oJRnghmd.

detence of that Lond, he took upon hym to fet Talys and other Impofitions upon the
Commons, without tlie AlTciit of the three Eftats ; but yet he would not fet any fuch
chargs, nor hath fet upon the Nobles, for leure of rebelHon. And beeaufe the Conmions,
though they have grutchid, have not rebellid or be hardy to rebell, the b'rench Kyngs
hath yearly fythen, iett luch chargs upon them, and fo augmented the fame chargis, as the
fame Commons be fo impoverifhid and dillroyyd, that they niay unnetlf lyve. Thay
drynke Water, thay eate Apples, with Bred right brown made of Rye. Thay eate no
Ideiche, but if it be felden, a litill Larde, or of the Entrails, or Meds of Beib iclayne for
the Nobles, and Merchaunts of the Lond. They weryn no Wollyn, but if it be a pore
Cote under their uttermoil: Garment, made of grete Canvas, and cal i: a brok. Their
Holyn be ot like Canvas, and palfen not their Knee ; wherfor they be gartrid and their
Thyghs bare. Their Wits and Children gone bare fote ; tliey may in non otherwyfe
lyve. For fum ot them, that was wonte to pay to his Lord for his Tener.;ent, which he
hyrith by the Yere, a Scute, payyth now to the Kyng, over that Scute, fyve Shuts.
Wher thrugh they be artyd" by necelfite, fo to watch, labour, and grub in the Ground, lor
their Suifenaunce, that their nature is much wallid, and the Kynd of them brought to
nowght. Thay gone crokyd, and ar feble, not able to fyght, nor to defend the Realm-;
nor they have wepon, nor monye to buy them wepon withal; but verely thay lyv^ n m
the moll; extreme Povertie and Myferye, and yet thay dwellyn, in one, the rnoif i^rtile
Realme of the World: wher thrugh the French Kyng hath not Men of his owne Realme,
able to defend it, except his Nobles, which beryn non fuch Impofitions; and therfor thay ir
ryght likely of their Bodys, by winch caule the laid Kyng is compellid to make his Arm)'s,
and Reteiui)'s tor the detence ot his Land, ot Stramigars, as Scocts, Spaniards, Arragciati,
!\'Ien ot Almayn, and of other Nacions, els al his l'ainym)'s might overreiuie hym. bor he
hath no Ditfence of his own, excepte his Callells, and Fortrafis. Loo this the frute of jiys
"Jus Regale. Yf the Realme of Englond, which is an lie, and theretor may not lightly get
Socoures of other Londs, were rulid uiuler inch a Lawe, and under luch a Prince, it wu'ild
be than a Pray to all other Nacions that would conquere, robbe, and (.ievouer vt ; which
was well prouvyd in the tyme ot the Brytons, whan the Scotts and the Pyiftes, fo bqtte
and opprefiyd this Lond, that the People therof loughte heipe ot the Romayns, to whom
they had byn Trybutorye. And whan thay ccnild not be deteiidyd by them, they fought
helpe of the Duke of Brytayne, than callid Litil Brytayne, and grauntyd therf >r, to make
his Brother Conftantine their Kyng. And fo he was made Kyng heere, and ra\ nyd many
Yers, and his Children after hym, otl' which grete Arthure, was one ot their ^'lUie. But
blellld be God, this Lond ys rulid under a better Lawe, and thertor the People therof be
t in fuch penurye, nor therby hurt in their Perfons, but thay be wealthye and have al



no



Scarcely.



0)1 the Mojiarchy of E)igla?id. 453

thyngs neceflhyre, to the fuftenauncL- of Nature. VVherfor thay be myghty, and able to
refyfte the Adverfiiriis of the Reahne, and to bctt other Realnies, that do or will do them
wrong. Loo this is the Frute of _7/^f Polilicnm el Regale, under which we lyve. Suni-
what now I have fchewyd yo" of tlie h'rutys of both Lawys, Ut ex frutlihus eoriiiii
cogno/catis eos, tic.

Chak IV.

i
Hereafter ysjcheioyd hou the Reveuitz of Fraiinze be made grete.

^^■^ETHEN our Kyng reygnith upon us by Lawys more favorable and good to us,
.,J^J than lie the Law\s [)y the which the hVcnche Kyng rulith his Peoj^le, hit is
|S\r<5^^ reafon we be to hyni more good, and moie proiitable than be the Subgetts of the
Frenche Kyng unto hym, v.hych it would feme that we be not, confyderynir that his
Subgetts yeldyn to hym more in one Yere, than wee do to our Soveryng Lord in two Yers,
how fo be it that thay do fo, ageyn their Wills. Nevertheles whan it is confyderyd, hou a
Kyng's Office flondith in two Thyngs, one to defend his Realme ageyn their Ennemycs
outward, by Sword, another, that he delendith his People ageyn wrong Doars inward,
which the Frenche Kyng doth nott ; fythen he oppreHith them more hymfelf, than would
have lione al the wronge Loars oi" the Realme, though thay had had no Kyng. And
fythen yt is a fynne, to gyve no Mete, I)i-ynke, Clothing, or other Almes, to them that
have nede, as fliall be declaryd in the day of Dome; hou mych a gretter Synne is it, to
take from the pore Miui, his Mete, his 13rynke, his Clothyng, and al that he hath neede
off? Which verely doth the Frenche Kyng to many a M' of his Subgetts, as it is (jpynly
before declaryd. Whych thyngs though it be colowryd per Jus lle'^ale, yet it is l'yrann\e.
For, as Saynt Thomas iairh, wjian a Kyng rulith his Realme onely to his own profytt, and
not to the good of his Subgetts, he ys a T)''^"-""^^'' ''■'"g Meroude reynyd upon the
Jewys, Domiiiio Reguti ; yet whan he iclough the Children of Ifraell, he was in that a
Tyraunte, though the Lawes iayen, !:^!L'd PrDuipi phtciiit, Legis h.abet vif^orem. Wherfor
Achab, which reynyd upon the Children of Uracil, by like Lawys, and defyryd to have had
Nabotli, his Subgetts Vyneyard, would not by that Lawe take it from him, but proferyrl
hym the Value therof. For thees words, laid by the Prophete, J'r.edie eis Jus Regis, be
not els to fay but, Pr.rdic eis Putejlnteni Regis. Wherfor as oft)-n as a Kyng doth any
thyng ageyn the Lawe of God, or ageyn tlie Lawe of Nature, he doth Wrong, notuirh-
ftondyng the faid Lawe declared by the Prophete. And yt is fo, that the Lawe of Na ur^:
woll, in this Cafe, tliat the Kyng fchuld do, to liis Subgetts, as he would be doi^.L to
hymfelf, if he were a Subgett, which may not be that he woidd be almofte dellroyyd, ;is be



454



Ofi the Mo?iarchy of TL^ivlaiul.



the Commons of Fraunce. Wherfor, albeit that the Frenche Kyng's Revenuz be, by fuch
meaiiys, miche gretter tlian lie the Revenuz, which the Kyng, our Soveryng Lord, hath of
us, yet tliey be not goodly talcyn, and the Might of his Realme is nere dertroyyd therby.
By which Confideration I would not, that the Kyng's Revenuz of this Realme were made
grete by any fuch meanys ; and yet of neceffite thay muft be gretter than thay be at this
Uay. And truly it is verey neceffary that thay be ahvay grete; and that the Kyng
iiave aboundantly, whervvith his Aftate may be honoralily kept for Right many Caufys.
of which fume fchal now hereat'ter be remembryd.



Chap. V.




The ho.rmes that cunie of a K\>/g's Puvcrtie.

jIRST, if a Kyng be powre, he fchal by necelTite makes his F'.xpences, and Ly ; I
that is necelTarye to his Allate, by Creauiice of borrowyng, wlier thowrowgh, hi-;
§3:3lt-^ Creauncers wyll wynne upon hym the 4,''' or the 5"' Penny, of all thai h;
dyfpendith. And fo he fchal lofe, when he payyth, the 4"' or 5"' parte of his Revenuz :
and thus be therby ahvay porer and j)orer. For Ufury and Chevefaunce,' increfith th
Povertie of hym that borowyth. His Creauncers fchal always grutch for lacke of their
Payment, and difFame his Highnefs of Myfgovernaunce, and Defaute of kepyng of Days •
which yf he kepe, he muft borowe as much at the Days, as at tlie firrt. For he fchai bi
than porar than he was, by the Value of the 4"' or 5"' parte of his firlt F^xpeiifes ; and fc
be alway porar and porar, unto the tyme he be the poreil Lord of his Lond. For f ich
maner of borowing, makyth the grete Lords to be porar than their Tenaunts. What Dif-
honour is this, and abatyng tlie Glory of a Kyng ! and yet yt is lelte to his owne fewertie.
I<"or his Subgetts wol rather goo with a Lord, that is rich, and may pay their Wags and
F^xpenfs, than with their Kyng that hath nowght in his Prys, biit thay muft ferve hym, if
they wil do fo, at their own Dilpenics. Item, if tlie Kyng be poer, he fchal of necelhte
make his Gyits and Rewards by Alfignements, tor which he ichal have but litil thanks.
For the poer Man had rather have a 100 Marks in hand, than a too Pound by an/
Aftignement, which peraventure Ichal coft hym right mycli or he can gett his payment, and
peraventure be never paid therof. And oftyntymes for lacke of Money, the Ki ng fchal
be fayne to gyve away his Land, to inch as would have be tayner of a 100 Pound in hand,
than of 40 Pound worth of Lond yerely, to the grete abating of his Kevenuz, and Djjiopula-
tion of his Realme. But the gretell hai-me, that commith of a Kyng's Povertie, is, that he



ccmijolitioii bctntLTi ili.l)lor and creditor



0.>i the Monarchy of Engla?irL 455

fchal by necefllte be artid, to fynd requifyte meanys of getting of Goods, as to put Defaute
in fom of his Subgctts, that be Innocents, and upon the riche Man, more than the pore,
becaufe that he may better pay ; and fo fchcwe liigoiir ther as' Favor ouyht to be fcliewyd,
and fo fcliewe Favor ther Rygom- fchukl be fchewyd, to the I-'erverfion ot Juftice, and Per-
tiirbance of the Peace and Qiiiet ot the Reahne. For, as the Philolojiher fiitli in liis
Eticks ; Impojfibile eft wdigenteni opcrari ho)ia. I needith nott now to fpecifye, of the
harmys whych commyth to a Reahne by the Povertie of their Kyng, hou fo be it thay
be many moo than we have fchewed yet; for every wile Man may lee them opynly inowgh,
but we muft hould it for undoubtyd, that ther may no Reahne profpere, or be worlchipful
and noble, under a poer Kyng.

Ch.ap. VI.

Ordynatoiccs for the Kvig's Ordenarye Chargys.

^|f.%j(^^^ND fethen it is neceffarye tliat tlie Kyng be aKvay riclie, whiche may not be
^hS^\{'h without he have Revenuz fufficyent for the yerely Mayntenaunce of his F.ftate ;
^^5^^% hyt is behoveful that we firft efteme, what his yerely chargs and expenfes be Hke
to drawe unto. For after that, nedith his Revenuz be proporcyonyd, but yet they nedyn to
be gretter than would be the chargs, for doute of Ibdeyn Cafys, which mowe fal to hym,
and to hys Realme. For Saynft Barnarde fiith, that if a Mannys expencs be egal to his
Lyvelood, a ibdeyn Chaunce may dellroy liis Eifate. The Kyngs yerly expencs itondyn ni
chargs Ordynarye, and in chargs Extraordynary. Mis chargs Ordynary may not be
efchewyd, and therfor it nedith that ther be Lyvelood aflignyd tor the payment therof ;
which Lyvelood be in no wyfe putt to no other ufe. And if it happyn that any Patent be
made of any parte thereof to other ufe, that than the Patent to be voyde, and of non effede :
Which thyng, yf it be fermely eftablytchid, the Kyngs Ordinary chargys may abvay be paid
in liand, and the Provyfyon of them may be abvay made in feaibn ; wliych Ichal be worth to
the Kyng the fourth or tifth part of the cpiantite of his expenfs for his Oniynarye chargs.
This may in nothyng reib-ayne the Kyngs i'ower. For it is no i'ower to may alien, and
putawaye: But it is Power to may have, and kepe to hymielt. So it is no Power to
may fyne, and to do yll, or to may be fyke, or wex old, or that a Man may hurt hynifelf
For all thees Powers comyne of Impotencye. And therfor thay may properly be callyd, i on
Powers. Wherfor the holy Spirites and Angels, that may not fyne, wex old, be fyke, or
hurt themfelf, have more power than we that may harme our lelf, with al the Detawts. S-j
is the Kyngs power more, in that he may not putt from hym PotFedions. Necellarijs



uhcrcas.



.-/, /'(



1 , 1



11 -A



'/ .lio: C\ i'



■■S



\J'



'-■:.- J.



45 6 0^^ t^'^ Mo7mrcliy of En's land.

for his own Suftenancc, than if he might put them from hym, and alyene the fame to his
own hurt and hnrme. Nor is this ageyn the Kyngs Prcrogariffe, by whych he is exahrd
above his Subgetts : Hut rather this is to hym a I'rerogatifle. for no Man five he, m: y
have ageyn the Land that lie hath ons alyenyd. This I.yvelood alhgned fir the Ordynarye
ciiargs fchal afterward lie never afkytl of the Kyng. Nor his I Ivghnefs fchal thynk. ibi
that, that he hath the more Lyvelood to be gevyn away ; hut by reafoii rherof he woll thi
more reftrayne his Gyftes of other of his Lyvelood, confyderyng that then it wol not be
grete. And therfor he fchal have more need of it, than thay that v.ol afke it. I'he
Ordynarye chargs, which the Writer hereof can now remember lie thees ; the Kyngs
Houfliold, his Garde Robe. And hou fo be it, that tlie Kyng litle now, or will hereaftei',
make his Moufhold leis than it was wont to be , yet his Miglineis fchal ihen have therfore
aboute his Perlone, tor his 1 lonoiir and Sewertie, Lords, Knights, and Lf uyers, and otiv r
alio, in as grete nombre, or grctter than h)'s I-loulliold v/as woiue to be, ti' hys charts pcr-
aventure, as gretely as his Houlhold wel rulid was wont to ftond hym yn. Wherfor lieiein,
it nedith not to confydre or to purvey, but only for the Kyngs Hous, which he may re.ume
or chaunge into his new maner, or other fourme at his Fleafure, and as it fcliall be tho ight
for the feafons moft expedyent. The expenfys ot which Idoufliold may fone be efte ii\ I by
thes, which of old time have byn Officers theryn, and by the Clerks of the Efcheker. I'he
fecund Ordynarye charge, is the payment of tlie Wags and Fees of the Kyngs grete Offi ^ers,
his Courts, his Counceil, his Garde, and other Servaunts. Which charge woll ahvay be grete,
and thees Men nedyn alway to be redely paid. I'or Indygcnce in them is not only un-
worfchipfull, but yt may do the mofl harme, that may fal ot any nede in any Alfate of the
Lond, after the Kyngs moft grete Eftate. The thirtl charge Ordvnarye, is the p lyi lent
of the kepyng ot the Marches, wherin we here much gretter charge verely, than do the
Scotts, which oftyntymes ys tor favor, that we do to tlie Perfons that kepe them, which
favour the Scotts do not. The fourth Ordvnarye charge, is the kepyng of Caleys, which
charge is well enowgh knowyn. The titth Ordynarye chai-ge, is for the Kyngs \Vei-j;s, of
which the yerely I'.xpenils may not certeynl)' be eftenu'd, but yet th' Accompts of the
Clerks of the Werks, \s\\ fchev/e the lykelynefs thereof, while tlie Kyng makyth ra); new
Werks. The kepyng of the See, I rekyn not amongs the Oixiynarye chargs, hou be it the
charge thereof is yerely borne, becaule it is not eftemable. And the Kyng hath thertcr the
Subfydye of Pondage and Tonnage NeverthelelTe by that reafon, Pondage ind Tonnage
mav not be rekyn'd as parcel of the Revenuz, which the Kyng hath, for the ^h^yntenaunce
of his Eftate, bycaufe it owght to be applyyd only to the kepyng of the See. And though
we have not alway Warr upon the See, yet it fchall be alway neceflarye that tl e Kyng hath
fome Flote upon the See, tor the reprefl'vng of Rovers, favyng of our Merchaunt?, our
Fifchars, and Dwellars upon our Cofts ; but that the Kyng kepe alway, tome grete and
mighty Veflels, for the brekvng of an Army, whan any Ichall be made ageyn him upon the



Oji the Monarchy of E;iglii;ui. 457

Sec. For than, it fclial be to late to do make any fuch N'efTels. And yet without them, all
the Kyngs Navye fcliall not fuffice to bord with Caryks and other grete Sehippis, nor yet
to may breke a mighty Flote gatheryd of Purj.ofe. Now, as I fiippofe, \i rekenyd the
gretteft parte of the Kyngs Ordynarye chargs. Wlierefor wc wy 11 n.xt, to his Exti-:iordynaiy
chargs, as far as fchal be polllble to us.

Ch.ap. Vli.

The Kyi/gs Extrnordynarye C/inrgys. '

K^ F^^^'^^ Kyngs Extraordynarye chargvs ar fo cafuel, that no Man may knowe them
0/1 l^M '" certeynte, but he may elleme what fume thay be not like to excede, but if ther
^iix^a±i^^ hil a Cafe over much exorbitant; and than it fchal be reafon and alfo necelfarye,
that al the Realme beare for that cafe a fmgular charge. Such of the faid Extraoi linarv
chargs, as the Writer herof can now remember, be thees. Firfl:, the Kyng fchal oftyntyinys
fend out of this Lond, his Amljalladours, as wel to the Pope, as to dyvers Kynf^s, Princes,
and Nations ;' and other while he fchal fend his Procurators and Meflengers, to the Counfeils
Generall. Which AmbaiTatours, Procurators, and MelTcngars, fchal nede to be honorably
accompanyd, and wel be feen, as wel tor the honor of the Kyng, and the Realme, as for
the avaunfyng ot the Matters, for which they fhall he fent to the Kyngs grete charge, which
fchal be more or lefs, after their long or fchorte Abode, and devoire in their V^oyage. Item,
The Kyng fchal here yerely chargs unknow)'n, in recevvyng of L.egats and MelTangers fent
from the Pope, and Ambaflators fent from Kyngs and Princis, and alfo from grete Counceils-
beyond tlie See, which wil put the Kyng to grette expenfis, while thay be here ; and at
their departyng, thay muft needs have grete Gifts and Rewards, for that befittitii the Kyngs
Liberalite ; alfo it is neceflarye for the Honour of the F^eahne. Item, Sythen it is not
good, that he reward fuch as do, or ichal do to hyni Sarvice, and other maner of Plcafur^,
with PofleiTions and Revenuz of his Crowne, or with the Poffeifions of his Enherytaunce ;
for thay be much more neceflarye for theSuftenaunce of hys grete Aftate; hyt fchal therfor
be neceffarye, that the Kyng make inch Rewards, with Money out of hys Coffers, an.d that
fume of them have fo largely therof, as thay may bye them Land withal, if thay will. For
by this mean, the Kyngs Ellate fchal alway be kepte unblemefchid, and of fume man hi>
Highnefs fchal have more thank for Money than for Lond. And alfo Money is moil
mete and convenient Reward, tor hym that hath not long fervyd. This Charge woll al.vav
be gret, and fo ineftimable gret, that in fum yere, a grete Lords Lyvelood fchall not fii.Kce
to beere it, although he would fell grete parte of his Lordfchip. And truly, whan the K /ng
rewardyth his Servaunts in this maner, he fchewyth grete favor to al liis Realme. Item, It

' Lambi'th and Stou's I\ISS. infert bLfon '• N.ition.s,"' ••' grcate Comoiialtirs ofothar."
■^ For '■ Counceils," Lambeth ami Stow';, MSS. read •• Comonakits.''
I- 3 N



458 On the Mo?iarc]iy of Riigland.

fchal nede, that the Kyng have fuch Treafure, that he may make new Byldyngs, whan he
wil, for his Piefure and Magnificence. And as he may bye hym riche Apparel, riche Furres,
other than he wont to tal under, and he in the yerely chargs of his Wardrober, riche Stonys,
Serples,' Bawdericks, and other Jewells and Ornaments convenycnt for his Aftate Royall ;
fo oftyntyms his HighnefTe mail: and will bye riche Hangyngs, and other Apparels, for his
Houfys, Weflels, Weftments, and other Ornaments for his Chapel ; bye alio Horfes, and
Traps of grete Price, and do other fuch noble and grete Cofts, as befyttith his Royal
Mageftie, of which it is not now pollible to the Writer herof, for to reme.iilier t!ie
Efpecialities. l''or if a Kyng did not {o, nor might do, he lyvyd not like his Ellate, hut
rather in myferye, and more in fubjedion than dothe a private Perfon. Item, the Kyng '
fchal oftyntymys fend his Commyflioners in gret Myght, and alfo his Jugs to repreffe and
ponyfclie Riotours and Ryfars ; for whiche caufe, he fchal other whilys ry le in his own
Perfone, mightylye accompanyd ; which thyng wol not be done without gr>t Cofls. bor
no man is bowndyn to ferve hym in fuch Cafys, at his own Difpenfys. Item, It ther come
a fodein Armye upon this Lond ; by See or by Land, the Kyng muft encountre die n,
with a like Armye, or a gretter, for the expenfis wherof, he fchal not fo fodeiily have A) de
of his People. Wherfor he muft then do thes expenfes with Money out of his Coffers, or
put his Land in Jeopardye. Loo now we have remembrid grete Parte of the Kyngs I.xtia-
ordynarye Charges. And before is fchewyd, grete parte of his Ordynary chargs. Wl erlor
now it is time that it be fchewyd, hou the Kyng may have Revenuz and Lyvelood,
fufficyent to here thees two Chargs.

Chap. VIII.

Tf the Kyngs Lyvelood Juffyce nott, his Sitbgettys aught to »iake yt Juffycyent.



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