John Fortescue.

The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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Corodyes, and Penfyons. And truly yt were good that of all the Kyngs Gyftys, his Patents
made mencyoun that they were pafTyd, de Avifamc:nto Concitii fui, namely, for a Yere or
two. b'or if fuch an Order be kepte. Men wll not be hafiye to axe Rewards, but if thay be
of right good Merits, and many Men will be of the better Governaunce, for the Kyngs
Counceile fchuld deme them worthye to be rewardyd. And thay that optayne not that
Defyer fchal have than lltyll Colour of Grutche, confyderyng that they lacke yt by the
Dyfcrecyoun of the Kyngs Counceyle. And the Kyng fchal have hereby grete Refte and
QuIetnefTe, and be well defendyil ageyn fuch Importune Sutours. And yet his Grace may
leve this Order whan hym likyth. And ®0D filtie tf)C EyilfJ*

Stow'h cojjy ruads " Henry tht- VI"'."

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Secundum SIR JOHN FORTISCWE, Knight,


^ WHAT good welrhe and profperitie fhuld grow to the Realme of
England yf iliche a counfeyle be once parfc6t:Iy ftabllflied, and the Kynge
guided tl.crcliy.

{Jb-^^^L^KMii '^'^'^ Roymanes which by wHliome and manhode gat the lordOiipe

^^^t-^\l&^k^ and monarchye of the worlde, were firft governed by Kyngs; but when
the Kyngs threughe infolence, fulowinge tlieyr palTyons, lefte the counfcyll of the fenate,
the Romayns rofe upon them and put away theyre Kyngs for evarmore. And then they
were ruled by the fenators, and by confuls politikly many yeres. By whofc wifdom they
gat the lordd-iipe of greate parte of the worlde. But after the)T greate weltlie by divifydn
that tell betwene the confuls for lake of one bed, they had amongft them civile battayles
where in at fonie one debate were flayne and exiled of them felfe more then eighty thoiifuid. I
And after that they were governed by one head called an emperour, which ufinge in all ins
rule the counfeyll of the fenate, gat the monarche of the worlde, fo as at Chriliis birthe th' |
emperour comaunded the whole worlde to be difcribed as fubjec'ts unto hym. Which lord-
fhipe and monarchic th'emperour kepte all the while they were ruled by the counle\ le of
the fenate ; but after that, when th'emperour lette the counieyle of the fenate, and foine of '
them had as nere' dominacion, and other had fleyne greate party of the fenators, ane were
ruled by theyr private counfeylers, the rtate of th'emperoure fell in dekeye, and theyr lord-
fhipe waxe alway fythen lafle and lalTe. So as now th'emperoure is not of moche niyght as
is one of the Kyngs which fome tyme were his fubjefls.

' Sic in MS., polliLly an ciior tor " iiKn't," i.e. entire, abiulute


We alto Englyfchemen, wliofc Kyngs feme tynie were coutifeled by fadd and well
chofen counfeylcrs bett the myghtyeft Kyngs of the worlde. But fytheii our Kyngs have
bene ruled by private counfeylcrs, fuchc as have offered theyr iervice and counleyle, and
were not cholcn therto, we have not be able tcj kepe our ovvne lyvelode, nor to wixen' them
that have take it troin us. And that hathe bene moafte for povertye and lake oi- good. But
we have had by that occafyon civill werres amongfte us felfe as had the Romayns when
they had not one hede but many o_overnours. Ani.1 our realmc is falln thereby m tlekey
and povertie, as was the emprere when th'emperour lefte the counleyle of the fenate. But
It may not be doubted that yf our Kyngs be counfeyled by fuche a wyfe ftablyfhed
counfcyle as is before dcvyfcd, and do there aftar as did the firil emperoure that gat the
monarche of the worlde, we fhulde firile have unite and pax within our land, riches and
profperite, and be myghtiell; and moarte vvelthy rcalme of the worlde.



|HESE bene the xxii rightoufnelTes that avery Kynge muft have, xAt, and
l^tO^ holde in hym felfe ; for they niaken the welfare of a reahne, an 1 leden

~iki> a Kynge to the reahne of lieven.
'(0}lM. Holy Writt faythe thus : Wo is to that lande that hathe a Kynge

^ :^^^^^3i=^ ^^^'^ '^ ^ childe of evil! nianers, and whofc princes eten erlye out of tyme.
Certes thefe wicked men that rule not realmes atter the lawe of God, they foffar many
adverfities^ as no wondar is. For many tymes therefore fythen peax is broken, and dilTen-
tions bene reyfed of the fame realme withintorthe,' and frucftes of londs bene made leffe,
and fervices of fubjeiftes bene ofte letted, and many dyvars forrowes dillroycthe profperities
of the fame realme, and bringeth in morninge of deathe both of dere friends and children,
and alTaylinge of enemyes, waftinge theyr contryes in eche feyde. And thes letten plenty
in moafte of realmes, and caufen forrowes of the fee, and fome tyme flrokis of flouds
deftroyenge cornes and blolTomes of frutes on trees, and this before all other things.

Unrightwyfnefle of a Kynge fadethe the face ot a worldly realme, and lettithe his
children and kenred to hold the heretage of the realme aftar hym. Elereof an infomple.
For the fyne of Salamon our Lord berefte his cliildrcn the realme of Ifraell ; and tor the
rightwifnefs of King Davyd, God lefte evar in Jherufalem a lantarne of his fede, as the
ftorye of Kyngs tellethe. Here may ye undarftond well how moche that tlie rightwifnelfe
of a Kynge is worth unto this worlde. For it is peax of his fubjedts, and furty of the
land, good kepinge and ftrengthenynge of the people, helthe of forrows, joye of his liegemen,
temperour of the ayre, clerenes of the fca, plentioufnes ot the erthe, folace ot pure men,
heritage of his children, and to hymfelfe hope of blifTe to come. But natheleile wcte the
Kynge that as he is firfl: put in the feate above othar men, fo yf he do unrightfully he flial
be the firft in payne. For all the fyntull men that he hathe undar hym lliall he have his
payne above them.


The xxii rightwifnefles belongynge to a Kynge.

The firft, is to opprefc no man unrightfully by his greate mirrht.

The Iccoiid, to deme rightvvyriy betwixt man and man without tas'ourc or hate of

The third, to dctcnd aliens, widowes, fatherles, and mothcrK-irc children.'

The towerth, to challife theves in his realme witiiout favour of partialitie.

The fitt, to punifli fharpelie adventerers.

The fixt, to make wicked men not great of power nor dignitie.

The feventh, to efchew men vicious liars or jangelers. . ' '

The eighth, to lelTe wicked men, and to put them out of his land.

The nintli, to futTer noe flears of men, ne talfe jurors in his rcalme.

The tenth, to defend the Church in all God's lawes.

The eleventh, to feed poore men with almeffe.

The twelvth, to ordaine jult: and true men upon nedes of the realme.

The thirteenth, to have his counfeylors of oKle men wife and fober.

The fourteenth, to give noe credence to men of wrong beleve, ne fufFer no wiclie^

The fifteenth, not to veng" fuddenlie or hallehe his yre or his inordinate will.

The fixteenth, to defend his land ryghtfullic againll; th'adverfiries therof.

The feventeenth, to trull and beleve only in God.

The eighteenth, to fet not to high his heart by liking happes and fortunes of the

The nineteenth, to fuffer pacientlie all adverfities and troubles that fallen to him.

The twentieth, not to fuffer his own children to doe wrong againlf God, and ma.i.

The twenty-firft, to bee devoute in his prayers certaine houres.

The twenty-fecond, is not to ete ne driiike but in convenable times. I

' From this line to the end, the tranfcript is in a difTertnt handwriting.
'' i.e. |>eih;iiib uNenj^e, or in error tor '■ \ent."




__f'/ H E followino; natjes are printed from a tranfcrint of an old manufcript in
y,_^p the Cotton Collcrtion,' taken for the purpofe by Mr. Richard Sinib ; tliat
copy ot the Dialogue being the only one which a careful inquiry i'lto the
riir'^^-^ t" - ^TMV- contents of every public and private colledion of MSS. in this cuintrv,
- - -rt>,^;i!^ii.-— ^ j|^,^f could be reached, has brought to light. It is now printed for the
firft time. Although the manufcript was feverely injured by the fire in the Cotton Library
of the 2 jrd of October, lyji, its contents were not much curtailed; a comparifun of the
fheets which are preferved with the nmnber of folios mentioned in an early iill of For-
tefcue's works," fhowing that, with the exception of fmall portions burnt off at the befinning
and end, and of a few gaps of not many words each in the body of the work, we have all
that was originally written. We are told that tlie MS. was on fix leaves folio, and the
margins of the printed pages fliow that i\x leaves ilill remain. The following is the full
title given in the lift referred to : —

" A Dialogue between Underftanding and Faith, fix leaves folio, written by Sir John
Fortefcue in the time of King Flenry the Sixth, ui quo cjlendit qiiihus mudis et ratioaikis
Densfu'pe cafitgat et punit Keges per eos qui wdgis contya illiini deliqiieriuit."

As to the time of the compofition of the tratft, fome exprefiions near the end go
direftly to fliow that it was written during the civil wars of Menry VI. 's reign ; while the
writer's reflecT:ions throughout are fuch as would naturally fuggeft themfelvesto a thoughtful
perfon in a time ot civil commotions, when the foundations of the State were overthrown.
The alpeft of public affairs at this time to one filled as he was with veneration for law
and a fettled courfc ot government, muif have been efpecially diftrelTmg, well calculate 1 tu

' Vitellius E. X., t'ol. 176.

''■ Smitli's; ol tliL Colton LiLraiy, made before the til

3 «

\: I,.,;


throw a religious niiiui for confolation upon l-'aith in an utilcen, though alhwiit, lJirci!'tor of
events, whofe mode of adion Underrtanding coidd not comprehend.

It will be (cen that, at all events, the firft quelVion propounded by " Underitanding"
is wanting. It mull liave lieen, however, fomewhat to the following eftedt: — -

" If Kings were eltablKhed by (jod, why doth he allow the fame to be deprived of
their Lordfhips ?" ,

The words between brackets have been iniertcd by the editor, upon conjedure, but only
when there did not appear to be much room left for choice or mirtake.


^&F we beleve that kyngs] were ftabliChed by the [lorde], we flii Ide as

wele beleve that he which made them maynteneth hem, or if he hym-

Jg^^ felf lyfte, can unmake them ; fur al maner of thyngs have of con maner

I' caufe their beyng and their duryng. But who that wolde fey that lorde-

i'&.A|5a=^ fViippe gotyn by violence with the myghty men of the pore men, fliulde
long ftonde without fubverfion ? It fhulde feme though it turned, it were no marveile, for
it is founded uppon a wykked begynnyng, and rather it ought to be called tyrannye than
Reigne. Wherfor let us beleve that Saul was the tirft kyng which God firfi: ilabliflied, to
whom' he gave the leptre ot power, and the unccion of grace for the governnance of his
Reame, from" his heires, and chaimged hit unto David, which regned over the people of
Ilraell vertuoufly, and left hit afterwards to Salomon his Ton, which held hit peafiLily after
his decelTe unto the tynie that flefldy delites perverted his wifdom ; for as ioone as he
enclyned from the lawe of God, and ierved his owne pleafyres, forthwith God arreifed
ayenft hym newe enemyes. Yet natwithftondyng at that tyme the opyn werre was nat
reifed ayenft hym, for the merites of his fadre, hut the dyvyne furuur turned uppon his fon
Roboani, and toke away the tenth part of liis lordefliip, the herts, and the obeifaunce of his
fubgetts; for he dildayned ayenft the counfeil of his wife j)eople, and difpreifed hit, and
folowed the apetyte of his defires, and the opynyon of fooles which were but yong and of no
greet underftandyng.

O ye erthely which fytten in your tremblyng cheires, Icrne your leftbn ot the

Kyng of heven which [alway is] treue, of which the Reame may never chaunge, noi the

[lawe] therof may never be ageynfaid. But your Realme faileth with your life, and his

Reame lordftiippeth over the lyf and deth. Ye Regne over the fubgetts and bonde nen,

, and he regneth and commaundeth over the kyngs. Ye make in the worldc lawcs tranfi-

f. 176.

' i.e. as regards uliom.

' i. e. away trom.

4^4 A Dialoo-jie between


tories, but his perpetuel lawe onbyndeth your lawes, and byndeth your powers, iyftcth up
your yghen,' and maketli your Herts to lerne of his doftrine ; which [is that] by hym allonc the
kyngs may reigne; icyng the firfl: kyng that he made and ftablinK\l he toke awL-y the feptre,
and leHed th'obeyfaunce of the thirde, and withdrewe liis fubjctts, in token that your Kegne
here levcthe as nothyng ellys but a commylhon revocal.ile atte pleafir and counfcil of above.
And to th'entent that the vvorfliip of ther charge fhulde make thcni nat to mvllcnowe hym-
felf, he punyfshed the firft of his makyng after the ofFenfe that he hadde doon, for the
delaracion of the firll Inftitucion of Iveames uppoii the deuc comlicion of kyngs — that be
unhappy; for the Crowne is ful hevy to fuche kyngs as flepvn in vayne glory, and maken
themfelt drengen m priiie, as when they myflcnowledge tlieir humanyte, and ufurpe uppon
the dyvine power, for tlic fere that his people and fubgeits have of hym, to forgete the
drede which he fliulde by reafon owe to ahuiglity God. And thus they taki. uppon them
hiche honor that they ne may never gete nor kepe. At ende fuche niakeri of tl;e Roial fee
a chaire of peftilence, and the pride of them enhaunfyng is the ie-ntence of their ruyn ; ior
fuche roial feiges fynken undre the luan that is overcharged with lynne, and liis chair;
reverteth uppon hvm the forer, toraliuuclie as the dedes whiche ionge to the Crowne be na
wele fupported and mayntened accordyng to th'office. Enfample of Nabuchadnaz :ar

f. 177 ■" thenne foone after the have the greet fall, and power thai b

evil) gotyn draweth the geter to myfeafe and parell ; for as they come fo they go, and le\ etl
hymfelf or his heires in fliame and in povertee.


The ftate of Inyquytees, let them bee where as (!od, and fortune will, for of their I ur
and payne is but litle harme, but uppon th'aflliccion of rightwifle men 1 wolde fayne be
anfuered. I

Feith. I I

Canft thou, as thou fuppofeft, knowe the jufk man from the fynner, and be afcerteyned
of the fecrct thoughtes which God hath referved to hymfelf? I'^or the punyihment of unjn
be nat alweys doon at tyme of trefpas ; but our lorde often tyme whenne a man dotl'e good
dedes, taketh vengeance uppon the myfdedes which wer palTed and torgeten. Man ought lo
be redy to receive the grace of . . . of pennance, and God chalHfeth hym fonneft whome
he fyndeth . . . difpofed to receave hit. Hys wifdom and his jullice is ke )t fo long
thorowe his greet pite and grace, that he tarieth long to chaltiie the evil! tolke, tuilVyng ot
their amendement. And on the other part he will rewarde ye [goo]d tor to piove their

cyos. - 'riicre- is htie a gap in the MS., bill ii[i|iar(.iitiy uC a (lav lines only.

U?ide7'J}andi?ig cvid Faith. 485

fufFraunce and to encreafe their perfeccion of their meryte ; [he] recoinpenfeth his abidyng by
augmentacion uf grace, or ellys by tlctrement of payne. I'hc phififiaii gcwih nat the feke
man to drinke after the apetite of his thirit, but tarieth and aliidcth a ikii hourc for the
profits of his welfare. And though fo be that the pacient grugge and coninleyn uppon his
phififian for becaufe he leveth liini fwetyng in greet [payne] of the licte, yet lor al that the
wile phififian wil nat graunt all his requclt ; for fuche a compadion rcllanblcth rather to
crutlte than to pyte.

And this enlample lereth ' Seynt Jerome through [reading] of the prophecy of Abacuc, '■ '77 L>-
which in ftrivyng with the hafty defires contrary to the tariyng and longe futlrance of tlie
jugement of God, formed this queftion oftyn tymes to Goil contrary to liis owne heltlie.
For he which hathe ) oven'"' tyme and, and knoweth whan his helpe ami his focor, or his
chaftifyngs be mooft to our helthe, deputeth hem nat at our elec'tion nor in the hourc of oin-
defire, but to his refonable will and to tlie profite of our perfeccion. Wherfor aba.ahe the
no more though thou fe hym which thou takelT: for Jull fuffre payne, for thou knowell nat
what fpiritual wynnyng rcboundeth tVoni theis temporal hurts, nor tliou knowelt nat alfo ,
what lynne is hidde in fuche as thou reputeft to be Juft.

Salamon gave us for a ride that men have torment by the fame thyng of which they did
the iynne. Thenne howe may it be that kiche tolkes be punylshed that never bare office, nor
never v\erc called to counfeil tor the commune wele ?


Thyne errour is founded uppon ignorance, for thou wened that he allone doth offence to
God, that opynly putteth fynne in ufe. Nay certeynly it goth a nother wife than fo, for the, '
or fuche as have power to refill: and do it nat, and fuche as be in the fortune of lynne, and 1
ferve the bruyte and folowe the vanytees therof, been partyners and noinafliers of lynne,
and geve a boldeneffe for men to do evill and to contynevv in the lame. ,

Ha! Undrellondyng, if thoue knoweft them that fo long tyme iiave dyflymyled the

inyquytees the t. 1-8

' [Nabuchadnazzar was lo hfted up wuii] ^

pride, that he made hymfelfe to be worflupped as God ; but our lorele brought h\-m fo lowe
that he fcdde hymfelf with beells. Knowe for certeyn that the yeys of (jod waken ovt r the
fynnes of Reames for to chadife them or lubverte them. Art thou nat remembred he we it
is writen that lakke of Judice and untrewe dedys maken Reames redy to be chaunged r

' Itreth, i.u. tcacliL'th. - joviii, i.e. f^uvin, givLii. " ScV( liiKa milling.

.-"1 ■iitdi

486 A Dialogue b:twee?2

Which is oftentymes feen, and bringcth them lovve thorowe the greet weight u{ fynne. IA)r
fynne is fo tovvle, and of fo fallyng a condicioii, that it ih'awcth unto hyni inyfery and
r[orrovve] ; and his dcHtc is alwcy accompanyed with unhappynclle, uiui piu'll-ued with payne.
And fo the dyvync Juftice which is rightfidl may nat iullVc fuche kyngs to rcgne over the
people, forafmoche as tlicy iic fei'vants unto l)nne, and theidor ahiughty God traiiiporteth the
Reames from hande to hande. :

Whan our lorde hll to punyflie men for iynne, what is the caule that he diverie tymes
putteth hem in the hands of gretter fyniiers tlum they be?


f. 178 b. In tiiat is lliewed his Jull:ice for the more turment of the iynnei- ; for hkc as by Iynne he

is reifed up ayenfi: the meke' and hevynge loi'delliip ot abiii|-hty

God, foon is he call; doune undre the hard tyrannye of fynne. For he that will put al ertaely
thyngs undre hym, he mult hrlt fubmyttc hymfelt to God. And in contrary wile, v> hen
man myilaketh hymfelf ayenll: God it maketh man fubget and bonde to al thyngs. Fi r as
oon iren fyleth another, fo a fynner chaftifeth his femblable and becomethe an Inllrui lerc of
the dyvyne Jultice. The fyle werctii, and after that is leide afyde as a thyng nat prcfitable,
yet through amendement of the maitfer werkman the yrcn is made able for to tyle, and fo
brought ageyn to profite. The fadre otherwile taketh the rodde to bete his childe, md
m his hetyng the rodde breketh, and after, whan he is appefeu, he taketh the rodde md
calteth hit in the fvre. So imdre thys nianer our lorde holdeth his chapitre and his re or-
macion ; and who that wil nat lerne of his dilTyplyne may hcjlde hymlell cloicd from giMce.
The natural fon is betyn of his fadre within the howfe when he trefpalTeth, but the hiredi man
is utterly put out of the hous withouten ftroke. And wlio that redeth Ifaye may iynde
enfuTiple ot theis wordes and noted in flory, howe the Reame of Aflyrieiis was the korge
that God ordeyned for his children of Ifraell. Thanne afterward he brake the fkorge
and deftroied the Reame of Allury, and cliaunged that iordefliip to the Perces and the
Medes, and made Babyloyne unhabhitable, and delyvered Ifraell Irom lervage, and lette hym

in hbertee.


f. 179 I' Than, fens it is fo, that adverfite of Reames been execucioiis of divyni Jagements

thorowe the myfknowlechyng of kyngs, [why doth God punyfhe] the pouer and lowe lub-

' Threu or four lirn^ teem 10 lu iiiiiring iii ru in the iM.S

{.'-{■■ :■ i:;i!

i . ' w i..v ;

jsv; ^




( VH^^c/tOVH^V>Vi^\^




Uudcrflmiding a>id Faith. 487

getts for other mennes fynne? And why will God put uppoii ' lU'we turnients ovir the ,,

travaile of ther hibour ?


Holy Scripture witnelleth tliat for lynnes of a Kyng the people been oftyntymes
punyfshed, and for the fynne of the people Kyngs been deprived and put downe.


Th'effede of this I knowe by enfample ; for when David hadde fyimed many of his
people died therfor. And on the other fyde, for th'otfenfe of people Zedecliias was
punyfshed by God, that is to knowe, he was taken with A/fyryens and his yen pi t out of
his hede. Nowe wolde I fayne knowe the caufe of theife two punylTions which f mi-th to
me fhulde be in a rygour in the devyne Jullice. Or ellys it fhulde feme the text were '
true that feithe the fonne fhal nat bere inyquite of the fadre, and that every man finilde bere
the poife of his owne fardell.


The vverkes of God overcometh our jugements and jugeth them, and his Infynyte
power Juftefieth all his werkes in doyng hem ; for he is a Juftice of hyni felf. Yet for the
eafe of our ignorance he left us his wordes in holy Scripture whiche may nat faile, and by
them wele undrellonde, we may by his worde juge the ftablifhyng of kyngs v.hich is f. 179. b.
founded for occafion of" 1) nne in tlie j.ieople, [ellys it is] true we hadde no necie to fere
lordeAiip. For, as the apollle wrote to tiie Romayns, the kyng is nat tl.e fere of wele-
doers; but he is dredeful to them that doen a myffe; and the lawe was not made for the
rightwifmen, but it was made tor the fyimers. jVlfo it mull be unelreflo'Kle that thorowe
the importune requeft of ihe people was grauiited hem firll a kyng. Yet o\.w lorde fent unto j
his people by Samuell and fhewed them the corrupcions and the infeccion that the evill
kyngs fpredde amonge the people thorow their vicious enfunple. And, natwithftondvnye |
that, yet wolde they nedes have a kyng. O k>rde God howe that lieame fliyneth bright
when there regneth a vertuous and a Catholike kyng! Certeynly like as the fair fonne .
that cafteth his bright benies uppon the erthe, thorowe which is voided awev the elerke I
myftes, and maketh the day to fnewe clere, lo m like wile the rightwys kyng conto mdeth
and deftroieth al maner of wikkednelTe thorowe the torefiglu ot his wildom, atui diel'eth all
maner thyng to honeftee for the honor ot his renown.

But O alas yn contrary wife, who that can ymagen and thenke the poifon and tiie venym

" L'pijon" htru lignifits '• in addition." ■ 1. c. hy ucculion of.

4^^ A Dialo'^iie hclwecn

the wykked and vicious kyng fowethe in his Ivcame ! Vox the wykkeihicHc decendeth from
the grete to the fniale ; thcnne the people fewen' the fortune, ami lyven by the jiatron of
their fovereigne The Iclirewile k)'ng [[irellcthj his fubgetts [fore] and out of niefure ; for
loke where a prince is without wifdom, then been the people without difciplyiie. bor and
a boke be fallely writen it flial make the reders, and they write after that boke joynetli,
tals uppon.- So then the kyng is the boke of the people wherein they lerne to lyve and

1". 180. amende their maners, but, and the untruely wretyn. I'or the

[humour! that defccndeth from tiie hede chaufeth the liver, hit chargeth the liert, it filleth
the ftomak, it rtoppeth the cuticles, and altereth all the body. f.ikewife the vices that
rebounden uppon the fuhgettes parverteth the ordre, troubleth th'ofiice, and empaireth the
condicions ot all the allates of his peoi)le. b'or the fekenelle that cometli from the hede
caufeth al the niembres to lie troubled.

Nowe al kynges take hede to this, for, and they knewe that in her w) kkednelTc henge
the fynne of the people, they wolde enteerly kepe their dignyte above al other, and fhey
wolde be vertuous above al other. Nov.e here it folowcth v, hether tlie kynges were ftabli.hed

Online LibraryJohn FortescueThe works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) → online text (page 65 of 87)