John Fortescue.

The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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Moy femble !e contrary, Car tout ceo neft que continuance de la matter ; et quand tiels chofes

font en un enditement, s'il foit acquite de la felony, il fera acquit de I'afTaut et batery ; quia

magis dignum trahit ad Je minus dignum. Prtsot : E.n ceft cas felony purra eftre entendLi

I robery, il eft voier : mes ceo ne poit; car s'il fuit trove culpable forfque v'yi. il ne feroit

j pendu ; donques il appert bien que ceo ne fuit pas robery ; car poit eftre entendu que il fuit

I fait, et nient a fa perfon, et donques vous aves mefpris votre adion de compleine de trelpas,

I de quel nul aiflion de " Confpiracy " gift. Purque, &c. JFOttCfCUC .* Moy femble le con-

I trary : car ceft trefpas de batery et felony fera dit un felony : car come ad efte dit, ceo que

eft de plus bas nature, come eft de rent charge iffant de terre a la Comon Ley et deins

ancien demefne, fera terminable en ceft Court : ilUnt quand cele batery eft le conveyance de



of Si?- yoJm Forte [cue. 35

the other fhall liavc a writ of " Error," and by way ofanfvver, if he had not made default,
c&c. Littleton : We pray a writ of " Inquiry" at our peril, &c.

In a " Ouare impedit" brought aoainll three, the plaintiff dcchu-ed againfl: two, and
nothing was faid of the third, nor was continuance made againll liini ; and the others
had pleaded, and deftroyed the title of the plaintiff, and made to themfelves a good title.
And thereon they prayed judgment, and to have a writ to the Bifliop againft the plaintiff.
HiNGEsTON : This you ought not to have ; for all the plea is diilontinued : for if a man
has an adion ot trefpafs, or any other aiftion, againft two, and difcontinues the adion againft
one, it is difcontinued againft all; fo here; and if he ihould be non-fuited as to one, he
will be non-fuited as to all. And as the count is vicious, the writ will abate, for the writ
and count are only one original. And if he fue on a writ of "Right of Advowfon," and the
mife be joined, and be found for the tenant, if the count be vicious, lie (liall not lave final
judgment, but the writ will abate. jTOVtCfCUC I The cafes are not fimilar; for on this
acftion, if the plaintiff be non-fuited, the defendant will make a title in himfelf, and fhall have
a writ to the Biiliop. And in the lame way, when the writ fliall abate by a fault in the
count. But if the defendant had pleaded mifnomer of the plaintiff' or of himfelf, and the
writ had abated, or if the writ had been not fufficient in itfelf, the defendant would noi
have a WTit to the Bifliop. But in this cafe the writ is good ; and therefore he ihiall have :
writ to the Bifliop. And it was adjourned. {^Shi.vre the law, &c.)

A writ of " Confpiracy " on an indictment, " for that the jil.iintiff on a certain day, year,
and place, with force and arms, did on one B. make an alfault and beat antl wound
the fame, &c., and then and there did felonioufly fteal \vs. of tlie money oi the fame B.
found in his purle." And this matter was rehearfed in his writ, and the conclufijn of thi
writ ftated, " and on that occafion the complainant was taken, &c., imprifoned at B., &c.,
and detained in prifon until, &c., theieof acquitted." Danby : Judgment of the writ; for j J5 b.
he has comprifed in his writ and complains himfelf by his writ of a thing for which a writ of
"Confpiracy" lies not, viz., of battery, &c. Wherefore, cxc. Moii.e: The contrary I
appears to me; for all this is oidy continuance of the matter; and when iuch things are in
an indiftment, if he be acquitted of the felony, he fliall be acquitted of tlie alTuilt and I
battery; becaufe " the worthier thing draws to itfelf the lets worthy." Prisot : In this :afe
felony might be underflood as robbery, it is true; but this cannot be; for if he was found
guilty of only vyi. he would not be hanged; then it appears that this was not robbery, tor
it may be underll:ood that it was done, and yet not to his perlon, and then you have m llaken
your aiftion in complaining of trefpals, for which no aftion of " confpiracy " lies. \s'here-
fore, &c. jFOttCfCUC t The contrary appears to me: for this trefpafs of battny and
felony fttall be called a felony : for, as has been laid, that which is of a Knver nature,
as a rent charge, iffuing out of land at common law and within the ancient denielne,
fhall be terminable in this court; fb, (Ince battery is the conveyance of the felony.



36 Reports of the Judgments^ etc.

la felony, tout fera dit un felony. Car le Juftice de la Gaol delivere n'aura poier fur un
enditement de trefpas de luy arreiner de tout, pur ceo que ils ont Jurifdiiflion fur luy per
reafon de la felony que eft de plus haute nature que le trefpas. Et home aura un Alfife
d'un chofe que s'il foit joine ove autres, le quel il ne poit aver s'il fuit a per luy. Come fi
un ad un corody deins un Meafon de Religion, fcavoir, d'aver certeines meffes de chair,
pain, fervois, fuel, chambre, et un eftable pur fes chevals, s'il foit diflcifi de la corody il
avera Alfife de tout femblement ; uncore fa chambre ou eftable a par luy ne poit eftre dit
corody, ne poit pafler par fait de grant fms livery et feifm de ceo : mes quand il eft joine
ove tieles chofes que font corody, il fera dit de mefme le nature come le corody eft, et par
nome de corody il doit faire fon pleint et grant de ceo: car mefme le nom eft bon fins
livcre de feifin. IfTnit ceft afiaut ei batery quand ils font joint enfemble come avant eft
dit, font un felony: car fi un home vient a mon meafon pur moy robber, (t entreint mon
meafon, et prend biens ou nemy, le robery et le enfreindre de meaion font un felony ; et s il
foit acquire de la felony, il eft acquite de le treipas, &c.



De Termino Michaeln, A°. xxxii. Hen. VI.

f. 10. En I'Efchequer chambre le Cas fuit tiel. En aftife fuit un Patent de Affociation fai: a

un W. Copley, et apres fuit un auter fait a N. Afliton. Et le queftion fuit, le quel un
aflbciation poit eftre apres un auter, ou nemy. Billing: Me femble que I'affociation fait
a N. Aftiton eft voide : car les parolx de le pruiier Patent font general; car les paro ex
font, una cum hiis quos eis ajfocianius : donque quand ceux parolx font executes, ils ne
poyent oufterment proceder. Come le Roy feifi d'un garde grante a moy le garde uurant
le nonage le heir, durant cele temps j'ay caufe de luy retenir : et jeo pole que il ad heir deins
age et moruft ; jeo n'auray my ceft garde : car mon patent ne ftreche mi a cele : mes n jeo
de ceo voile aver avantage, covient a moy d'aver mon patent accordant, ceft aftavoir, de Ii.i\7-ede
m hceredem. lifuit icy, quand le primer patent ad eff'ed: de ceo que eft en luy compris, covient que
il ad tiels parolx en luy que purront prover effect. Mefme la Ley eft, fi terre foit lefte a moy pur
terme des ans, rendant par an xj., et C\ afcun jour de payment foit adrere adonqe jeo perdrai xxj.
fi le condicion ne va oufter, fi le rent foit adrere a un jour, jeo perdrai la peyne, et i\ foit aderere
a un auter jour apres jeo ne perdrai plus: car les parolex en I'endenture font generals : mes
fi ii avera celes parolx, toties quoties donq jeo perdrai la peine a chefcun jour: iftint a ma
entent le fecond patent eft void, &c. Wangforu : Moy femble le contrairic : :ar le Roy a
fon pleafir poit faire fes Juftices ceux que il voile ; et quand il ad fait un, il poit taire auter :
donq quand les parolx font generals, et il face \m tiel fon Juftice, et luy plait de faire un
auter Juftice apres, ceo eft aftes bon : ilfmt a ma entent la feconde affociation eft afies bon.
Yelverton : Moy femble le contrairie : car les parolx en le primer Patent covient eftre



.(.A



of Sir "John Fortefcue,



37



it fhall all be called a felony. F^^or the Juftices of gaol-delivery fhall not have power on an
indidment of trefpafs to arraign him of all, becaufe they have jurifdic4:ion over him by reafon
of the felony, which is of a higher nature than the trefpafs. And one fhall have an Adize
of a tiling if he join it with others, which he cannot have if it flood alone. As if one has
a corrody in a religious houfe, namely, certain mefles of flefh, bread, ale, fuel, a chamber,
and a fiiable tor his horfes ; if he be diffeifed of his corrody, he fhall have an adize for all
together ; yet his chamber or ftable by itfelf cannot be called a corrody, nor can it pafs by deed
of grant without livery and feifin thereof; but when it is joined with fuch things as make a
corrody, it fhall be fxid to be ot the fame nature as the corrody is, and by name of corrody
he ought to make his plaint, and a grant thereof; for the fame name is good without livery
ot leifin. So this afiault and battery, when joined together as is aforefaid, are a felony ;
tor it a man come to my houfe to rob me, and break into my houfe, and take goodt or not,
the robbery and houfebreaking are a felony ; and if he be acquitted of the felon/, he is
acquitted of the trefpafs, &c.



Michaelmas Term, 32 Hen. VI.
In the Exchequer Chamber the cafe was this. In an aflize a Patent of Affociation was
made to one W. Copley, and afterwards another was made to N. Afhton ; and the queftion
was, whether one affociation can be after another, or not, Bii.i.inc; : It feems to me that
the afTociation made to N. Afiiton is void ; for the words of the firfl patent are general ; for
the words are, " together with thofe whom we affociate with them ; " then, fince thofe words
are executed, they cannot further proceed. As if the King, feifed of a wardOiip, grants to
me that wardlliip during the nonage of the heir, during that time I li.ive the right to retain
him ; now fuppoie that he has an heir under age, and dies, I fhall not have this wardfliip ;
tor my patent does not flretch fo far ; but if I with to take advantage thereof, I muiT: have
my patent made out accordingly ; that is to fiy, " from heir to heir." So here, fince the
firft patent has efFed: in refpeift of what is contained in it, it is neceffary for it to have fuch
words in it which (liall prove the ef^ert. The fame law holds, if land be leafed to me for a
term of years, yielding annually ten fliillings, with a condition that if on any day of payment
the rent be in arrear, then I fliall tortcit twenty fhillings ; if the condition ilo not go furtlier,
then if the rent be in arrear for one day, I Ihall forfeit the penalty; and if it be in arrear
another day afterwards, I fhall not forfeit more; for the words in the indenture are general :
but if it fViall have the words tolies qiwtles then I fhall forfeit the penalty each day: fo i.rmy
opinion the fecond patent is void, Sic. Wangforu : The contrary appears to me ; {^•<: the
King at his pleafure can make who he will to be his J u ft ices ; and when he has made one he
can make another ; then iince the words are general, and he makes fuch one his Juflice, and
it pleates him afterwards to make another Juftice, that is quite good; ^o in my opinion the fecond
affociation is good. Yelverton : I think otherwife, for the words in the firit patent mufl: be



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3^^ Reports of the 'Judg)ne7tts^ etc.

garde, et ceo ne fait il ; car les parolx de le primer patent font tiels, una cum hiis qiios
eis ajfociamus : donq qiiand le Roy fill: fon afTociation a Copley, donq les paroles de le brief
fiirent peiturmes ; lit Sire, pojltu que cell allociacion (oit alles iufliciei t, Lincore a ma entente
le alTociacion par la nianer ell voide : car fi le feconde affociation eftera, covient que ceo foit
garrante de le primer patent, et par les parolx en ceo contenus ; et ceo n'ell; pas : car
donq covient que les parolex tiels foient ; " et illos quos ailbciavimus ; " ou et que ils que,
&c., nous, &c., " hac vice :" mes nul tieles parolx font en cele contenus. Kt Sire, quand
les Juftices ont admis W. Copley par vertu de fon patent, donq fuit il Juftice ove eux : donq
quand le patent vient a eux puradmcttre N. AHiton, ceo fuit void : car ceo fuitdireifte forfque
a les Juftice par le prinier patent. Donques jeo pofe que le Roy per fon patent face iii. de
mes Maifters icy Juftices, et puis il afibciate a eux autre le iii. interlefle, ceil: alTociation eft
void: car covient que ce foit a eux iii. direfle, &c. JfOl'tCfCUC .' Vous dites veritie, et
femble a nioy a mefme I'entent : car chefcun qui fuit covient iuir le nature i. e la Court, et
t". 10 b. nemy de I'acflion. Car les Juftices d'Aftife, ou Juftices de Oier et Terminer, ou Juftices F.n
Eire ont auxy haut poier par lour commiftion en lour Court, come ont les Juilices de Com )n
Bank : donque ft foit en Comon Bank que brief de "Dette" ou brief de "Treipas" foitfu;;
fi le Viconte returne fummons en brief de " Dette" en le Comon Bank, donque iffeia un
" Pone :" et fi foit en brief de " Trefpas " que le Viconte returne que il eft attache, dcnq le
la party poit eftre eftbine s'il voile: mes s"il foit devant Juftices d'Oyer et Terminer en br ef
de " Trefpas," le primer proces fera " Venire facias." IVIefme le Ley eft en Afilfe, ei ceo
varie parenter un general Alfife et un fpecial Affile : car in general AfTife fi I'array frit
challenge, ceo fera trie par les circumllances : mes "^x I'array foit challenge en fpecial Aflilj,
ceo fera trie per ceux qui font enpanels, et par nul auter Et auxy en un general Afiife ils
adjournent I'Allife par proclaimatiun tanque a la prochein Aifife : et fi Affife loit purchase en
le mene temps, il n'aura auter precept par cele mes ceo qui tuit adevant : mes en fpecial
Aftife file face lour precept devant le jour de I'Aftlfe, ceo ell void, et donque le Roy de ton
Royaltie poit faire a moy droit : et quand il mefme ne poit eftre la de faire a moy drpit,
covient a luy de trover afcun qui poit ceo faire. Et c'eft la caufe purquoy les Juftices en
un genera! Aliife covient eftre la, pur ceo que ils ont lour gages de la Roy. Mes les Juft'^ces
en fpecial Aftife ne font pas de tie! condicion : car coment que ils foient faits per Commilhon
de Roy, uncore ils ne font pas lies de eftre la finon que la party eux gage. Donque jeo
proverai un mifchief : car fi le Roy en ceft Affife afibciate un que ne veut pas la venir finon
que jeo a luy voile doner plus que jeo purrai, I'iVftife iera difcontinue. Ilfnit mifchief
enfueroit fur un auter mifchief que jeo ne unques aura le eftedl: de ma fuit; et il'int plufors
mifchief de ceo enfueroit: iftint a ma entent en un fpecial Aftife affociation gifi, et en un
Aftife general un affociation apres lautre (come ad efte dit) ne gift mi. Ardern : Jeo pofe
que le Roy par fes Letters patentes afibciate un a vous, et votre Companion qui eft Juftice



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of Sir yoh?i Forte [cue. 39

held to ; and this is not done ; for the words of the firft patent are, " together with thofe whom
we afibciate with them ;" then, wiicn the King alTociated Copley, the words of the writ were
exhaufted. And Sir, granted that this aHociation be fufficient, ftill in my opinion the
aflbciation in this wife is void; for if the fccond alTociation fhall lland, it niulT: of necelfity
be warranted by the firil: patent, and by the words therein contained ; and this is not fo ; for
then the words muft be, " and thofe whom we have afTociated, together witli thole whom,
&c., we, &c., for this time ;" but no fuch words are contained therein. Xxv\ Sir, when
the Juftices admitted W. Copley, by virtue of his patent, then he was jufticc with
them ; and when the patent came to them to admit N. Aditon, it was void ; for it was
direfted only to thofe who were Jultices by the firft patent. Now, fuppole that the King by
his patent makes three of my mafters here Juftices, and then aflbciates another with [two
of] them, omitting the third ; this alTociation is void ; for it muil: be diree'ted to thofe
three, &c. JFOttCfCUC .' You fay rightly; and I am of the fame opinion, for eve. yone
who fues muft follow the nature of the Court, and not ot the a6tion. h"or the Juftices ot
Aftlze, or Juiliices of Oyer and Terminer, or Juftices in Eyre, have as high power by their f.
commiftion in their Court as have the Juftices of the Common Bench ; then, it ui the
Common Bench a writ of " Debt" or writ of "Trefpafs"' be fued, it the llicriif return a
fummons in the writ of " Debt" in the Common Bench, a " Pone'' ihall iffue ; and if in the
writ of " Trefpafs " the ftieriff returns that he is attached, then the party can be effoined if he
will ; but if it be before the Juftices of " Oyer and Terminer," the firil; procefs \\\ the writ
of "Trefpafs" fhall be a " Venire facias." I'he fame law holds in an aillze ; and there is
this diff'erence between a general aftize and a fpecial ailize ; for in a general a(lize, it the
array be challenged, it ftiall be tried by the ftanders by ; but it the array be challenged in a
fpecial atfize, it fhall be tried by thofe who are empanelled, and by none others. And alio
in a general alTize they adjourn the affize by proclamation untd the next alhzes ; and if an
aftize be obtained in the meantime, no other precept ftiall be had thereby , but wliat was betore ;
but in a fpecial aifize, if they make tiieir precept betore the day ol" affize, it is void, and
the King of his royalty can do me right ; and when he himfelf cannot be there to do me
right, he muit find iome one who can do to. And this is the realon why the Juftices in a
general ailize muft be there, becaufe they have their wages of the King. But the Juftices in
a fpecial alFize arc not in a fimilar condition; tor although they are created by the King's
commifiion, ftill they are not bound to be there unlefs the party pay them. Now, 1 Ih ill
prove the mifchief ; for if the King in this alftze ftiould alTociate one who would not co .ic
there, unlefs I will give him more than lies in my power, the alfize will be difconrinucLl : lo
one mifchief would follow another; tor 1 ihould never get my fuit to an end ; and lo many
mifchiets would thence enfue. So, in my opinion, in a fpecial ailize an aftbciatioii lies ; and
in a general alTize one aflbciation after the other (as has been faid) does not lie. Ardern :
I put the cale that the King by his letters patent aftbciates one with you, and with your





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4-° Reports of the Judgments, etc.

en Affize et apres il face un auter, et> de fingulu, devant ceo que afcun dc eux foit ,c.cu -
qui d'eux fera receu ? JFOVtCfCUC: Cefty qui ad le premier Patent : mcs (i lour patents foicn '
faits a un jour nous receverous qui nous plaira, &:c.



Be Termim I Hilar it, Annoxxxij. [Tln. VI.

f. 24. Nota que fuit tenu per jTortCfCUC, et touts les Juftices en TEfchequer Chamber que fi

afcun des defendants foit mifnome, tout le brief abatera ; fi bien come C^ undes d efendants
moruft pendant Je brief, ou devant le brief Et auxi fuit tenu que le demandant n'avera
avantage par " Journees Accomptes" ou le brief fuit abatu par Ic defaut d .■ le demandant
come ou le demandant no.ne Ic defendant " Efquier,"' ou il ert 'f chivaller. ' &c ou auter
ment &c. : uncore ils tenent, que fi le defendant plede jointenancy, et le demandant ceo
confefle, que le demandant aura avantage par " Journees Accompts - et uncore le p nx lafe
de le malves brief eil laft de le demandant: mes pur ceo que le demandant ne poit ver
conufances,! tient folement, jointment, ou feveralment, come il poit aver conufanc. d> le
non, ou iurnom cefty qui plede jointenancy, et prend les profits de quel il ad conufanc Et
auxi lou home plede jointenancy il affirme le tenancy en luy par le forme, cVc.
,^b. "Dette- fuit porte vers deux Executors en le County de Eborum'. Les defenduits

d.fo.ent que le telhtor fift eux deux et un John fes executors, le quel John adminifira divers
b.ens et chateux del' teftator, fcavoir a D. en TEveichie de D., le quel John ell en ple,ne vie
ment nome en le brief Jugement de brief A que le plaintif d.t que le d,t John ne
unques adnuniilra, &c. Ei aUt e contra. Et pur ceo que D. ert en I'Evefchie de Darl am
que eit Countie paleis, et le brief le Roy ne court mi illonque ; en quel cas ^, afcun faic foit
plede et allege, illonque fera trie ou le brief eft porte per le Statut de Anno ix. E ,ii i cap
:v. (mes fi cele cas hut en le cas de le Statut, lez J uges voillent eftre advis); purque a
1 autre jour ceft matter fuit move en I'Efchequer Chambre per Prifot, coment eux fcmble
^ra trie. Markham : Semble que ceo n'eft pie : car ^^ le defendant ufi plede tiel pie en
Gales ou en Ireland, ceo n'uft efte pie, pur ceo que ne purra unque eftre trie illonques ' Et
auxy le Statut ne redreft-e nul pie tbrfque releas ou auter fait que fuit allege en Countie p .leis
Purque f, aicun auter matter, con,e mort ou adminiftration, ou dures d'enprifonment ou
afcun t.el pie que ne fuit pie par fait duift eftre plede, donque femble que ne uft efte' nul
pie a la comon Ley : car s'il tift efte pie, ceux en le Parliament que avoient rcdrefte le dit
forein pie per fa,t, voille aver redrefi'e les auters pies, s'.lz furent pies, et s'ils feront aju^e
pies, feront remedies per lequite de mefme le Statut. jrortCfClIC : Ou vous tenes ouel
pie n'eft m, pie. jeo entende que eft bon pie: car, en vofire cas, fi tiel forein pies foient
alleges en Gales ou en Ireland, que ne font pies, jeo entende que font bens pies en mefme



J "'.j' J'-J'^. ■ •'



of Sir 'Jolui Fortcfcue.



41



companion who isjuftice of afTize, and that afterwards he makes another; and io of each one
before either of them is received ; — wliieh of the two fhall he received ? jTOl'tCfCUC I ^^^ who
has tlie fril: patent ; but if their patents be made on one day we fliall receive whichever we
pleafe, Sec.

llildry 'fenny 32 HtN. VI.

Note that, it was held by jTOVtCfCUC, ^nd all the Jullices in the Exchequer Chamber,
that if any of the defendants be milliamed, all the writ fliall abate, as well as it one ot tlie
defendants die p,ending the writ, or were dead before the writ. And it was alio held that
the demandant fhall not have advantage by "journeys accounts" where the writ of the
demandant was abated by the default of the demandant; as where the demandant calls the
defendant " Efquire," where he is a knight, &c., or otherwife, \:c. Still they held that it
the defendant plead joint-tenancy, and the demandant confcfs it, the demandant fli: 11 have
advantage by "journe}'s accoiuits ;" and yet the purchafe of the bad writ is the ac^t of the
demandant. But [the reafon is] becaufe the demandant cannot know whether he (the
tenant) holds folcly, jointly, or feverally, as he can know the name or lurname of hmi who
pleads joint-tenancy, and takes the profits of what he has cognizance. Alio where one
pleads joint-tenancy, he affirms the tenancy to be in himfelf by the form, &c.

" Debt" was brought againft two executors in the county of York. l"he defendants faid
that the teftator made them two and one John his executors, which John adminilkred divers
goods and chattels of the teftator, namely, at D., in the bifliopric of D., which John is in full
life, and not named in the writ. Judgment of the writ. Whereto the plaintiff fiid, that
the faid John never adminirtercd, &c. And the others the contrary. And becaule D. is
in the bilhopric of Durham, which is a county palatine, and the King's writ does not run
there ; in fuch cafe, if an)' deed be pleaded and alleged, there fliall trial be where the writ
is brought, by ftatute 9 l''dw. III. cap. 4. — But whether this cafe came under the ilatute, the
Judges wilhed to be advifed. Wherefore on another day this matter was moved in the
Exchequer Chamber by Prisot, how they think it ihall be tried. Mark ham : This feems
no plea; for if the defendant had pleaded fuch plea in Wales or Ireland, it would
not have been a good plea, for it could never have been tried there. And alfo the ftatute
does not redrefs any plea except a rcleafe or fome otlier deed alleged in the county palatin'.'.
Wherefore, if any other matter, fuch as death or adminiftration, or durefs ot impnfonment,
or any fuch plea which is not a plea by deed, fliould be pleaded, then it appears tliit it
would have been no plea at Common Eaw : for if it had been a plea, thofe in Parlianent
who had redrelTed the faid foreign plea by deed, would have redrelfed theie other pie .s, it
they were pleas; and if they lliall be adjudged pleas, they will be remedied by the e.jLiity
of the fame ftatute. JTOUtCfCllC : Whereas you hold that the plea is not a ple.i, I think



Online LibraryJohn FortescueThe works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) → online text (page 76 of 87)