John Fortescue.

The works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) online

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eins per prefentment ut Jiipra, en ceft pie, et en ceft Court Chreftean devoit proced ;r. Et
fur ceo vindrent les avant dits R. & H. a le Chancelrie ove tout la mattere en un lib die a le
Chanceler et prierent Prohibition fur ceo matter ; et il a eux fuit grante, et avoie it. Et
fur ceo vient I'Abbe, et pria Confultation. Et ceft matter longement dependant en le
Chancelrie, et ore il devient en I'Efchequer Chambre devant les Juftices de Tun Hank et de
I'autre et le Chief Baron de I'Efchequer et le Maiftre des Rolles, et la !e matter bien debate.



.!■ 1,1



of Sh~ John Fortejcue. 1 09

miift be named. And the law is the lame in the cafe of an adion of " b'orgery of deeds,"
which fliall he brought by both ; and fo it feems to be in this cafe. The phiintifF denied the
cafe of" I'"orgery of deeds;" for he faid that it fliall be brought by the hu,band omitting
the wife. Which note. (And this matter was well argued ; but I was not prefent at the
beginning.) JfOTtCfCUC : The cafe of a "Ouare impedit " is a good one to prove this cafe ;
and, Sir, in an action of " Detinue of charters," concerning the inheritance o\ the wife, it is
true that the aftion ihall be brought by the hufL>and and his wife, becaufe they are to recover
the charters which touch the inheritance of the wife : but if a writ of " Trelpafs '' be brought
for charters which touch the inheritance of the wife, this fliall be brought by the hufband
without the wife, becaufe it is not to recover the charters which concern the inlieritance of
the wife, but only damages for them ; and fo there is a dillinc^tion between thefe ad:ions.
(Note this.) Sir, if a tenant can have this aftion on the ftatute, it feems then t lat the
liufband can have it without the wife. — And it was adjourned. And on another i ay the
plaintiff came to the bar, and prayed his judgment. (And the matter was argued over
again: but I was not prefent.) And at the lail the plaintiff had judgment to recover &c. ^'

Hilary Term, 38 Hen. VI.

The cale was thus, in the Chancery. An Abbat had fued in Court Chriftian a t" 19 b.
" Spoliation" againft one K. clerk and one H. clerk, in that, whereas the fiid Abbat and
all his predeceffors have been feifed of the advowlbn of J. and like wife ot the church as
Parlon imparfonee, to hold to their own ule, from time of which the memory runneth not, and
had had all the tithes ^v:c., the laid R. and H. came and fpoiled him of his tithes, anil kejit
him out of his church, and took the tithes. And thereupon appeared the aforelaid H. and R.,
and faid that fuch an one was feifed of the advowfon aforelaid as in right of luch an one his 1
wite, m his demefne as of fee ; and furthermore how the ancellor of his wile was feifed before
him, and how the hufband prelented the faid R., wlio on his prefentation was admitted and ' |
inftituted and indudled, and took the tithes and held the cluirch as parfon and incumbent of
the faid hulLand, until he refigned &;c. : and then the laid hufliand prefented the fiid H., I
who on his prelentation &c., and held the church, and took the tithes as above : and f)
each one for his time ; and that the advowfon was never appropriated by the hufliand and
his wite, nor by the ancelfor of the wife. Ami we do not think that the Abbat ou^lit to
proceed againfl: them who were in by prefentation as above, ni (hi', ple.i and \\\ ihis L uirt
Chrillian. And thereon came the aforelaid R. and J J. in the Chancery, witli all the ni, tter
in a libel to the Chancellor, and prayed a " Prohibition " on this matter ; and it was granted
to them, and they had it. And thereupon came the Abbat and prayed a " Confultation."
And this matter was long pending in Chancery ; and now it comes into the Exchequer
Chamber before the Juflices of both benches, and the Chief Bar-on of the Exchequer and



4 i.i'u-)
: i.j.'riv.'



ir .br,.



1 1 o Reports of the yudgmc7its^ etc.

Markham : Me femble que il n'aura Confultation, ^c. &c. [Moii.e follows on the
f. :;o. other (ide; and cites the Statute of Weftminfter 2.] ^(FOttCfCUC dit, que a la Conioii Ley
fuit brief de Droit, lyww/ rcddat advocatlonem deciriiarum dc qiiinque acris tcrrx, o\\ d'un acre
dc terre, et huj iij'niodi , et pur ceo fuit le Statut fait: car brief de "Droit de Decimis " ne
fera grante de moindre parcele que de qiiarta parte, et pur ceo eft le brief, quod reddat
advocatwnem decimariim quartcc partis vel tert'ue partis, et hHJupwdi ; et tie! brief ne hiit a
la Comon Ley. duod non fuit contradiiJum. Quod nota. [Danhv and Yelverton
i. 20 b. follow.] Prisot : II ad efte adjuge bon plede en " Quare impedit " vers le Prior, ou il
tient Eiglife en propre oeps, adire que il fuit pleine ove luy mefme \\n an et jour devant le
brief purchafe come Parfon en parfonee, pur ceo que I'Elglife iera entendu pleine; et fi
I'Kfglife fuit loialmeiit approprie, donque il eft loialment pleine: purque femble que le
" Ouare impedit " gift vers luy. jToVtCfCllC .* Matter en fait prove que " < Hiare impedit "
gift vers le Parfon enparfonee : car ils font ij ou iij " Ou^^^e impedit " penda it devant vous
tnefmes a certein jour (et nofme eux). Kt en mon temps jeo fcay que x ou xlj "Ouare
impedit " ont efte retornes, et pur ceo le " Quare impedit " gift aflez bien : mes comeiit que
il ne gift, uncore reafon prove que il n'eft pleine, car le plede de plenerte que fuit a la
Comon Ley eft determine per le Statute de Weftminfter ij et Je pleding or done per riei ne
le Statut. Car a la Comon Ley il fuift bon pie adire que I'Efglife fuit pleine jour dt biief
purchafe : et or il n'eft pie finon que il die que I'Efglife fuit pleine de fon prefennn^ nt
demefne vj mois devant le brief purchafe ; et iirmt il covient dire que ele eft pleine de Ion
prefentment demefne ; car fi I'Efglife foit pleine de prefentment d'un eftranger, ceo n'ef a
purpos a abatre fon brief, finon que il die de fon jirefentment demefne vj mois devant le brief
purchafe ; et icy il ne puit dire que I'Efglife eft pleine de fon prefentment ilemelne tn leo
cas, pur ceo que il n'eft pleine de nul prefentment, et pur ceo vers eftrangers I'Elgliie fera
adjuge tOLits dits voide quant a ceo aftion. Et coment que ceo pleding que il voile alleger
fuit en autre temps, uncore il ne fuit plede per reafon, mes j'ay fcay bien que il hiit tenu pie
per long temps paffe. t^tod >wtii. Et donq il dit a luy que il n'aura " Coniultation," pur
ceo que or le droit de I'avowfon viendra en debat, et le pie eft d'entieres difmes de I'Efgiiie :
et en touts cafes ou les dilmes qui atnontent a la quartiefme part ou plus viendront en djjbat
perenter les Parfons en Court Chreftien, et ou ils font eins de divers prefentments en droit
de divers Patrons, iftint que le droit de Patronage vient en debat, doiiq gift " Prohibition,"
et nul " Confultation " fera grante fur ceo ; car la ne gift " Spoliation," mes " Spoliation "
gift ou un incumbent egette I'autre hors de fa Efglife, et prend les profits et le droit
d'advowfon ne viendra en debat perentre eux. Si come un perfon eft cree en E\ek|ue, et ad
licence de le Pape a retenir fon benefice, fi or le Patron prefente un auter qui eft receu,



of Sir yohn Forte/cue.



the Mafter of the Rolls : and there the matter was well debated. Markham : It feems to
me that he iliall not have a " Conlultatiuii " ^c. [Mou,i- follows on the o'hcr fide, and
cites the Statute of Weltm. 2]. J?OitCfCUC fiid, that at the Common Law there was a
writ o\ " Right " " that he reftore the advowfon of the tithes of five acres of land," (or of one
acre of land, and the like) ; and for this was the ftatute made ; for a writ of " Right of Tithes"
ihall not be granted of lefs parcel than the fourth part ; and therefore the writ is, " that he
rertore the advowfon of the tithes of the fourth part ;" or of the third part, and fo on ; and 1
fuch writ was not at Common Law. — And this was not contradifted. Which note. [Danbv
and Yelverton follow.] Prisot: It has been adjudged a good plea in a " Ouare
impedit" againlT: a Prior, where he holds a church to his own ufe, x.o fay that it v.as full of
himlelf, a year and a day before the writ was purchafed, as Parfon imparfonee ; becauf; the
church lliall be underftood as full ; and if the church was legally appropriated, then it is
legally full ; wherefore it appears that the " Ouare impedit" lies againfl him. jFortCfiUC :
Matter in facfl proves that a " Ouare impedit " lies againfl; the Parfon imparfonee : for there
are two or three "Ouare impedits" pending before you on a certain day (and he named
them). And in my time I know that ten or twelve " Quare impedits " have been returned ;
and therefore the " Ouare impedit " lies well enough : but even if it does not lie, ftill reafon
proves that it is not full; for the plea of plenarty which lay at Common Law is determined
by the Statute of Wcftminfler 2 and the pleading now given by the flatute. For at the
Common Law it was good plea to fay that the church was full on the day of the purchafe
of the writ ; and now it is not a plea unlefs he fay that tlie church v/as full by lus own
prefentation fix months before the purchafe of the writ ; and i'o he muft fay that it is full
by his own prefentation ; for if the church be full on the prefentation by a flranger, this is
not fufficient to abate the writ, unlefs he fiy that it was of liis own prefentation li.\ months
before the purchafe of the writ; and here he cannot fay that the church is full by his own
prefentation in this cafe, becaufe it is not full by any prefentation, and therefore, as againll
flrangers, the church fliall be adjudged vacant always, as to this aftion. And although
this pleading that he wifhes to put forward was ufed in former times, flill it was not
right pleading ; but I know very well that for a long time paft it lias not been held good
pleading. (Note this.) And then he told him that he fliould not have a " Coniultation,'
becaufe now the right of the advowibn will come in debate, and the pleading is of the entire
tithes of the church : and in all cafes where the tithes which amount to the fourth part or
more fliall come into debate between the parfons in Court Chriftian, and where they are in
by divers prefentations in right of divers patrons, fo that the right of patronage comes iito
debate, then there lies a " Prohibition," and no " Confultation " lliall be granted thereon ;
for there, there lies no "Spoliation;" but "Spoliation " lies where on'i incumbent ejects the
other out of his church and takes the profits, and the right of the advowlbn fhall not come
into debate between them. As if a parlon is made bifliop, and has licence from the Pope



f. 21.



112 Reports of t lie 'Jiiclgmc7its, etc.

iiiftitute et indufle, I'autre Paiion auroit " Spoliation :" car en ceo cas le droit radvowfnn
nc viendraen debat, car ambideux incumbents clainient en le droit d'un Patron : nies Ic c|utl
I'Elgliie devient voide, oil neniy, viendra en debar en cell: eipecial chofe. Kt nicfnie le Lev, i
mon incumbent accept autres benefices : et purceojeo prefente un novel qui eft recu, inftitute
et induc5te, fi mon premier Parfon avoit licence pur avoir phn-alite, il aura " Spoliation,"
et le pluralite vicndra en debat la. Mefme la Ley eft de deprivation, on (i im vient a moy,
et furmet que mon Clerk eft mort, ou il eft en vie, et jeo liiy prefente, I'autre aura
"Spoliation:"' et illint " Spoliation " gift tout dits patenter les Parfons, ou ils out colour
par lour admiftion, et ou le droit d'advowfon ne viendra par ceo en debat. i^tod o'lnnes
concejfertiiit . I{t illint lour Opinion cler en ceo cas, que le " Conftiltation '' ne gift cauj,i
jupra. Et iftint fuit I'opinion de I'Maiftre des RoUes, et il dit cvc. &c. lit fuit dlt, que le
debat fur la propriacion fera trie en Court Chriftien.

JFOrtCfCUC dit en acTiion de " Trefpas," fi le defendant juftifie pur difn es come Parfon,
et done a le plaintif colour come Parfon d'un lifglife adjoinant, ceo eft- a la furifdiiiion de
ceft Court, pur ceo que il appert que le droit des difmes viendra en debat patenter Parfcn et
parlon ; mes ft le defendant juftifie wZ/w/ira, et done al autre [autre] colour que come pai fon,
il ad done Jurifdiftion a ceft Court, pur ceo que il n'appert or par ceo pleder que les dil nes
viendront en debat. Mes fi en fa replicacion il luy entitle come parfon a les bleds, pur ceo que
il et fes predeceftors parions ont eu tiele porcion des dimes hors de la paroift"e le delendant
come appropries a fa Eglife, or per ceft pie, {\ ceo foit confefte de le defendant, le Court fera
ouftre de Jurifdidlion ; iftint tantoft come il appert c]ue le droit des difmes viendra en debat
le Court ceftera : en mefme le mannere le Chrellien Court tantoft come le droit d'avowfon
viendra en debat, coment ceo ne appert adeprimes. Slitud nota ; fuit coiicejfiini.
f. 27 h. Trefpas en Bank le roy de puer fon herbes et de fon clos debrufe, et Contrniundo

tranjgrejfwiiem predictam, per viij annos. Le detendant dit que le lieu ou &:c. fuit fon
franktenement a le temps de la tranfgreftion fuppofe, et il entra, et fift le traiifgrelfion' A
quel le plaintit dit, que long temps devant que le defendant rien en avoit, un f. fuit feifi en
fon demefne come de fee, et iftint feifi leffa mefmes les terres a im A. pur terme de fi vie,
par force de quel il fuit feifi en fon demefne come de franktenement, et illint feifi . lelTa
mefmes les tenements a un LL !''. pur terme de vie le dit A. par force de quel il fuit feifi
&c. et illint feifi devant le tranfgrelfion lefta mefmes les terres a le plaintif a tenu" ;i fon
volonte, par force de quel il fuit poffefte tanque le defendant entra fiir luy le jour et an
avandit, et luy oufta, et difleifit le dit LL F. et fift le trefpas, et puis tiel jour di vant le brief
purchafe il reentra en claimant fon eftat : ove ceo que il veut averer que A. que fuit le primer



of Sir yohn Fortefcue. 1 1 3

to retain his benefice, if now the patron prefent another, and he is received and inftituted
and indut?led, the other parfon would have a "SpoHation." l<or in this cafe tlie ri^dit of
advowfon will not come into ilehate, for both incumbents claim in right of one patron ; bnt
whether the church becomes vacant or not, Ihall come into debate in this fpecial matter. And
the fame law liolds it my incumbent accept other benefices, and I thereon prefent a new
one, who is received and inflituted and inducted ; if my firft: parfon had licence to hold
pluralities, he lliall iiave a " Spoliation," and the plurality ("hall come into debate there. 1,'he
lame law holds of deprivation; or if one comes to me, and fays that my clerk is dead, when
he is alive, and I prelent him, the other iliall have " Spohation ;" and fo " Spoliation " lies
always between parfons, where they have colour by their admilhon ; and where the right of
advowfon fhall not come thereby into debate. — And this all agreed to. And lo their
opinion was in this cale that the " Confultation " does not lie for the reaion abo\e given.
And this was the opinion of the Mafter of the Rolls ; and he faid &c. (S>[c. And ic was
faid, that the debate on the appropriation ihall be tried in Court Chriftian.

In an a.'-lion of " Trefpafs," JfOttCfCUC f^id, if the defendant juftifies for tithes, as
parfon, and gives colour to tlie plaintiff as parfon of an adjoining church, this is plea to the
jurifdiftion of this Court ; becauie it appears that the right to the tithes will come into debate
between parfon and parion : but if the defendant juftifies, as above, and gives to the other
colour otherwile than as parion, he has given jurifditHion to this Court, becauie it does not then
appear by this pleading that the tithes v/ill come into debate. But if in his replication he
entitles himfelf, as parion, to the corn, becaufe he and liis predecefiors, parfons, have had fiich
portion of the tithes out of the parifh of the defendant, as being appropriated to his cliurch,
now by this plea, if it be confclTed by the defendant, the Court fhall be oulled of juriididtion ;
fo, as foon as it appears that the right to the tithes fhall come into debate, the Court iliali
ceafe ; and in like manner the Court Chriftian, as foon as the right of advowfon comes into
debate, although it did not appear at firl!:. {Sli(od not a ; and which was agreed to.)

Trefpafs in the Kings Bench, for treading down his grafs and breaking his dole, and
continuing the fame trefpafs for eight years. The defendant faid that the place where &c. was
his franktenement at the time of the fuppofed trefpafs, and [when] he entered and committed
the trefpafs. To which the plaintiff laid that long before the defendant had anything
therein, one J. was feifed in his demefne as of fee, and being thus feifed, leaied the lame
lands to one A. for term of his life, by force of which he was feifed in his demelne vs of
freehold, and being fo feifed, did leafe the fame tenements to one H. V . for the term ol the
life of the faid A., by force of which he was feifed cn;c. ; and being fo feifed, before the
trefpafs, did leafe the fame lands to the plaintiff to hold at his will, by force of which he was
pofTefled, until the defendant entered on him the day and year aforelaid, and oulted him,
and dilTeifed the faid H. F. and committed the trefpafs ; and then on fuch a day, before the
purchafe of the writ, lie re-entered, claiming his eftate ; with this, that he will aver that A.
II. 'I



114 Reports of the yiidgme7its^ etc.

leHcc eft uncore en pleine ire ; lequel mattere &c. Et le defendant maintint fon barre, et
traveda le difieifin come fuit dit (mes jeo ne fiis la) : fur que ilz finvnt a ilTue &c. ; et puis
trove tuit pur le phiintit per un Nifi prius in Pais, et retoin-ne or .n Bank. Mcftnc le
Terme Choke vient en Banke le roy et reherce tout le mattere. et dit &c. &c.
Ad alium diem Littleton pur le plaintif pria fon Jugcment. Choke : A le Jugement ne
devcs aller pur les caufes avant dits ; car quant a le primer point quand il hiit oufte et fon
lefTor diileifill:, donque tuit le volonte fon lelTe determine, et quand il fifit un fois determine,
il ne poit eftre revive fans I'entry le leffor ; et uncore s'il entre il fera dit novel Iclle a la
fouftrance de le lefTor apres fon reentre, et I'entre le leffee ne reconcilera franktement en le
lelTor, car par le din'eifin le leffe eft determine : car il puit aver " [De] ejeftione firma;" vers le
leflbr, et recovera fon terme ; mes iftint ne puit le leHee a vol.onte ; donque quand il reentra, il
entra fans title. Purque. Et Sir, quant a le ij point il n'ad allege la vie H. 1'., en quel cas
il fera pris plus fort encontre luy que il eft mort, et donque ne puit il te lir a volonte
IT. E. quand i! eft mort ; en quel cas quand H. F. aura I'eftat, il covient avoir ailege hi vie
H. Iibien come la vie A., car ambideux font fon title; et s'il foit mort, fon title eft deterniiii'-.

Littleton: Me femble le contrary Bingham: Quant a le primer poin-,

me femble que ceo entrie t\iit loyal . . . jyOl'tCfCUC : S'il foit eins en le prinu r

poft'eilion apres le mort H. E., fenftile que durant la vie A. il punira touts trefpaftes, cone
Bingham ad bien dit : mes femble a moy que le plaintif aura fon Jugement pur recoveru-, c t
le plus fort que eft dit que il n'aura fon Jugement, eft, pur ceo que per fon entre .e
Eranktenement n'eft recontinue en fon lefTor. Sir, ceo eft le jilus tort pur luy a pro\'er fon
aftion bon : car s'il foit oufte, et il ne recontinue Ion eftat, paradventure il eft rcafon adouqi,e
que il maintene fon action fans afcun entre. Car le caufe que le difteifee n'aura brief ce
" Trefpas " durant le difteifm, eft, pur ceo que il poit recontinuer le I'Vanktenement : luy
pur allien ou entre, et donque n'eft reafon a charger le dilfeifor pur la feifin tanque il ad
recontinue le principal, fcavoir, le franketenement : mes icy vous dites que per fon entrie ill ne
poit recontinuer le franktenement a le leftbr, donque il eft reafon que il maintene fon aiftion
f;u>s entrie ; donque ceo prove I'entrie come void, et ficome il n'uft rien parle de fon enirie
lionque eft le matter tiel que le plaintif fuit pofleffe per force de le dit leas a volonte tannue
le defendant luy oufta, et difleifift fon leftbr; en quel cas il eft reafon que il recovera jnir
fon egettement envers le difieifor fins afcune entre : car ft on foit difteifi, il recovera
damages pur le trefpas fait fur le dilTeifee fans afcune reentrie. Purque. W. Jenney dit:
Coment que il recovera fes damages pur le primer entrie, uncore il ne recovera d:inages pur
le trefpas fait apres le continuance fins reentre, et le brief eft conttnnandu tra'ijgrcjjionem
pr.rdittam per o^o cuiiios. jTOCtCfCUC J Si le tenant a volonte emble fa terre, t puis foit



of Sir yofin Fortcjcue. - 115

who was the firfl: leflce, is ftill living ; which tiiattcr &c. And the defeiuhmt nKiiiit.iineil
his bar, aiul travciTed the diireifin ; (:is was iaid, but I was not there ;) wliereupon they were
at i/liie i?.;c. ; and then it was. found for the plaintiff by a Nifi I'rius in Pais; and now it was
returned into the Bench. In the fame Term, Choki; came into the Kiiig's Bench and

rehearfed all the matter, and faid &c. &c On another day Littleton for

the plaintiff prayed his judgment. Choke: To judgment you ought not to go, for the
reafons above faid ; for as to the firft point, when he was oufted and his leffor dilTeifed, then
tlie will of his leafe was determined, and when it was once determined, it could not be
revived without the entry of the leffor; and ftill if he enter, it Ihall be called a new leafe at
the fufferance ot the leffor, after his re-entry ; and the entry of the leffce fliall not replace
the freehold in the leffor ; for by the diffeifin the leaie is determined : for he can
have " De ejedlione firma:; " againft the leffor, and recover his term ; but the lelft ; at will
cannot do fo ; thus when he re-entered he entered without title. Wherefore ir;.c. And
Sir, as to the fecond point, he has not alleged the life of H. F. ; in which cafe it iliall be (. ■
taken ilrongcfl: againlt him that he is dead , and then, he cannot hold at the will of II. F. ,
when he is dead ; in which cafe, when FT. F. is to have the eiT:ate, he ought to have alleged
the lite of H. as well as that ot A. ; tor both make his title ; and if he be dead, his title is

determined. Littleton : I think the contrary Bingham : As to the tirft

point, it feems to me that this entry was legal jTOttCfCllC : If he be in as ot

the tirft poffelTion after the death of IF F., it feems that duiing the lite of A. he fhall
punifli all trefpaffes, as Bingham has well laid; but it feems to me tliat the plaintiff ffiall
have his judgment to recover; and the ftrongeft argument againft his having liis judgment
is, becaule by his entry the freehold is not recontinued in his lelTor. Sir, this is the ftroni^eft
point for him whereon to prove his aftion good ; for if he be oufted, and he does not recontinue
his ertate, perhaps it is riglit then that lie maintain his adion without any entry. F^or the ,
caufe that the diffeifee fhall not have writ of Treipafs during the ditFeifin is, becaule he can
recontinue the freehold to himfelf by aftion or entry ; and thus there is no reafon to charge |
the diiTeifor for tlie feifm until he has recontinuetl the principal, that is, the freehold;
but here you iay that by his entry he cannot recontinue the freehold to the leffor ; thus it is j
right that he maintain his aftion without entry ; then this proves the entry as void, and as
if he had not fpoken of his entry: then the matter is in this pofition, that the plaintiff was
poffeffed by force of the fxid leafe at will until the defendant oufted him, and dilFeiled his '
leffor ; in v/hich cafe it is right that he fhall recover, for his ejectment, againft the di Teifor 1
without any entry : for if one be diffeifed, he fhall recover damages for the trefpafs male on
the difteilee without any re-entry. Wherefore tvc. W. Jennev faid: Althou' h he
recover his damages for the former entry, ftill he fliall not recover damages for the treipals
committed after the continuance, without re-entry ; and the writ is, " continuing the lame
trefpafs for eight years." JrOltCfCllC ,' \i the tenant at will low liis land, and then be i



I 1 6 Reports of the 'Jiidgjnoits^ etc.

oufte, il aura aftion de Trcfpas de renprife dc Ton emblement, coment que il ioit empris \\\\
an apres le ouftre de luy. Jennev : Celt voier de remhlenient, pur ceo que il fuit de fon
nianuel labour: nies idlnt n'aura il des herbes ne d'auters chofes que crefienc par eux mefmes
f. 28 li. fans inanuel labour de home ; et enfement Ics herbes qui crellcnt ij ans ou trois apres la



Online LibraryJohn FortescueThe works of Sir John Fortescue, Knight, Chief Justice of England and Lord Chancellor to King Henry the Sixth (Volume 1) → online text (page 86 of 87)