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[Frontispiece: THE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING, PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA]




CANADA

By SIR J. G. BOURINOT

K.C.M.G., LL.D., LIT.D.


SOMETIME CLERK OF THE CANADIAN HOUSE OF COMMONS;
HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA;
DOCTEUR-ÈS-LETTRES OF LAVAL UNIVERSITY;
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY



NEW AND REVISED EDITION, WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTER

BY WILLIAM H. INGRAM, B.A.



T. FISHER UNWIN LTD

LONDON: ADELPHI TERRACE




[Transcriber's note: Page numbers in this book are indicated by numbers
enclosed in curly braces, e.g. {99}. They have been located where page
breaks occurred in the original book, in accordance with Project
Gutenberg's FAQ-V-99. For its Index, a page number has been placed
only at the start of that section. In the HTML version of this book,
page numbers are placed in the left margin.]




First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1897
Second Impression . . . . . . . . . . . 1901
Second Edition (Third Impression) . . . 1908
Third Edition (Fourth Impression) . . . 1922


Copyright by T. Fisher Unwin, 1897
(for Great Britain)

Copyright by G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1897
(For the United States of America).




I DEDICATE THIS STORY OF CANADA

BY PERMISSION

TO

HER EXCELLENCY THE COUNTESS OF ABERDEEN


WHO HAS WON THE ESTEEM AND AFFECTION OF ALL CLASSES
OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLE BY THE EARNESTNESS WITH
WHICH SHE HAS IDENTIFIED HERSELF WITH
EVERY MOVEMENT AFFECTING THE SOCIAL
AND INTELLECTUAL PROGRESS OF
THE NEW DOMINION




{v}

PREFATORY NOTE

In writing this story of Canada I have not been able to do more, within
the limited space at my command, than briefly review those events which
have exercised the most influence on the national development of the
Dominion of Canada from the memorable days bold French adventurers made
their first attempts at settlement on the banks of the beautiful basin
of the Annapolis, and on the picturesque heights of Quebec, down to the
establishment of a Confederation which extends from the Atlantic to the
Pacific Ocean. Whilst the narrative of the French régime, with its
many dramatic episodes, necessarily occupies a large part of this
story, I have not allowed myself to forget the importance that must be
attached to the development of institutions of government and their
effect on the social, intellectual, and material conditions of the
people since the beginning of the English régime. Though this story,
strictly speaking, ends with the successful accomplishment of the
federal union of all the provinces in 1873, when Prince Edward Island
became one of its members, I have deemed it necessary to refer briefly
to those events which have {vi} happened since that time - the second
half-breed rebellion of 1885, for instance - and have had much effect on
the national spirit of the people. I endeavour to interest my reader
in the public acts of those eminent men whose names stand out most
prominently on the pages of history, and have made the deepest impress
on the fortunes and institutions of the Dominion. In the performance
of this task I have always consulted original authorities, but have not
attempted to go into any historical details except those which are
absolutely necessary to the intelligent understanding of the great
events and men of Canadian annals. I have not entered into the
intrigues and conflicts which have been so bitter and frequent during
the operation of parliamentary government in a country where
politicians are so numerous, and statesmanship is so often hampered and
government injuriously affected by the selfish interests of party, but
have simply given the conspicuous and dominant results of political
action since the concession of representative institutions to the
provinces of British North America. A chapter is devoted, at the close
of the historical narrative, to a very brief review of the intellectual
and material development of the country, and of the nature of its
institutions of government. A survey is also given of the customs and
conditions of the French Canadian people, so that the reader outside of
the Dominion may have some conception of their institutions and of
their influence on the political, social, and intellectual life of a
Dominion, of whose population they form so important and influential an
element. {vii} The illustrations are numerous, and have been carefully
selected from various sources, not accessible to the majority of
students, with the object, not simply of pleasing the general reader,
but rather of elucidating the historical narrative. A bibliographical
note has also been added of those authorities which the author has
consulted in writing this story, and to which the reader, who wishes to
pursue the subject further, may most advantageously refer.

HOUSE OF COMMONS, OTTAWA,
_Dominion Day, 1896_.




PUBLISHER'S NOTE.

Owing to the passing of Sir John Bourinot, the revisions necessary to
bring this work up to date had to be entrusted to another hand.
Accordingly, Mr. William H. Ingram has kindly undertaken the task, and
has contributed the very judiciously selected information now embodied
in Chapter XXX. on the recent development of Canada. Chapter XXVIII.
by Mr. Edward Porritt, author of _Sixty Years of Protection in Canada_,
has also been included, as being indicative of the history of the time
he describes. Mr. Ingram has also made other revisions of considerable
value.

1, ADELPHI TERRACE.
_March, 1922_.




{ix}

CONTENTS

PAGE

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix


I.

INTRODUCTION - THE CANADIAN DOMINION FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN 1


II.

THE DAWN OF DISCOVERY IN CANADA (1497-1525) . . . . . . . 19


III.

A BRETON SAILOR DISCOVERS CANADA AND ITS GREAT RIVER
(1534-1536) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


IV.

FROM CARTIER TO DE MONTS (1540-1603) . . . . . . . . . . . 44


V.

THE FRENCH OCCUPATION OF ACADIA AND THE FOUNDATION
OF PORT ROYAL (1604-1614) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


VI.

SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN IN THE VALLEY OF THE ST. LAWRENCE
(1608-1635) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67


VII.

GENTLEMEN-ADVENTURERS IN ACADIA (1614-1677) . . . . . . . 92


{x}

VIII.

THE CANADIAN INDIANS AND THE IROQUOIS: THEIR
ORGANISATION, CHARACTER, AND CUSTOMS . . . . . . . . . . 110


IX.

CONVENTS AND HOSPITALS - VILLE-MARIE - MARTYRED
MISSIONARIES - VICTORIOUS IROQUOIS - HAPLESS HURONS
(1635-1652) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


X.

YEARS OF GLOOM - THE KING COMES TO THE RESCUE OF
CANADA - THE IROQUOIS HUMBLED (1652-1667) . . . . . . . . 146


XI.

CANADA AS A ROYAL PROVINCE - CHURCH AND STATE (1663-1759) 156


XII.

THE PERIOD OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY - PRIESTS,
FUR-TRADERS, AND _Coureurs de Bois_ IN THE WEST
(1634-1687) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


XIII.

THE PERIOD OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY - FRANCE IN
THE VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI (1672-1687) . . . . . . . 177


XIV.

CANADA AND ACADIA - FROM FRONTENAC TO THE TREATY
OF UTRECHT (1672-1713) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192


XV.

ACADIA AND ÎLE ROYALE - FROM THE TREATY OF UTRECHT TO
THE TREATY OF AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (1713-1748) . . . . . . . 210


XVI.

THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE GREAT VALLEYS OF
NORTH AMERICA - PRELUDE (1748-1756) . . . . . . . . . . . 221


{xi}

XVII.

THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE GREAT VALLEYS OF NORTH
AMERICA - ENGLISH REVERSES AND FRENCH VICTORIES - FALL
OF LOUISBOURG AND FORT DUQUESNE (1756-1758) . . . . . . 237


XVIII.

THE STRUGGLE FOR DOMINION IN THE VALLEY OF THE
ST. LAWRENCE - CANADA IS WON BY WOLFE ON THE PLAINS
OF ABRAHAM (1759-1763) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247


XIX.

A PERIOD OF TRANSITION - PONTIAC'S WAR - THE QUEBEC
ACT (1760-1774) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267


XX.

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION - INVASION OF CANADA - DEATH
OF MONTGOMERY - PEACE (1774-1783) . . . . . . . . . . . . 280


XXI.

COMING OF THE LOYALISTS (1783-1791) . . . . . . . . . . . 291


XXII.

FOUNDATION OF NEW PROVINCES - ESTABLISHMENT OF
REPRESENTATIVE INSTITUTIONS (1792-1812) . . . . . . . . 302


XXIII.

THE WAR OF 1812-1815 - PATRIOTISM OF THE CANADIANS . . . . 316


XXIV.

POLITICAL STRIFE AND REBELLION (1815-1840) . . . . . . . . 338


XXV.

RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT AND ITS RESULTS - FEDERAL
UNION - RELATIONS BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED
STATES (1839-1867) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361


{xii}

XXVI.

END OF THE RULE OF FUR TRADERS - ACQUISITION OF THE
NORTHWEST - FORMATION OF MANITOBA - RIEL'S
REBELLIONS - THE INDIANS (1670-1885) . . . . . . . . . . 380


XXVII.

BRITISH COLUMBIA AND PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND ENTER THE
UNION - NATIONAL EVENTS SINCE 1867 - MAKERS OF THE
DOMINION (1867-1891) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404


XXVIII.

CANADA AS A NATION - MATERIAL AND INTELLECTUAL
DEVELOPMENT - POLITICAL RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414


XXIX.

FRENCH CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434


XXX.

RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457


INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484




{xiii}

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

[Transcriber's note: The page numbers below are those in the original
book. However, in this e-book, to avoid the splitting of paragraphs,
the illustrations may have been moved to preceding or following pages.]

PAGE

THE HON. W. L. MACKENZIE KING . . . . . . . . _Frontispiece_
_Courtesy "Canada."_

VIEW OF CAPE TRINITY ON THE LAURENTIAN RANGE . . . . . . . 9
_From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa._

ROCKY MOUNTAINS AT DONALD, BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . . . 13
_From Sir W. Van Horne's Collection of
B. C. photographs._

UPPER END OF FRASER CAÑON, BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . . . 15
_Ibid._

SKETCH OF JUAN DE LA COSA'S MAP, A.D. 1500 . . . . . . . . 25
_From Dr. S. E. Dawson's "Cabot Voyages," in
Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 1894._

* To explain these dates it is necessary to note that Champlain lived
for years in one of the buildings of the Fort of Saint Louis which he
first erected, and the name château is often applied to that structure;
but the château, properly so-called, was not commenced until 1647, and
it as well as its successors was within the limits of the fort. It was
demolished in 1694 by Governor Frontenac, who rebuilt it on the
original foundations, and it was this castle which, in a remodelled and
enlarged form, under the English régime, lasted until 1834.


{xiv}

PORTRAIT OF JACQUES CARTIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
_From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français"
(Montreal, 1882-'84)._

ANCIENT HOCHELAGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
_From Ramusio's "Navigationi e Viaggi" (Venice, 1565)._

THE "DAUPHIN MAP" OF CANADA, _circa_ 1543,
SHOWING CARTIER'S DISCOVERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
_From collection of maps in Parliamentary Library at
Ottawa._

PLAN OF PORT ROYAL IN ACADIA IN 1605 . . . . . . . . . . . 57
_From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613._

CHAMPLAIN'S PORTRAIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
_From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français."_

HABITATION DE QUEBEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
_From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613._

CHAMPLAIN'S LOST ASTROLABE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
_From sketch by A. J. Russell, of Ottawa, 1879._

ONONDAGA FORT IN THE IROQUOIS COUNTRY . . . . . . . . . . 83
_From Champlain's works, rare Paris ed. of 1613._

INDIAN COSTUMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
_From Lafitau's "Moeurs des Sauvages" (Paris, 1724)._

IROQUOIS LONG HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
_From Morgan's "Houses and Home Life of the
Aborigines" (Washington, 1881)._

PORTRAIT OF MARIE GUYARD (MÈRE MARIE DE L'INCARNATION) . . 131
_From S. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français."_

PORTRAIT OF MAISONNEUVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
_Ibid._

PORTRAIT OF LAVAL, FIRST CANADIAN BISHOP . . . . . . . . . 159
_Ibid._

{xv}

CARD ISSUE (PAPER MONEY) OF 1729, FOR 12 LIVRES . . . . . 162
_From Breton's "Illustrated History of Coins and
Tokens Relating to Canada" (Montreal, 1892)._

CANADIAN FIFTEEN SOL PIECE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
_Ibid._

CANADIAN TRAPPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
_From La Pothérie's "Histoire de l'Amérique
Septentrionale" (Paris, 1753)._

PORTRAIT AND AUTOGRAPH OF CAVELIER DE LA SALLE . . . . . . 185
_B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Francais."_

FRONTENAC, FROM HÉBERT'S STATUE AT QUEBEC . . . . . . . . 193
_From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs._

CAPTURE OF FORT NELSON IN HUDSON BAY, BY THE FRENCH . . . 205
_From La Pothérie's "Histoire de l'Amérique
Septentrionale."_

PORTRAIT OF CHEVALIER D'IBERVILLE . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
_From a portrait in Margry's "Découvertes et
établissements des François dans le Sud de l'Amérique
Septentrionale" (Paris, 1876-'83)._

VIEW OF LOUISBOURG IN 1731 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
_From a sketch in the Paris Archives._

MAP OF FRENCH FORTS IN AMERICA, 1750-60 . . . . . . . . . 221
_From Bourinot's "Cape Breton and its Memorials of
the French Régime" (Montreal, 1891)._

PORTRAIT OF MONTCALM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
_From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-Français."_

LOUISBOURG MEDALS OF 1758 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
_From Bourinot's "Cape Breton," etc._

{xvi}

PORTRAIT OF WOLFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
_From print in "A Complete History of the Late War,"
etc. (London and Dublin, 1774), by Wright._

PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT SIEGE OF QUEBEC . . . . . . . . . . 251
_Made from a more extended plan in "The Universal
Magazine" (London, Dec., 1859)._

MONTCALM AND WOLFE MONUMENT AT QUEBEC . . . . . . . . . . 261
_From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs._

VIEW OF QUEBEC IN 1760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
_From "The Universal Magazine" (London, 1760)._

VIEW OF MONTREAL IN 1760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
_Ibid._

PORTRAIT AND AUTOGRAPH OF JOSEPH BRANT (THAYENDANEGEA) . . 299
_From Stone's "Life of Joseph Brant," original ed.
(New York, 1838)._

PRESCOTT GATE AND BISHOP'S PALACE IN 1800 . . . . . . . . 307
_From a sketch by A. J. Russell in Hawkins's
"Pictures of Quebec."_

PORTRAIT OF LIEUT.-GENERAL SIMCOE . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
_From Dr. Scadding's "Toronto of Old" (Toronto, 1873)._

PORTRAIT OF MAJ.-GENERAL BROCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
_From a picture in possession of J. A. Macdonell, Esq.,
of Alexandria, Ontario._

PORTRAIT OF COLONEL DE SALABERRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
_From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British
Americans" (W. Notman, Montreal, 1865-'67)._

MONUMENT AT LUNDY'S LANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
_From a photograph through courtesy of Rev. Canon
Bull, Niagara South, Ont._

{xvii}

PORTRAIT OF LOUIS J. PAPINEAU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
_From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British
Americans."_

PORTRAIT OF BISHOP STRACHAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
_Ibid._

PORTRAIT OF W. LYON MACKENZIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
_From C. Lindsey's "Life and Times of W. L. Mackenzie"
(Toronto, 1863)._

PORTRAIT OF JUDGE HALIBURTON, AUTHOR OF "THE CLOCK-MAKER" 359
_From a portrait given to author by Mr. F. Blake
Crofton of Legislative Library, Halifax, N. S._

PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH HOWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
_From Fennings Taylor's "Portraits of British
Americans."_

PORTRAIT OF ROBERT BALDWIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
_Ibid._

PORTRAIT OF L. H. LAFONTAINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
_Ibid._

PORTRAIT OF L. A. WILMOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
_From Lathern's "Biographical Sketch of Judge Wilmot"
(Toronto, 1881)._

FORT GARRY AND A RED RIVER STEAMER IN 1870 . . . . . . . . 389
_From A. J. Russell's "Red River Country" (Montreal,
1870)._

PORTRAIT OF LIEUT.-COLONEL WILLIAMS . . . . . . . . . . . 399
_From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa._

INDIAN CARVED POSTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . . . . . 401
_From photograph by Dr. Dawson, C.M.G., Director of
Geological Survey of Canada._

PORTRAIT OF SIR JOHN MACDONALD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
_From L. J. Taché's "Canadian Portrait Gallery"
(Montreal, 1890-'93)._

{xviii}

PORTRAIT OF HON. GEORGE BROWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
_From photograph._

PORTRAIT OF SIR GEORGE E. CARTIER . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
_From B. Sulte's "Histoire des Canadiens-français."_

SIR WILFRID LAURIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
_From a photograph by Ernest H. Mills._

OLD PARLIAMENT BUILDING AT OTTAWA . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
_From a photograph by Topley, Ottawa._

QUEBEC IN 1896 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
_From Dr. Stewart's collection of Quebec photographs._

STREET SCENE IN A FRENCH CANADIAN VILLAGE NEAR QUEBEC . . 437
_Ibid._

OLD CHURCH AT BONNE STE. ANNE, WHERE MIRACLES WERE . . . . 441
PERFORMED
_Ibid._

A CANADIAN CALECHE OF OLD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
_From Weld's "Travels in North America" (London, 1799)._

PORTRAIT OF LOUIS FRECHETTE, THE FRENCH CANADIAN POET . . 449
_From L. J. Taché's "Canadian Portrait Gallery."_

A CHARACTERISTIC SNAPSHOT OF SIR ROBERT BORDEN . . . . . . 456
_Courtesy "Central News."_

SILVER MINES AT COBALT, ONTARIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
_Courtesy C.P.R._

NEW PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, OTTAWA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
_Courtesy C.P.R._

MAP OF CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . at end
[Transcriber's note: missing from book.]




{xix}

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

Jacques Cartier's _Voyages_, in English, by Joseph Pope (Ottawa, 1889),
and H. B. Stephens (Montreal, 1891); in French, by N. E. Dionne
(Quebec, 1891); Toilon de Longrais (Rennes, France), H. Michelant and
E. Ramé (Paris, 1867). L'Escarbot's _New France_, in French, Tross's
ed. (Paris, 1866), which contains an account also of Cartier's first
voyage. Sagard's _History of Canada_, in French, Tross's ed. (Paris,
1866). Champlain's works, in French, Laverdiere's ed. (Quebec, 1870);
Prince Society's English ed. (Boston, 1878-80). Lafitau's _Customs of
the Savages_, in French (Paris, 1724). Charlevoix's _History of New
France_, in French (Paris, 1744); Shea's English version (New York,
1866). _Jesuit Relations_, in French (Quebec ed., 1858). Ferland's
_Course of Canadian History_, in French (Quebec, 1861-1865). Garneau's
_History of Canada_, in French (Montreal, 1882). Sulte's _French
Canadians_, in French (Montreal, 1882-84). F. Parkman's series of
histories of French Régime, viz.; _Pioneers of France in the New World;
The Jesuits in North America; The old Régime; Frontenac; The Discovery
of the Great West; A Half Century of Conflict; Montcalm and Wolfe;
Conspiracy of Pontiac_ (Boston, 1865-1884). Justin Winsor's _From
Cartier to Frontenac_ (Boston, 1894). Hannay's _Acadia_ (St. John, N.
B., 1870). W. Kingsford's _History of Canada_, 8 vols. so far (Toronto
and London, 1887-1896), the eighth volume on the war of 1812 being
especially valuable. Bourinot's "Cape Breton and its Memorials of the
French Régime," _Trans. Roy. Soc. Can._, vol. ix, and separate ed.
(Montreal, 1891). Casgrain's _Montcalm and Lévis_, in French (Quebec,
1891). Haliburton's _Nova Scotia_ (Halifax, 1829). Murdoch's _Nova
Scotia_ (Halifax, 1865-67). Campbell's _Nova Scotia_ (Halifax, 1873).
Campbell's _Prince Edward Island_ (Charlottetown, 1875). Lord Durham's
_Report_, 1839. Christie's _History of Lower Canada_ (Quebec,
1848-1855). Dent's _Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion_ (Toronto,
1855). Lindsey's _W. Lyon Mackenzie_ (Toronto, 1873). Dent's _Canada
Since the Union of 1841_ (Toronto, 1880-81). Turcotte's _Canada under
the Union_, in French (Quebec, 1871). Bourinot's _Manual of
Constitutional History_ (Montreal, 1888), "Federal Government in
Canada" (_Johns Hopkins University Studies_, {xx} Baltimore, 1889), and
_How Canada is Governed_ (Toronto, 1895). Withrow's _Popular History
of Canada_ (Toronto, 1888). MacMullen's _History of Canada_
(Brockville, 1892). Begg's _History of the Northwest_ (Toronto, 1804).
Canniff's _History of Ontario_ (Toronto, 1872). Egerton Ryerson's
_Loyalists of America_ (Toronto, 1880). Mrs. Edgar's _Ten Years of
Upper Canada in Peace and War_ (Toronto, 1890). Porritt's _Sixty Years
of Protection in Canada_ (London, 1907). H. E. Egerton and W. L.
Grant's _Canadian Constitutional Development_ (London, 1907). G. R.
Parkin's _Sir John A. Macdonald_ (London, 1909). B. Home's _Canada_
(London, 1911). W. Maxwell's _Canada of To-Day_ (London, 1911). C. L.
Thomson's _Short History of Canada_ (London, 1911). W. L. Griffith's
_The Dominion of Canada_ (London, 1911). A. G. Bradley's _Canada_
(London, 1912). Arthur G. Doughty's _History of Canada_ (_Year Book_)
(Ottawa, 1913). J. A. T. Lloyd's _The Real Canadian_ (London, 1913).
E. L. Marsh's _The Story of Canada_ (London, 1913). J. Munro's _Canada
1535 to Present Day_ (London, 1913). A. Shortland and A. G. Doughty's
_Canada and its Provinces_ (Toronto, 1913). W. L. Grant's _High School
History of Canada_ (Toronto, 1914). G. Bryce's _Short History of the
Canadian People_ (London, 1914). D. W. Oates's _Canada To-day and
Yesterday_ (London, 1914). F. Fairfield's _Canada_ (London, 1914).
Sir C. Tupper's _Political Reminiscences_ (London, 1914). Morang's
_Makers of Canada_ (Toronto, 1917). Sir Thomas White's _The Story of
Canada's War Finance_ (Montreal, 1921). Prof. Skelton's _Life of Sir
Wilfrid Laurier_ (Toronto, 1922). And _Review of Historical
Publications Relating to Canada_ by the University of Toronto.

For a full bibliography of archives, maps, essays, and books relating
to the periods covered by the Story of Canada, and used by the writer,
see appendix to his "Cape Breton and its Memorials," in which all
authorities bearing on the Norse, Cabot, and other early voyages are
cited. Also, appendix to same author's "Parliamentary Government in
Canada" (_Trans. Roy. Soc. Can._, vol. xi., and American Hist. Ass.
Report, Washington, 1891). Also his "Canada's Intellectual Strength
and Weakness" (_Trans. Roy. Soc. Can._, vol. xi, and separate volume,
Montreal, 1891). Also, Winsor's _Narrative_ and _Critical History of
America_ (Boston, 1886-89).




{1}

THE STORY OF CANADA.


I.

INTRODUCTION.

THE CANADIAN DOMINION FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN.

The view from the spacious terrace on the verge of the cliffs of
Quebec, the ancient capital of Canada, cannot fail to impress the
imagination of the statesman or student versed in the history of the
American continent, as well as delight the eye of the lover of the
picturesque. Below the heights, to whose rocks and buildings cling so
many memories of the past, flows the St. Lawrence, the great river of
Canada, bearing to the Atlantic the waters of the numerous lakes and
streams of the valley which was first discovered and explored by
France, and in which her statesmen saw the elements of empire. We see
the tinned roofs, spires and crosses of quaint churches, hospitals and
convents, narrow streets winding among the rocks, black-robed priests
and {2} sombre nuns, _habitans_ in homespun from the neighbouring
villages, modest gambrel-roofed houses of the past crowded almost out
of sight by obtrusive lofty structures of the present, the massive
buildings of the famous seminary and university which bear the name of
Laval, the first great bishop of that Church which has always dominated
French Canada. Not far from the edge of the terrace stands a monument
on which are inscribed the names of Montcalm and Wolfe, enemies in life
but united in death and fame. Directly below is the market which



Online LibraryJohn George BourinotCanada under British Rule 1760-1900 → online text (page 1 of 29)