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History of York County Pennsylvania From the Earliest Time to the Present online

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unsurpassed. Water is also utilized as a
motor. The process of making printing-
paper at this mill is completed from the raw
material in ten days. About forty tons of
coal are consumed daily. There are now 110
employes. The mill is run day and night
and is lighted by electricity. One of the
smoke stacks is 100 feet high, one 90 feet
and another 70 feet. During the past few
years, over $500,000 worth of business was
transacted annually, and the demand for
paper frequently exceeded the amount manu-
factured. The disbursements yearly to em-
ployes is over $50,000. The valuable print-
ing paper made here is sold in nearly every
section of the United States. Mr. Glatfelter



HISTOEY OF YORK COUNTY.



owns and runs a number of liis own cars
which are specially constructed for his pui -
pose. The location is most admirable, being
on the railroad and convenient to pure
water, which is essential to the production of
paper. A siding runs from the railroad to
the establishment, and connects with the
Frederick Division of the Pennsylvania Rail-
road.

Mr. P. H. Glatfelter, the enterprising
proprietor of this extensive manufacturing
industry, is a native of York County. He
was born in 1837 on a farm in Spring Garden
Township, where his father still resides.
The first twenty years of his life he spent on
the farm, and received his education in the
common schools of his native township. He
spent seven years as an employe of Loueks
& Hoffman, who owned a manufactory on the
(Junpowder River at Paper Mills, Md. At
the age of twenty-seven he purchased the
Spring Forge Mills which, until the time he
became the owner, had made paper only in
small quantities. He began paper-making
here for himself, with a small amount of
capital, but by abundant native energy,
natural adaptability to the business, and
judicious care in management, continually
increased his trade until he gained a reputa-
tion equal to any manufacturer in the
same business. Mr. Glatfelter was one of
the first persons to engage in the manufacture
of paper from straw and wood pulp. His
mill is the largest establishment devoted ex-
clusively to the production of printing paper
in America. The now prosperous village of
Spring Grove owes nearly everything to him,
for its substantial and rapid growth. In
matters of public improvement for the
material, educational and moral interests of
the town, he has always shown a generous
and philanthropic hand. He is ably assisted
by his son William and his brother Edward.

CHUBOHES OF SPRING GROVE.

St. Paul's Lutheran Church. — On the east
side of Main Street, in Spring Grove, stands
the conspicuous building, St. Paul's Evan-
gelical Lutheran Church, which was erected
in 1879, through the efforts of Mr. and
Mrs. P. H. Glatfelter, together with others.
P. H. Glatfelter and Abraham Reiff were
the building committee. On Whit Monday,
18/9, the corner-stone was laid by Rev. Drs.
Hauer and Lochman, in the presence of
Revs. A. W. Lilly, Peter Anstadt, John H.
Menges, A. G. Fastnacht, Daniel Schindler,
M. J. Alleman, and a large audience. The
building was completed in 1880. On the
11th of March, of the same year, a congre-



gation was organized by Rev. Daniel J.
Hauer, D. D. , consisting of twenty-six mem-
bers. On Easter, 1880, the dedication took
place. The ministers present were Revs.
Hauer, the pastor, Anstadt and Alleman.
The edifice is a handsome and commodious
brick Gothic building, with a tower, in which
is placed a sweet toned bell. In the audi-
ence room, the recess behind the pulpit con-
tains an excellent pipe organ. The build-
ing is lighted by electricity, and in the
winter warmed by steam. It is an ornament
to the village, and was designed l)y J. A.
Dempwolf, the architect, of York. The cost
of the erection, with the furniture, amounted
to S13,200. On the day of dedication it was
ascertained that only $3,000 had been
secured, when Mr. P. H. Glatfelter gener-
ously came forward, and in the name of him-
self, Mrs. Glatfelter and his children, as-
sumed the payment of the balance, viz.:
110,200.

After the dedication, Rev. Hauer resigned
the i^aslorate, and Rev. M. J. Alleman suc-
ceeded until the autumn of 1881, when he
resigned. Rev. Hauer was then recalled.
There are at present 140 persons whose
names are on the records as members. The
membership of the congregation is 140. The
Sabbath-school, under the superintendence
of P. H. Menges and Edward Glatfelter, is
growing, and more room is needed to accom-
modate the scholars.

Mount Zion's Reformed Church. — On an
elevated site to the north end of the borough
stands the Reformed Church, a tine brick
building erected in 1883. The congregation
was organized by Rev. H. Hilbish, of Han-
over, who was its pastor for a time. The
building committee were George " Hoke,
George Rennoll and Zachariah Miller. Rev.
Hartman, of Hanover, in 1885, is the regular
pastor of the congregation, which has fifty
members. A Sunday school of sixty pupils
is held in the church.

SCHOOLHODSE.

When the Colemans owned the forge,
they donated a tract of land on which was
built a house for public religious worship
and for school purposes. A school was well
kept in it nine months of the year, for a
long time. Different religious denomina-
tions were allowed the use of the building.
It was finally rented by the township direc-
tors for public school purposes. A few years
ago it was torn down and the present excellent
school building put up on the same site by
the township authorities at a cost of $1,200.
Of this sum P. H. Glatfelter contributed



MANHEIM TOWNSHIP.



§600 gratis. J. A. Dempwolf was the archi-
tect and Michael Little, contractor.

BRICK YARD.

Peter S. Alwine, who owns a brick yard in
Paradise Township and one near New Ox-
ford, Adams County, commenced burning
brick at Spring Grove in the year 1879, and
makes at Spring Forge about 700,000 bricks
annually. Ten men are regularly emjiloyed.
June 26, 1884, the great flood destroyed
nearly the entire yard to the amount of
$2,000; but in the autumn of the same year
it was in full operation at a more secure
place. He consumes 300 cords of wood each
year.



THE TOWNSHIP OF MANHBIM.

SOME of the first settlers of the southwest-
ern part of this county, emigrated from
the Grand-Duchy of Baden, near the historic
old town of Manheim, on the Rhine. Michael
Danner, who, quite early in the settlement
became a large land-owner in this section,
when this township was organized, in 1747,
requested that it should be called after his
native place. It then included almost the
entire area of Manheim, West Manheim,
Penn and Heidelberg Townships, in York
County, and portions of Union and Conewa-
go Townships, in Adams County. Heidel-
berg was organized in 1750, but originally
included what, in the early settlement, was
known as "Digges' Choice," and was nearly
surrounded by Manheim. In 1816 a peti-
tion was presented to court, asking that the
northern part of Manheim be added to Hei-
delberg. The signers to this petition were
Daniel Dubbs, Andrew Garrett, Peter Over-
dier, John Thoman, Christopher Wolfoi-d,
Conrad Sherman, Andrew Robenstein, Charles
W'arner and Henry Sherman. The court ap-
pointed George Spangler, Jacob Smyser and
Charles Fisher viewers. Their report was
conlirmed, and the area of Manheim was re-
duced to include its present territory and
that of West Manheim.

In the year 1816 Jacob Albrecht and Val-
entine Wentz each owned an oil-mill; Dan-
iel Dubs, an oil-mill and hemp-mill; Jacob
Keller, paper-mill and oil-mill; Jacob Sny-
der, a paper-mill; Adam Schleeder, a full-
ing and carding-mill; Peter Reidec & John
B. Wentz, each a tanyard; Conrad Sherman,
a tanyard and distillery, and one slave, the
only one owned in the township, which
then included West Manheim.



Jr.



The township, as at present formed, is
bounded on the north by Heidelberg, on the
east by Codorus, on the south by Maryland,
and on the west by West Manheim. The
land is undulating, but in general is quite
fertile and productive. The Bachman Valley
Railroad crosses the southeastern part of the
township, and the Hanover & Baltimore pass-
es along its eastern border. There are two
postofiices: Xenia and Black Rock, but no
villages within its limits.

TAXABLES IK 1783.

The following is a complete list of the tax-
able inhabitants for the year 1783, in Man-
heim Township, which then included what is
now West Manheim, Heidelberg and most of
Penn Townships:

Bernhardt Albrecht.
George Apple.
Christopher Africa.
Nicholas Bucher, Jr.
Daniel Bauser.
Martin Bruckard.
Adam Brunkard.
Christian Bachman.
Christopher Bachman.
Nicholas Briclcer.
Joseph Bollinger.
Jacob Bauer.
John Bose.
Peter Baum, Jr.
Jacob Bauman.
Peter Baum.
John Bose.
Henry Bauman, Jr.
Michael Bear.
Jacob Bear.
Anthony Bricker.
Henry Bushy.
Nicholas Bucher.
John Bowman.
Henry Baumgardner.
Jacob Bollinger.
Jacob Burkhard.
John Byer.
Mathias Bloger.
John Bickler.
Phillip Bodenfeld.
Christian Bechtel.
John Brodbeck.
Henry Bowman, Sr.
Felty Berger.
. Henry Bollinger.
StofEel Bricker.
Henry Byer.
Andrew Beads.
Jacob Baum.
John Croe.
John Calhoon.
Daniel Doll.
Henry Dewald.
Jacob Dome.
Henry Danner.
Widow Danner.
Daniel Dubbs.
John Dierwiichter.
Oswald Dubs.
Joseph Decker.
Adam Eicbelberger.
Leonard Eicbelberger.



Michael Erhard.
Jacob Ebersole.
John Epply.
Mathias Epply.
Peter Epply.
John Eyler.
Way Ernst.
Jacob Fuhrma
John Fauble.
Valentine Fuhrman.
Jacob Fuhrman.
Christian Fass.
Adam Fisher.
Henry Felger.
Adam Funlt.
George Fox.
Michael Fuhrman.
Phillip Forney's wid
Marks Forne}^
Conrad Felty.
Valentine Fisher.
John Felty.
John Felix.
Adam Forney.
Jacob Flickinger.
Samuel Flickinger.
William Gerhardt.
Adam Gramer.
George Gody.
Peter Gundy.
John Gerber.
Frederick Gelwix.
Martin Geminter.
Peter Gid.
George Gelwix.
Christian Gerhard.
Phillip Houch.
Jacob Houck.
Michael Hower.
Jacob Hedrick.
Michael Hofair.
John Hinkel.
Anthony Hinkel.
John Hereder.
Henry Hering.
Henry Hoff.
Christian Hershy.
John Hershy.
Adam Hubbert.
Michael Hoffman.
Peter Hoffman.
Adam Hoffman.
Samuel Harnish.



HISTORY OF YORK COUNTY.



Casper Hock
F — ■



Frederick Heiner.
Jacob Heagy.
Andrew Holl.
Yost Hoffman.
John Jones.
Thomas Kelly.
Conrad Hains.
Widow Kaufelt.
Andrew Karg.
Peter Koch.
George Koch.
Jacob Kraft.
Henry Klein.
Hefrich Kramer.
Adam Kraver.
Gerhard Kraver.
Gabriel Kraver.
Peter Krum.
Nicholas Keefaber.
Jacob Kochenaur.
Andrew Koch.
Peter Keplinger.
John Kilzmiller.
George Kitzmiller.
John Kair.
Michael Karl.
Christian Kemmerly.
Peter Kaa.
George Keller.
David Kibler.
Samuel Kelly.
Mathias Lower.
Frederick Long.
Martin Long.
Jacob Long.
Nicholas Lengle.
Widow Leining.
Henry Lei nert, Sr.
Henry Leinert, Jr.
Martin Layer.
Michael Mosser.
Henry Leish.
Melchior Myers.
Peter Malsbach.
Philip Miller, Jr.
Adam Martin.
Henry Martin.
Joder Messeiraer.
Philip Miller.
George Matter.
Alexander Leinert.
Adam Wagner.
Frederick Myer.
William Michael.
George Mielheim.
Jacoi) Moshrosh.
Philip Morningstar.
James Miller.
Philip Moul.
Jacob Nunemacher.
Mathias Neass.
Nicholas Newman.
Ludwig Herdier.
Michael Newman.
■Christian Rollmau.
Jacob Reinhard.
William Reineman.
George Rollman.
Hophel Racky.
Jacob Runkel.
Ludwig Ruukle.
Casper Reineiker.
Andrew Rudisill.
Conrad Reinhard.
Ludwig Rudisill.
George Reinhardt.



John Rauenzahn.
Henry Richel.
Widow Ravenstein.
Michael Roth.
John Shead.
William Speice.
Widow Slodhower.
Widow Sholl.
Adam Smith.
William Strauck.
John Shenck.
Dewald Sneyder.
Tobias Stier.
Adam Shorb.
Hill Savige.
Michael Stephan.
John Summer.
Adam Schmetzer.
John Sohwartzbaoh.
Christopher Sneyder.
Bernhardt Sterner.
Peter Sabel.
Jacob Sherman.
Conrad Sherman.
Adam Sower.
Conrad Sherertz.
Ludwig Sherertz.
John Sheirer.
Christopher Shrod.
George Smith.
Anthony Slodhauer.
Jacob Stambach.
Michael Slodhauer.
John Snyder.
Christopher Sower.
John Shawk.
Sebastian Steinbrecher.
John Studebecker.
Peter Stambach.
John Throne.
Abraham Tlirone.
Casper Trum.
Abraham Trump.
Michael Uland.
Daniel Utz.
Michael Weutz.
Philip Wohlfahrt.
Widow Wirking.
Philip Wirking.
Valentine Wirking.
Melchior Werner.
George Werner.
Nicholas Wolfgang.
Christopher Willet.
John Wampler.
Jacob Wildesin.
Samuel Wildesin.
Michael Weinbrecht.
John Welty.
Yost Wagner.
Peter Wagner.
Ludwig Wagner.
John Winter.
Christian AVunner.
Valentine Wentz.
William Wadsworth.
John Wise.
Frederick Wentz.
Henry Yager.
Leonard Yenawein.
John Yekis.
Charles Young.
Daniel Zuber.
Anthony Zancker.
George Zackarias.
John Zimmerman.
Christian Zimmerman.



SrNGLE MEN.

Philip Hok. John Bucher.

John Long. Dewald Eavenstein.

Ludwig Pleger. Henry Stier.

Jacob Wirth. • John Stier.

Jacob Stambach. Jacob Brungard.
Godleib Nunnemacher. Christian Furney.

Henry Dume. George Morningstar.
Christopher Sneyder. Samuel Long.

Henry Miller. Adam Gremniter.

Jacob Willet. John Bloger.

Anthony Willet. Michael Africa.*

Conrad "Long. Jacob Newcomer.

Abraham Miller. John Ernst.

John Klein. Charles Werner.

John Runkle. Mary Ann Furnace.

George Mattes. Philip Kinger.

John Sterner. Jacob Baumgardner.

Philip Werner. Dewald Felty.

Christian Rauser. Edward Miller.
Nicholas Masenheimer. Jacob Minich.
Christian Shenck.

The population, in 1880, was 1,293; num-
ber of taxables in 1884, was 439; value of
real estate for same year, $436,668.

LUTHERAN AND REFOEMED CHURCH.

This is known in the community as "Dubb's
Church," and is located four and one-half
miles southeast of Hanover. Rev. Samuel
Gutelius, pastor of the Reformed Church at
Hanover, preached for a time in David Run-
kle's dwelling-house. Both Reformed and
Lutheran clergymen held services for several
years in what is known as Wildasiu's School-
house near by. In 1853 the present brick
church was built.

The Lutheran clergymen since the time of
organization, have been Revs. D. P. Rosen-
miller, M. J. Alleman, P. Warner, S. Ying-
ling, D. J. Hauer and J. A. Metzgar. The
last-named is the present pastor of the Lu-
theran congregation, whose membership is
190.

The Reformed congregation has been
served by Revs. Samuel Gutelius, Jacob
Sechler, J. D. Zehring, S. F. Laury, and J.
H. Hartman who is present pastor. The
membership is 230. A flourishing Union
Sunday-school of 160 pupils, is superintend-
ed by the two pastors.

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

Down to the year 1870, Manheim had re
fused to accept the common school system.

True, for several years the people had
elected school directors, after the manner
prescribed by law, but with the understand-
ing that the law was not to be put in force;
the township, however, was not without
schoolhouses and schools.

In the autumn of this year. Prof. S. G.
Boyd, then county superintendent, paid this

Africa, secretary of internal



HEIDELBERG TOWNSHIP.



township a visit, to confer with and, if possi-
ble, induce the board to accept the law.

He found such members as he met friend-
ly to the cause of education, and one of these
members, Cornelius R. Weutz, secretary of
their board, especially favorable to the ac-
ceptance of the system.

Arrangements were at once made for a
meeting of the board at an early day, which
convened at the time appointed, and after an
interchange of views, and a full explanation
of the workings of the law, by the superin-
tendent, decided to adopt the system with-
out further delay.

In due time an examination of teachers
was held for the township, and the schools
put into operation.

There are at present six schools as follows :
Nace's, Wolfgang's, Snyder's, Black Rock,
Zumbram's, Summit and Miller's. The mem-
bers of the board of directors for 1885 are
A. N. Robrbaugh, president; Aaron K. Al-
bright, secretary; Lewis H. Miller, Anthony
Nace, Jacob Dubbs and Edward Fahrman.



THE TOWNSHIP OF HEIDELBERG.

IN the Grand-Duchy of Baden, not far
from Manheim, is the historic old city of
Heidelberg, famous for its great university,
founded in 1386 — the second oldest institu-
tion in Germany. The derivation of the
word, is "Heidel" huckleberry, or whortle-
berry, and "berg," mountain; the origin
of which was owing to the fact that the city
is surrounded by picturesque wooded hills.
on which grew huckleberry bushes in great
abundance. This German city was rendered
historic on account of the cruelties and atroc-
ities perpetrated upon its citizens in the
seventeenth century. The ferocious Tilly
bombarded it for one month, took it by storm
and gave it up to three days of pillage, in 1622.

The French general, Melac, by order of
Louis XIV, in 1688, took the town and cruelly
burnt it; in 1693 another French force re-
peated and exceeded all former atrocities.
It is now a prosperous city.

Many of the inhabitants of Heidelberg
and vicinity, on account of these cruel wars,
immigrated to Pennsylvania soon after, and a
township by that name is found in each of
the following counties: York, Berks, Lehigh
and Lebanon.

Heidelberg Township in this county was
erected in 1750. It then contained an area



of 9,030 acres and was identical with "Dig-
ges' Choice" which name, since that date, is
known only to history. The names of many
of the early settlers of this township, as it
then was, will be found in the history of
Hanover. The original shape of Heidelberg
was very irregular. It extended in a north -
westernly and southeasternly direction, from a
point a short distance east of Hanover, west
to McSherrystown, Adams County. It was
long and narrow, and what is now the bor-
ough of Hanover was included within its ter-
ritory. The town was bordered on the north
aod south by Manheim until the northern
part of that township was annexed to Heidel-
berg in 1816, one year after Hanover was in-
corporated.

In 1783 Heidelberg had 191 houses, 116
town lots, 29 slaves and a population of
1,204.

In 1880 this township entirely lost its
identity. Out of part of its original territo-
ry and a part of the annexation of 1816 the
new township of Penn was formed.

Thus the original of Heidelberg now
forms a part of Conewago Township Adams
County, part of Penn Township, and the
borough of Hanover. The civil authorities
of York County have not treated it so cruel-
ly, though with little more respect than the
French army did the city after which it was
named. The eastern section, caused by the
division of 1880, retained the name Heidel-
berg, but it contains no part of its original
territory, as it is now formed. Paradise and
Jackson bound it on the north. North Codor-
us on the east, the Manheims on the south,
and Penn on the west. It is drained by the
west branch of the Codorus Creek and its
tributary the Oil Creek. Its present terri-
tory, until 1816. was embraced in Manheim,
and was iirst settled, mostly by theMennon-
ites and German Baptists (Dunkers), as
early as 1738.

Heidelberg is crossed by the Hanover &
Baltimore and Hanover & York Railroads.
Smith's Station and Porter's Sideling, stop-
ping places along the Hanover & Baltimore
Railroad, are now interesting hamlets, and
each has a postoffice. The latter place
was named after ex -Gov. Porter, who
shipped large quantities of iron ore from
this station soon after the road was built,
from banks that he leased in this township.

The Reformed Church at Smith's Station,
was built several years ago. The congrega-
tion was ministered to by Revs. Jacob Sech-
ler and H. Hilbish. Rev. J. H. Hartman, of
Hanover, is the present pastor. Member-
ship, 50.



HISTORY OF YORK COUNTY.



Moulstown is a collection of a dozen or more
houses, iu the northern part of the township.
A Union Meeting House was built here during
the centennial year. The building committee
-were Jacob Moul, Charles Eichelberger and
D. W. Gemmill. Jacobs' Mills, Iron Ridge
and Menges' Mills are stations on the Short-
line Railroad, ateach of which places there is
a postoffice and a store. They are import-
ant points for the shipment of iron ore.
Garber's Mennonite Church, near Menges'
Mills, was built more than half a century ago.
Near here there was an early settlement of
Mennonites.

lEON ORE INTERESTS.

Heidelberg contains valuable and extensive
deposits of iron ore. The discovery of it
was made by Peter Dicks, who started Spring
Forge in 1756. Most of the ore smelted at
Mary Ann Furnace, which was built in 1701,
by Hon. George Ross, of Lancaster, and
located in Manheim, this county, was obtained
in Heidelberg.

In 1840 ex-Gov. Porter leased several
tracts in this township and began to take
out and ship ore in large quantities. The
names of some of the leading banks are here-
in given.

The Hanover Bank in northeastern part of
township, was opened by J. Duttenhoeffer, in
1870, and passed into the hands of the
Chiques Iron Company in 1873. It has been
a very valuable deposit and an area of five
acres has been excavated. In all about 45,000
tons of brown hematite ore were taken out,
the bank being in continuous operation
from 1870 to 1885.

A thirty horse-power engine was used.

The ore was lately obtained from a mine
eighty-five feet deep.

Samuel Bechtel's Bank was opened in
1864. It adjoins the Hanover Bank. It was
first owned by George Sprenkle and operated
by a gentleman from Lancaster. Three
perpendicular shafts were put down. The
ore obtained was 40 per cent pure metal.
Forty men were at one time employed here.
It continued in operation for a dozen years,
and several thousand tons of ore were
obtained. In 1871, a bank was opened a
short distance east of this one, containing a
good quality of brown hematite lying in
yellow clay.

Moul's Bank, Forry's Bank (near Smith's
Station), Stambach's Bank, Mickley's Bank,
Sprenkle's Bank on the farm of Henry L.
Banman, and others, yielded large quantities
of ore. Bollinger's Bank four and a half
miles southeast of Hanover, for many years



was one of the most important in this county.
It was leased and operated by the Leesport
Iron Company. At J. Moul's Bank, for a
time, 400 tons of ore per month were obtained.
Sprenkle's Bank was very valuable.

Within the past few years the Ashland
Iron Company, Leesport Iron Company and
the Chiques Iron Company have leased and
operated a number of banks in this township.

MENNONITE MEETING HOUSE.

On the York road, about three miles east
of Hanover, stands the above-mentioned
church, familiarly known as "Bair's Meeting
House.'' The land upon which it and the
adjoining public school house are built, was
granted to Michael Danner, in trust for the
Mennonite Congregation, August 8, 1774,
by John and Thomas Penn, sons of William
Penn, who were then the proprietaries of
Pennsylvania. Michael Danner was a prom-
inent man of his day, and, in 1749, was one
of the commissioners appointed to lay oft'
York County. The religious services of the
society of Mennonites for many years were
hold in the houses of members, but for
the purpose of erecting a building, for a
school and for religious worship, a tripar-
tite indenture and agreement was made May
14, 1775, between the said Michael Danner,
Sr., then of the town of Hanover on the
first part, John Shenck, of Manheim and
Jacob Keagy of Heidelberg, ministers, of fhe
Mennonites, John Welty and -fames Miller,
both of Manheim (now Heidelberg), elders of
the Mennonite congregation of the second
part, and Adam Eichelberger of the third
part, concerning the disposition of the above
mentioned land, which was named "Danner's
Repository," and when granted adjoined lands
of Michael Newman, Andrew Shenck and
Adam Eichelberger, and contained twelve
acres. The grant to Michael Danner was "in
trust to and for the only proper use of the
Mennonites,theirheirsand successors forever."
The consideration was £6 in Pennsylvania
currency paid to Michael Danner, vyho had
held the land "in trust for the Mennonite
Congregation in Manheim and the adjacent
section of that religious society or denom-
ination." It was agreed upon by the heads
of the said congregation, "to hold equally
and in common, and for the use of said con-
gregation erect a schoolhouse and meeting-
house, and locate a place to bury the dead,
and for the use of the German Lutherans
and German Reformed Calviuists, who may
join in erecting a schoolhouse thereon, and
supporting a schoolmaster, and also for a
place of burial for their dead." They then



HEIDELBERG TOWNSHIP.



Online LibraryJohn GibsonHistory of York County Pennsylvania From the Earliest Time to the Present → online text (page 141 of 218)