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History of York County Pennsylvania From the Earliest Time to the Present online

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judged proper that the Earl of Loudoun
should return to England and bis Majesty
had been pleased to appoint Major- General
Abercrombie to succeed his lordship as Com-
mander-in-chief of the King's forces in Amer-
ica, and General Forbes to command those
in Pennsylvania and the South." This was
received and read in Council on the 7th of
March; 1758.§

April 11, 1756, Huntington, jj Eev. Thos.
Barton, wrote to Rev. R. Peters: That they
were all in confusion; within twelve miles of
his house, two families, consisting of eleven
persons, were murdered and taken. And in
the counties of Lancaster and Cumberland,
the people were daily alarmed with fresh
ravages and murders. The poor inhabitants
were flying in numbers into the interior parts.
He prevailed upon the inhabitants of Cone-
wago and Bermudian to assemble themselves

1 *Vn Col. Rec, 402, 464, III Archives, 120.

1 tin Archive-, 290, 297.

I rVIII C.l. Rer,, 26.

I |VIII Col Eec, 26.

j iiHuntington Township, now Adams County.



FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.



together and form themselves into compa- '
nies to guard the frontiers of this county,till |
they saw what would be done by the troops,
who were going upon the western expedition.
He hoped by this means to be able to keep
the settlements from breaking up. That
Mr. Alricks told him he was determined.pro-
vided he could obtain the Governor's permis- j
sion, to go out to Ohio a volunteer in defense
of his King and country, and as he was cer- j
tainiy a man of resolution and valor, a man
who could undergo hardships and fatigues,
and moreover a man whom had an interest
with, and an influence upon the county peo-
ple, and is likely to raise a number of them
as any man, he stood well entitled to a com-
mission.*

George Stevenson wrote to Richard Peters,
York, April 30, 1758 : That Archibald Mc-
Grew signified his inclination to serve his j
King and country in the station of Captain of [
a company of rangers in the pay of this j
province for the ensuing campaign. Mr. ]
Stevenson certified that he had known Mr.
McGrew in his private character as a neigh-
bor, as a juryman in court and as a Coroner.
He also commanded one of the companies in
the pay of this county the last fall, in all
which stations he had behaved himself to the
satisfaction of the people as well as Steven-
son's. That he could raise a company who
would go with him in defense of our good
cause as much from principle as love of re-
ward. He thought four or five good com-
panies could be raised in a very short time
here if proper ofEcers were chosen. That he
had brought about a resolve of the Justices
and Commissioners that forty-five men be
immediately raised, paid and maintained at
the expense of this county, to range along the
frontier for the defense of the inhabitants.
"But, what is most remarkable, four leading
Quakers (John Wright the first), have signed
the resolves, and we have spent but four
hours in our deliberations, therefore I con-
cluded our very little Government here have
outdone the lower county little Government,
if not in unanimity, surely in dispatch, "f

Richard Peters wrote under date of 3d of
May, 1758, that, in compliance with the
recommendations of the gentlemen who had
written in favor of Mr. McGrew, the Governor
had granted him a Captain's Commission —
his Lieutenant, Alexander McCain, and his
Ensign, James Armstrong. "You write that
four or five companies can be easily raised
in York County, and offer your services in
raising them. Col. Armstrong and I were



considering, before your letter came, with
great care, what persons might be the like-
liest to raise companies fit for the service and
most acceptable to the people, and being
asked our opinion by the Governor and
Council were mentioned Thomas Armour,
Robert Stevenson, Joseph Armstrong, David
McConoway* and Thomas Minshall. "
"Thomas Minshall was nominated thinking
Mr. James and John Wright would be obliged
by it, and assist him in raising his company.
Mr. Armour, Robert Stevenson and Mr. Min-
shall, if they accepted, must each, or two of
them, have, at least, one German subaltern
officer to engage the German inhabitants.
Mr. Robert Stevenson must have Mr. Benja-
min Smith, of Slate Ridge, either for his
Lieutenant or Ensign. Sheriff Thomas Hamil-
ton's commission is so far made out as to
have his name inserted, leaving it to him to
be appointed under the Captain that may be
in Marsh Creek, provided it be either Mr.
David Conaway,* or Mr. Joseph Arm-
strong. In filling up the commissions take
care that the date of the Lieutenants' and
Ensigns' be the same with the Captains, as
the rank is settled here, and cannot be altered,
and the Sheriff, Hamilton, be the first of the
Lieutenants. And if any of the gentlemen
should refuse, and a good German Captain
cannot be obtained for the benefit of the
service, then, in that case, Mr. Hamilton is
to have a good company. But if one full set
of officers of German farmers and free-
holders can be had and it is judged the best
for the good of the whole, pray let it be
brouglit about. The ministers should be de-
sired, in different and proper parts of the
country, and at proper distances, as their
congregations may be seated, to appoint
meetings and animate the peojale to raise
levies with all possible dispatch, as they
are designed by one vigorous effort to dis-
possess the enemy, regain the Indians, and
establish a durable and advantageous peace.
The grfat regard for the inhabitants of the
County of York had induced the Governor
and Council to reserve their commissions,
though there are many persons applying of
good interest and proper for the service.

•• Six hundred pounds are sent with Mr. Mc-
Grew to be delivered, after taking his share,
to you, and by you to the Captains, who shall
be named in the commissions, "t Mr. Ste^-en-
son wrote to Mr. Peters on May 7, 1758, that
the commissions were received on the 6th of
May, for the officers of three companies. Mr.
Armour and Mr. Joseph Stevenson, begged



HISTOBY OF YORK COUNTY.



to be excused from accepting their commis-
sioQS, not thinking themselves .sufficiently
qualified. David Hunter was appointed in
the room of Stevenson, an able-bodied man, a
German, and a man of influence and inter-
est. Benjamin Smith, to be one of the sub-
alterns; the other, to be appointed by the
advice of the principal inhabitants, who were
to convene on the next Saturday, to meet Sir
John St. Clair on other business. George
Stevenson applied to the leading Germans,
told them it would look ill, if they did not
exert themselves, and desire them to spirit up
their people, and name oificers who could get
men. By this means, he would probably
raise a German Company in the room of Mr.
Axmour's, and on May 8, 1758: That Sheriff
Hamilton, chooses to go with David McCon-
aughey, rather than with Joseph Armstrong.
And if Joseph Armstrong refused, Hamilton
was to have his commission. "Must the men
buy green clothing? I fear this well hurt us
very much. I think linen stockings, red
below the knee, petticoat trowers reaching to
the thick of the leg, made of strong linen,
and a Jailor's fi'ock made of the same, would
be best. Young men that have clothing,
(especially Dutch),willnotlike to lay out their
money for more." * And by letter, dated
York, May 15, 1758. "Last Thursday, Sir
John St. Clair was here. A great number of
the principal inhabitants came together to
meet him. Upwards of seventy wagons were
engaged for the campaign. Recruiting went
on as well as could be expected. Capt. Mc-
Grew had near half his men. Capt. Hunter,
had about twenty. Joseph Armstrong would
not accept. David McConaughy accepted,
and set out to recruit on Friday. His sub-
alterns were not fixed upon, Sheriff Hamilton
was recuiting. He had accepted in the room
of Mr. Armour. His subalterns were Victor
King, and one McDowell, who was at Kittan-
ning, as Sergeant with Capt. Hanoe Ham-
ilton, recommended by him and other reputa-
ble persons of the west end of the county.
Thomas Minshall's accepting a commission,
was very disagreeable to Mr. John Wright,
and raised up a worthless fellow, Ludwig
Myer, of Conedoghela.T There was a scheme
to keepMinshall at home, and thereby oblige
the women of Susquehanna, Quakers, who were
against his going into the service. The money
was almost out. The men want drums, colors,
and other common instruments of war. Drums
they needed much."J On May 21, 1758, David
McConaughy had refused his commission.
Thomas Minshall, had resigned much against



! his inclination, and blamed his Susquehanna
friends, who influenced his wife. He would
nevertheless forward the expedition to the
best of his power. By advice from Mr. Bay,
Mr. Armor, Mr. Barton and others, Robert Mc-
' Pherson, a very worthy young man, took
Minshall's commission. His Lieutenant was
James Ewing, who had been in the service,
and was recruiting in Donegal, and other
places where he was acquainted. The
Ensign was Peter Meen, who recruited
amongst the Germans, in and about York.
Adam Finley, Capt. Hunter's Lieutenant,
brought fourteen recruits to town, which com-
pleted that company. Capt. Hunter took
Hadden for his Ensign. By accounts from
Capt. T. Hamilton, he had twenty men. Upon
the whole four companies from York County,
viz: Captains Hunter, McPherson, McGrew
and Hamilton, and as all these had their sub-
alterns, there were no vacanies in the four
companies for the German Cadets.

"The Rev. Mr. McCraddock gave me the
pleasure of a visit and preached an excellent
war sermon from Mr. Listry's pulpit on
Friday last, in the hearing of Messrs. Barton,
Bay and Listry; he went with Mr. Barton
yesterday, is to deliver another sermon to the
same purpose to day from Mr. Barton's pul-
pit."* Mr. Barton was the rector of the
Huntington Parish, in Adams County, and
was appointed July 9, a Chaplain by Gen.
Forbes, t

On the 2d day of June, 1758, the return
of the garrison at Fort Augusta, shows Capt.
David Jameson there with fourteen men fit
for duty. On the 6th of June, he was in
York.

KEinEN OF OFFICERS 1758.

YOKK, 6th, June, 17i58.

Yesterday Capt. Huoter's men were received by
Mr. Jameson, at York, and thirty-four wagons were
contracted for with the people. Returns will be
made to the Governor, agreeable to his desire, as
soon as the Men shall be collected together and
pass Muster. The names of the Officers are as fol-
lows, viz:

David Hunter. Captain; Andrew Finley, Lieu-
tenant; Wm. Hadden, Ensign. Commissions bear
date the 3.5th April, 1758.

Robert McPherson, Captain; James Ewing, Lieu-
tenant; Peter Meen, Ensign. Commissions bear
date the 10th May, 17.58.

Thomas L -uilton, Captain; Victor King, Lieu-
tenant; Will M Lowell, Ensign. Commissions bear
date the 16th Ma) 1758.

The commissions "or the Captains were dated
when I received them. The OtHcers are all sworn.
Hunter's and McPherson s Companies are full, and
if they had Clothing and Accoutrements, are ready
for Action, t

*III .^.rchives, 400.

tibid, 451.

nil Archives, 408.



FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.



109



"I go with Mr. Jameson to Review, twenty-two
Miles West of York, on Thursday, next, there to con-
tract for Wagons, in pursuance of power from Col.
Bouquet for that purpose. Thirty-five Contracts
were signed here yesterday. The bearer, Mr. Lieut.
Ewing, goes to buy Clo.hing for Capt. McPherson's
Company. ... I have kept a War office near five
weeks, without Fee, Reward or hope thereof; thank
God the Expedition looks better than it did; the
Store Ships, I hope have brought the arms.* . . .

YoBK Town, ye 6th June, 1758.
David Jameson, to Gov. Denny, 1758.

Sir: Agreeable to Orders, I received from Col.
Bouquet, I arrived in this Town last Saturday; I.
yesterday examined and passed forty-four of Capt.
Hunter's Recruits, there is more of them to be in
Town this day, then will compleat his Company.
Capt. McPherson's Company he informs me
is full; Capt. Hamilton and Capt. McPherson's
Companies I am informed, is not yet near full;
The recruits are so scattered throughout the
Country, that I believe that it will be the lat-
ter end of the Week before they will arrive in
Town. I find it extremely difficult to keep the
recruits in order, for want of Sergeants that under-
stand duty, and have not so much as a single drum;
None of the recruits are furnished with Clothing,
or any necessaries for marching. I was desired by
Col. Bouquet to try, if possible, to get the Recruits
to find their own Arms, but I find this impractica-
ble; of the forty-four that passed yesterday, not one-
third of them had arms, or could be prevailed on
to get them, therefore, I shall find it extremely dif-
ficult to get as many arms as is necessary for the men
that are to escort the wagons this week to Fort
Loudon, t A return of the Garrison at Fort Augusta,
commanded by Capt. Levi Trump, the 1st day of
July, Anno Domini, 1758. Among the Captains
David Jameson; sixteen men fit for duty, total,
eighteen; two sick. |

At a meeting of the Provincial Council
lield at Philadelphia, Monday, the 6th of
November, a letter from Gen. Forbes, dated
Kaystown Camp, the 22d of October, was
read. Among other things he said: "The
number of the King's troops under my com-
mand does not exceed 1,200 men, the
greatest part of which must be sent down
to the inhabited parts of the country to
recruit and fit themselves out for the ensuing
campaign. Whether Fort Du Quesne is taken
or not, the Forts of Loyal Hanna, Cumber-
land, Raystown, Juniata, Littleton Loudon,
Frederick, Shippensburgh, and Carlisle,
ought to be garrisoned, beside those on the
other side of the Susquehanna. "§ A letter
was read at the meeting of the Council on the
21st of December, from Gen. Amherst,
announcing his appointment as Commander
in Chief of all his Majesty's forces in North
America.

In the month of September, 1758, the army
under Gen. Forbes, including the Second
and Third Battallions of Pennsylvania, Cols.
James Burd and Hugh Mercer, move d against

«III Archives, 410.

tibid, 412.

:ibKl, 431

?VIII Col. Rec, 244. .

Illbid, 236.



Fort Du Quesne. David Jameson was Major,
under commission dated June 3, 1758, of
the Second Battalion. Lieut. William Reyn-
olds of his company, was wounded at Grant's
defeat, near Fort Du Quesne, September 14,
1758. James Hughes was Ensign. In
the Third Battalion, James Ewing was
Adjutant; Robert McPherson, Captain; Peter
Meem, Ensign; Archibald McGrew, Captain;
Alexander McKean, Lieutenant; and James
Armstrong, Ensign and Captain, Thomas
Hamilton; Victor King, Lieutenant; and
William McDowell, Ensign, who had been a
Sergeant in Capt. Hance Hamilton's Compa-
pany, at the capture of Kittanning. Of the
new levies, there was Capt. Armour of York
County.*

The following list appears: "Old Levys,"
First Battalion, Colonel, John Armstrong:
Lieutenant-Colonel, Hugh Mercer; Major,
Hance Hamilton. Officers of the Pennsyl-
vania Regiment, 1759: Second Battalion,
Major, David Jameson, "to have brevet dated
24th April, 1759. "t

By the 5th of November, the whole
army had arrived at Loyal Hanna, fifty
miles from Fort DuQuesne. Gen. Forbes,
on the 26th of November, 1758, from
Fort DuQuesne, then Pittsburgh, had the
pleasure and honor of acquainting the Gov-
ernor with the signal success of his Majes-
ty's troops over all his enemies on the Ohio,
by having obliged them to burn and abandon
their Fort DuQuesne, which they eflected
upon the 24th inst., and of which he took
jDossession with his little army the next day.
The enemy having made their escape down
the river, part in boats, and part by land,
their forts and settlements on the Mississippi
being abandoned, or at least not seconded by
their friends, the Indians, who had previously
been engaged, to act a neutral part, and who
seemed all willing and ready to embrace his
Majesty's most gracious protection. ;|;

A letter from Col. Burd, of the 2d of De-
cember says: "I have the jjleasure to inform
you, that on Friday last, our army being
within ten miles of Fort DuQuesne, the
enemy thought proper to blow up the Fort,
and went off bodily in their battoes. They
entirely destroyed the works and rendered
everything useless."§

INDIAN ABDUCTIONS.

In the year, 1755, occurred the abduction
and massacre of the "Jemison family, in

*II Archives, N. S., 559-565.
tIbid. 577, 583.
♦Vni Col. Rec, 232.
gibid. 234.



no



HISTOET OF YORK COUNTY.



Buchanan Valley, now Adams County, The
father, the mother and the daughter and the
sons were carried off by the Indians. All
were killed but the daughter, who was car-
ried into the Indian country, brought up
among them, and married an Indian chief,
and was Jiving in the year lS2-i. An account
of this abduction and of its horrors and dis-
tresses, and the subsequent life of the
daughter among the Indians, was published
in the last mentioned year, entitled, "The
Tragical History of Mary Jemison." Emi-
grants to the territory of that part of New
Jork, now embraced by the counties of
Genesee and Wyoming, found the wife of an
old Indian warrior to be a white woman,
called the White Woman. She was possessed
of a large tract of land. Her associates and
children were Indians. This was in the
year 1823, and she was then eighty years old ;
to them she recited her history, which was
published in book form. We are indebted to
the Gettysburg Compiler of December 4, et
seq., 1879, for a graphic account of this cap-
ture and massacre. The following facts in
Mary Jemison's case appear: The first settle-
ments on the southwestern portion of York,
now Adams County, were made by the Scotch-
Irish. The father of Mary .lemiaon was one
of these settlers. He settled near Marsh
Creek, cleared and cultivated a large farm
and resided there ten years. His family
consisted of ionr sons and a daughter. One
day in the Spring of 1755, they were alarmed
by the discharge of a number of guns.
William Buck, a neighbor was killed. Jemi-
son was seized, as also were the mother and
two brothers, the sister and neighbors with
them. The marauding party consisted of six
Indians and four Frenchmen. They were
Shawanese Indians. The two older brothers
escaped. The captured family suffered un-
der great distress from fatigue and want of
food. They were lashed by the Indians, and
hurried, or rather di-agged to a fort in Cum-
berland County, either Fort Conococheage,
or Fort Chambers. Eight of the captives
were mui-dered and scalped. Mary Jemison
and the little child of Mrs. Buck were
spared. After a painful journey of seven
days and a half they reached Fort DuQuesne.
Mary Jemison was taken possession of by two
Indian squaws and treated as one of the tribe.
They were of the Seneca Nation. At first
she had a desire to escape whenever she met
persons who talked English. When she was
fourteen or fifteen years of age, she was
married to a Delaware Indian, to whom she
became attached, and to whom she bore
children. She said that the labor required



of her was not severe. But she had another
time to undergo an exhausting and fatiguing
journey of several hundred miles from the
Ohio river to the Genesee. The Senecas
were the allies of the French. The war
came to an end in 1760. In the meantime
her husband had died. She defended the
moral character of the Indians and evaded
opportunities of being released by the
whites. In 1763 she married an old Seneca
warrior. She was twenty years old and he
was fifty-five. He died at the age of one
hundi-ed and three. The war of the Kevolu-
tion again subjected her to hardships. The
Six-Nations joined the English. After the
Revolution she refused to return to the
whites, and was given a large tract of re-
served land. She was known as Dick-e-wa-
mis, or the White Woman of the Genesee.

Richard Baird, who was "captivated " in
April, 1758, from, Marsh Creek, returned,
having made his escape some where about
the Allegheny Hills. He had been so much
beaten and abused by Tedyescung's friendly
Indians, that his life was despaired of. Some
of them told him that they had beeii lately
to Philadelphia, that they would treat with
the English as long as they could get pres-
ents, and scalp and captivate as long as the
French would reward them; that they loved
their white brethren so well that they wanted
a few of them to hoe corn for them. Rich-
ard Baird was a young man of twenty- two
years of age, of Hamilton Ban Township,
his habitation being at the foot of the South
Mouatain, on the southeast side. On Thurs-
day, the 13th of April, 1758, about 7
o'clock in the morning, he was at his house
with his wife and infant child, and several
children. In his field were Samuel Hunter,
and Daniel McMenomy, laborers. A party
consisting of nineteen Indians came and cap-
tivated the laborers in the field, and afterward
came to the house. After some resistance
they surrendered, on the promise of the Ind-
ians not to kill any of them. They tied them
and took them up the mountain. The Ind-
ians killed the children, and Samuel Hunter,
and drove the captured party over the Alle-
gheny Mountains, a day and a half, and on
Monday night, Baird escaped. In nine
nights and days he got to Fort Littleton.
On the way he had no food, other than
snakes or buds and roots. His affadavit wa&
made at York, on May 12, 1758.*

In a letter from General Amherst, from Al-
bany, June, 15, 1761, it is said: "Amongst
the children lately sent from Canada, that
had been in the hands of the Indians, and

•III Archives, 395.



FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.



some that had been secreted by the Cana-
dians, he found that there were six that were
taken in the government of Pennsylvania, and
two in Virginia, all of whom he sent to Qov.
Hamilton. In the return, aj)pears the name of
John Mann, of Marsh Creek, in Pennsylvania,
taken in 1758, by Indians.* On the 13th of
April, 1758, there was a man killed and nine
persons abducted near Archibald Bard's, at
South MoLintain. On the 21st of May, one
man and five women were taken from the
Yellow Breeches. On the 29th of May,
1759, Mr. Dinwiddle, and one Crawford,
were shot by two Indians in Carroll District,
York County.f August 17, 1758, William
Waugh's barn was burned, in the " Tract,"
York County, by the Indians. J



The transfer from the French to the English
of the posts between the Great Lakes and the
Ohio, led to a war which broke out in 1763,
and lasted several years, and took its name
from that of the great Indian chief, who
planned and conducted it. This war cost
the colonies much in men and money, but
they gained by the struggle. The exploits
of the colonists themselves gave them con-
fidence. The Pontiac war gave great alarm
to the whole country. Massacres were
dreaded, and the towns were crowded with
refugees. The forts at Bedford, Pittsburg,
and Loyal Hanna, resisted the savages, and
the panic was allayed. At a meeting of the
Council, on the 20th of June, 1763, Gov.
Hamilton laid before the board sundry let-
ters of intelligence from the frontiers, con-
taining accounts of hostilities, committed by
the Western Indians, on his Majesty's sub-
jects within the province, and of the suspi-
cious behavior of the Indians, settled in the
upper part of the Susquehanna. And on the
6th of July, 1763, the Governor laid before
the Assembly a letter from Col. Bouquet, at
Carlisle: "I am sorry to acquaint you
that our posts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and
Venango are cut off, and the garrisons mas-
sacred by the savages, except one officer and
seven men, who have escaped from Le Boeuf.
Fort Pitt was briskly attacked on the 22d ;
had only a few men killed and wounded, and
dispersed the enemy. Fort Ligonier has
likewise stood a vigorous attack, by means of
some men, who reinforced that small garrison
from the militia of Bedford. The Indians
expect a strong reinforcement to make new
attempts on these two posts. If the meas-

«vn[ Col. Eec, 628.

tLoudon's Narrative, Vol. XI., pp. 57, 65.

JBupp's Hist, of York County, p. 590.



ures I had the honor to recommend to you
are not immediately put into execution, I
foresee the ruin of the province on this side
of the Susquehanna, and as York County
would be covered by Cumberland, I think
they ought to join in assisting to build some
posts, and saving the harvest. It would not
be less necessary to send immediately arms
and ammunition to be distributed to the in-
habitants to defend their reapers.''* Col.
Bouquet, with about five hundred men,
mostly Highlanders, marched to the relief of



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