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and indomitable energy of learned and de-
voted Pennsylvania Germans, that the Theo-
logical Seminary and Pennsylvania College
were founded, established, and have been so
successfully conducted at Gettysburg. From
the Lutheran almanac for 1842, Mr. Day
gleans among other things that, " By the
efforts of the pastor elect and other ministers,
and especially the self-denying labors of the
Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, who visited Germany,
the seminary was established on a hrm basis ;
that Eev. S. S. Schmucker, was the first pro-
fessor ; Rev.' E. H. Hazelius, D. D., the
second ; that in 1843 the faculty consisted
of Eev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D., chairman ;
Rev. Charles P. Kranth, D. D. , Henry I.
Smith, A. M., professor of German, etc.
That particular attention was paid to the Ger-
man language, and the course of studies was
so regulated that a due portion might be pur-

sued in that language by all the students who
so desired. That the college had its origin
in the wants of the German portion of the
community, and especially of the Theologi-
cal Seminary. That a preparatory depart-
ment was established (in 1827), under the
charge of Eev. D. Jacobs, who died in 1881,
and was succeeded by Rev. H. L. Baugher
(Bager), A. M. That as the number of stu-
dents had increased, and the prospect of use-
fulness, especially to the German community,
was very flattering. Prof. Schmucker invited
the citizens of Gettysburg to co-operate in
the establishment of a college, which they
did ; a charter was procured, and in July,
1832, Pennsylvania College was organized,
and, in the following October, went into op-
eration, Drs. Schmucker and Hazelius officiat-
ing as professors until October, 1834. when
Rev. C. P. Krauth, D. D., became its presi-
dent. The faculty, in 1843, consisted of
Drs. Krauth. Baugher, Rev.s. M. Jacobs. W.
M. Reynolds, H. I. Smith (professor of the
German language, etc.). Dr. D. Gilbert, M.
L. Stoever and Gottlieb Bassler. Of these,
it will be readily seen, five at least were Ger-
mans, or of German descent, and being citi-
zens, if not natives of Pennsylvania, they
justly and fairly come within the designation
of Pennsylvania Germans.

For want of a separate local history and a
more complete civil list, all that can be here
added on the subject is that during the last
ten years a large proportion of the county
offices have been held by Pennsylvania Ger-
mans. At this time they are nearly all so ;
Samuel Eaholtz, is sheriff, George E. Smith,
prothonotary, J. S. Stonesifer, registrar and
recorder ; C. W.. Stoner, clerk of courts ; Dr.
H. L. Diehl, coroner ; George E. Stock, treas-
urer ; associate judges. White and Gulden ;
Samuel MeSwope, district attorney ; Hartzell,
Sheely and Keller, commissioners, and John
G. Brinkerhoff. surveyor. At least eight of
them are Pennsylvania Germans, exclusive of
Mr. McSwope, the very able and learned
young district attorney, who though of Ger-
man descent (the Mc not being a part of the
original name) does not speak, though he
partially understands the dialect.

Among many highly respectable, influen-
tial, enterprising and intelligent Pennsylva-
nia Germans in Adams County are the
Fahnestocks, Euthrauffs, Walters, Sherfys,
Stallsmiths, Strickhousers, Schulzes. Stah-
lys, Forneys, Kurtzes, -Hokes, Schivelys,
Musselmans, Brickers,Vandersloots, Schicks,
Schrivers, Benners, Weikerts, and others.
And these, intermarrying with their Scotch-
Irish neighbors, have produced that brave,


hardy, patriotic, industrious and intellegent
stock of people for which the now historic
battlefield- county of Adams is so justly cele-

Berks County, from 1/79 to and including
the year 1885, there were twenty-one repre-
sentatives in the National Congress, of whom
fourteen (or 70 per cent) were Pennsylvania
Germans, namely: I'rederick A. Muhlenberg
(Continental Congress), Daniel Hiester, Jos-
eph Hiestor, Mathias Reichert, John H.
Hyneman, Daniel Tdi-ee, Ludwig Voorman.
Henry k. Muhlenberg, George M. Keim.
John Ritter, Henry A. Muhlenberg. Jr.,
William A. Keim, John Schwartz, J. Law-
rence Getz, and Daniel Ermentrout, the pres-
ent member.

The remaining six were William Adams,
William Strong, J. Glancy Jones, Jacob K.
McKenty, Sydenham E. Ancona, and Hiester
Clymer, none of whose names indicate a de-
cidedly German descent, though some were
probably familiar with the State dialect.
Henry A. Miihlenberg was minister to Aus-
tria from 1838 to 1840.

Henry Halier, Bodo Otto, Valentine Eckert.
Nicholas Lutz, Joseph Hiester and Charles
Schumacher were among the (ten) represent-
atives from Berks County in the Provincial
Conference, held in Carpenter's Hall, Phila-
delphia. Tuesday, June 18, 1776. The other
four were Jacob' Morgan, Mark Bird, Benja-
min Sp3'ker (probably a Pennsylvania Ger-
man I, and Daniel Hunter.

The conference resolved upon the Provin-
cial Convention that met on Monday, July
15, 1776, for the express purpose of "form-
ing a government in this province on the
authority of the people only:" and, among
other things, agreed upon that ever memora-
ble Declaration of Independence of the
province. Among the (eight) delegates from
Berks were Gabriel Hiester, John Lescher,
Valentine Eckert and Charles Schumacher.
The other four were Jacob Morgan, Benjamin
Spyker, Daniel Hunter and Thomas Jones,
Jr. But even these were not the earliest bold
and patriotic measures in which Pennsylvania
Germans took part. As early as the 4th of
July, 1774, the "committee of the city and
county of Philadelphia, through a sub-com-
mittee, headed by that iramortal leader and
champion of constitutional rights, John Dick-
inson, prepared instructions for the Provin-
cial Committee when it should meet in that
same old keystone cradle of liberty. Car-
penter's Hall, in July of that year. Thomas
Willing (mayor of the city in 1763) was
chairman of the committee. Among the
Philadelphia members were the following

Pennsylvania Germans, Adam Hnbley, George
Schlosser, Christopher Ludwig and Anthony
Morris (Morritz), Jr.

From York, James Smith, Joseph Donald-
son and Thomas Pennsylvania Ger-
mans. But among five from Berks, was bi'ave
alt Chrischtopher Schulze. From Northamp-
ton there were four, and among them Peter
Kiichlein and Jacob Arndt. Through the la-
bors and resolves of this committee was
brought about that First American Congress
in Carpenter's Hall, where Washington, the
two Adamses, Roger Sherman and many other
illustrious Christian men of the time. Episco-
palians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists,
Anabaptists, and others, bowed the knee side
by side with the humble Quaker, while the
man of God, Rev. Jacob Duche, offered up
that fervent, and justly celebrated "First
Prayer in Congress" in behalf of the sacred
cause of American Independence.

John Lescher was also a member of the
committee (of eleven) that on the 28th of
September, 1776, reported the "Declaration
of Rights." Baltzer Gehr, of Berks, was, in
1783, elected, and also served as one of the
Censors provided for by the Constitution (of
2Sthof September, 1776) "to enquire whether
the Constitution was preserved inviolate in
every part."

Of the five representatives from Berks
County in the first General Assembly under
this constitution, at Philadelphia, March 24,
1789, were three Pennsylvania Germans —
Joseph Hiester, Gabriel Hiester and John
Ludwig. Of the five delegates who repre-
sented Berks County in the convention of
1789 called to amend the constitution (of
1776) were four Pennsylvania Germans:
Joseph Hiester, Christopher Lower (Lauer).
Paul Groscup (Groszkopf) and Baltzer Gehr.
This convention framed the amended consti-
tution of 1790, adopted by a popular vote in
the fall of that year, and remained the gen-
eral, fundamental law of the State until the
adoption of the present one in 1873-74. Of
the five delgates from Berks County in the
State constitutional convention of 1837 two,
at least, were Pennsylvania Germans — John
Ritter and George M. Keim. Of State oiificials
under the constitution of 1790 (and its sev-
eral amendments) six were from Berks County,
viz. ; Joseph Hiester, Governor, Frederick
Smith, attorney-general, appointed by Gov.
Andrew Schulze (1823) and commissioned an
associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1828.
John Banks, State treasurer (1847), William
M. Hiester, secretary of State (1858). Will-
iam H. Keim, surveyor-general (1860) and
Warren J. Woodward, associate justice of


'the supreme covirt (1874). Three, at least,
of these, Joseph Hiestev, "William M. Hies-
jter and William H. Keim, were Pennsylva-
! nia Germans.

Of the twenty-one State senators from Berks
County, probably not less than sixteen were
Pennsylvania Germans; namely: Joseph
iHiester (1790-94), Gabriel Hiester, Chris-
j topher Lower, John S. Hiester, Charles
Shoemaker, Conrad Feger, George Schall,
Paul Geiger, John Miller, Samuel Fegely,
John Potteiger, Henry A. Miihlenberg,
William M. Hiester, Benjamin Nunnemacher,
Daniel Ermentrout, and Edward H. Shearer,

William M. Hiester was speaker of the
senate for the year 1855.

Of 180 Assemblymen from that county to
and including the year 1884, 125 or 66
per cent were, according to their names,
Pennsylvania Germans (as such the Hiesters,
the Miihienbergs, the Leschers, the Gehrs,
the Weisers, Schenks, Schneiders, etc.. are
selected, while the Starrs, Parvins, Boones,
Pottses, Rosses, Biddies, Clymers, Lincolns,
Davises, Lewises, and the like are omitted
as uncertain, or decidedly not Pennsylvania

Of 56 persons who served us justices
and justices of the peace at various times
between 1752 and 1791, 27 were Penn-
sylvania Germans. And out of 17 who
held commissions as judges, between 1776
and 1790, 13 were Pennsylvania Germans.
Two of these, Janus Diemer and Henry
Christ, were president judges. At the
present time the three judges learned in the
law, Jeremiah Hagenman, Augustus Sasse-
man, A. L. J. and Hiram H.Schwartz, Orphans
Court Judge, are Pennsylvania Germans
justly proud of their ancestry, and well may
the people be proud of them. Of 25 Asso-
ciate Judges between 1791 and 1876, 17
were Pennsylvania Germans.

According to Montgomery's "Political
Hand-Book of Berks County," up to, and
including the year 1882, 247 lawyers
were admitted to practice at its bar; at least
121 or nearly 50 per cent of which were Penn-
sylvania Germans, and, of which latter,
the following are now in practice: A. G.
Green, E. L. Smith, F. L. Smith, A. B.
Wanner, Daniel Ermentrout, William H.
Livingood, Abner K. Stauffer, Edward H.
Schearer, F. R. Schniucker, William P.
Bard, Daniel E. Schroeder, J. H. Jacobs,
I. C. Becker, C. H. Schaeffer, William Good-
man, H. Maltzberger, P. D. Wanner, James
N. Ermentrout, George F. Baer, H. C. G.
Reber, Cyrus G. Derr, M. L. Montgomery,

I E. M. Levan, D. H. Wingerd, B. F. Dettra,

I B. F. Y. Shearer, John F. Smith. Jefferson
Snyder, H. A. Miihlenberg, A. H. Schmehl,
E. B.Wiegand,W. D. Horning, G. A.Endlich,
H. A. Zieber, Isaac Hiester, J. K. Grant,
W. B. Craig, D. N. Schaeffer, F. S. Livin-
good, H. D. Green, A. R. Heilig, George F.
Hagenman, Israel H. Rothermel, John H.
Rothermel, H. O. Schrader, A. B. Rieser, and
Elwood H. Deyscher (47).

In the first twenty-five years, six Pennsylva-
nia Germans were admitted; in the second,
six; in the third, twenty-six; in the fourth,
forty-nine; and in the remaining fourteen
years thirty-fom'; which would be at the rate
of sixty for the current twenty-five years.

Of the whole number (247), twenty-two
have held the office of district attorney for
Berks County, and of these, twelve were
Pennsylvania Germans, viz.: Jacob Hubley,
Daniel Hiester, Peter Filbert, Jeremiah
Hagenman, James B. Bechtel, Daniel Ermen-
trout, Edward H. Shearer, Peter D. Wanner,
H. C. G. Reber, William M. Goodman, Hiram
U. Kauffman, and Israel H. Rothermel. And
three (as we have already seen) are now on
the bench. Of her 124 county commission-
ers, 103 (or 83 per cent) were Pennsyl-
vania Germans. Of her 82 county auditors,
59; of her 24 treasurers, 20; of her 43
sheriffs, 38; of her 32 coroners, 24; of her
28 prothonotaries, 20; of her 27 recorders,
23; of her 26 registrars, 22; of her 29 Or-
phans Court Clerks, 21; of her 31 clerks of
Court of Quarter-sessions, Oyer and Terminer,

I etc., 20; of her 16 county surveyors, 11 ; of her
69 poor directors, 64; of her 11 stewards, 7;

1 of her 34 mercantile appraisers, 27; of her
6 sealers of weights and measures, 3; of her

I 79 prison inspectors, 59; of her 8 prison war-

' dens, 5 ; of her 5 superintendents of common
schools, at least 4; of her 13 jury commis-
sioners, at least 11 were Pennsylvania Ger-

j City of Reading. — This incomparably beau-
tiful, healthful and prosperous inland city
has a chiefly Pennsylvania German popula-

i tion, which for its general intelligence, in-
dustry, enterprise and hospitality, is, prob-
ably, unsurpassed, if equaled, by any other
of its size in the world. It has had seven-
teen mayors, twelve of whom were Pennsyl-

I vania Germans; and an examination of its
list of aldermen, select and common council -

j men, and other city officers will exhibit a
similar proportion of the psevailing nation-

j ality.

I Dauphin. — In this county the following
named Pennsylvania German gentlemen have
held the office of associate judge: John Glon-



inger. Jcacob Buchev, Valentine Hummel,
Frederick H. Hummel, John 0. Bucher,
William Dock, A. O. Hiester, Felix Nissley,
Moses E. Young, Samuel Landis, Isaac Mum-
ma, and John D. Snyder.

Prominent among the Pennsylvania Ger-
man lawyers are. or have been, Francis R.
Shunk*, David Krause* F. R. Boas, L. N.
Ott, John C. Kunkel*, A. J. Herr, John S.
Detweiler*, B. F. Btter, Joshua M. Wiestling,
John H. Weiss, Elias Hollinger, F. M. Ott,
J. H. Shopp, and David Mumma.

Franklin. — So far as the writer is in-
formed, Franklin County since its erection
(in 1784) has had but one presiding judge of
German descent, or who can be classed as a
Pennsylvania German, namely, Hon. Francis
M. Kimmell, originally of Somerset County,
who, after a term of ten years, ending Decem-
ber, 1861, resumed his extensive practice in
which he still continues. Among twenty-live
associate judges, only four were Pennsylvania
Germans.' namely: "Jacob Oyster, Henry
Ruby, John Huber and David Oaks (Ochs).

Among other local office-holders, also, the
proportioQ of Pennsylvania Germans has
been comparatively small. Of 17 different
prothonotaries (1784:-1876) 6 were of Ger-
man descent. Of the same number of regis-
ters and recorders, 9. Of 15 clerks of the
courts, 3, at most. Of 31 sheriffs, 9. Of
88 treasurers. 14, and of 279 county com-
missioners, about 108 were Pennsylvania

Of 317 lawyers (resident and non-resi-
dent) admitted to the bar during the same
period, only 48 appear to have been of
German descent. In the first twenty years
of that time, none of that nationality were
admitted, in the second, 5 ; in the third, 6 ;
in the fourth, 20 ; and in the remaining
fourteen years, out of 59 admissions,
at least 15 were gentlemen belonging to
some of the most respectable and intel-
ligent Pennsylvania German families in
,, the county. A reference to the fact, may
\/ not be out of place here, that, in former
times the intensely religious (always bor-
dering on the superstitious) sentiment of
our German people rendered them conscien-
tiously opposed to allowing their sons to
enter the legal profession. In other words,
our pious parents of blessed memory, had
decidedly fixed conscientious scruples on this
subject, and certainly not without at least
the very plausible reason that it is a lawyer's
business to advocate his client's cause whether
right or wrong ; andwhether right or wrong,
the advocate must generally be aware. It

would probably be both easy and interesting
to show, from the records of the schools and
seminaries, how large a majority of young
Pennsylvania Germans have hitherto pre-
ferred the gospel to the law, and the pulpit
to the bar, but a change in this respect is
evidently going on, and, if it continues, in
less than fifty years the case may be re-

The original settlers of Franklin County,
were Scotch-Irish, and though they wore
soon followed, and perhaps equaled if not
outnumbered, by the Germans, yet, as the
records show, the local affairs have been
managed chiefiy by the former.

Lancaster. — Among the very able practi-
tioners at the Lancaster bar are the following
named gentlemen, all of whom speak the
Pennsylvania German dialect, and nearly all
are of German descent: J. B. Amwake, Owen
P. Bricker, Charles Denues, Adam J. Eberly,
B. F. Eshteman, David McMullen, A. C.
Reinoehl, Simon P. Eby, D. P. Eosenmiller,
A. W. Snader, J. L. Steinmetz, William D.
Weaver, William R. Wilson and William A.

Leba)ion.- -In Lebanon County no Penn-
sylvania German appears ever to have held
the office of president judge ; but among her
associate judges (not learned in the law) were
John Glon inger, David Krause, John Weid-
man, John Batdorff, John Schindel, Adam
Weis, Samuel Goshert, William Rank, Henry
Carmany, George Reidenaur, Allen P.Hibsch-
man and Thomas Kramer.

Since 1813, as near as can be ascertained,
about 200 lawyers were admitted to the bar,
of whom at least seventy were Pennsylvania
Germans ; and prominently among them were
Francis R. Shunk, Jacob B. Weidman, Dan-
iel J. Hiester, Thomas H. Bibighaus, John
R. Breitenbach, Jacob Amwake, John W.
Killinger, Peter Batdorff, Adam Orth, David
Krause, F. B. Schoener, H. D. Leineweaver,
John W. Mish, John S. Bassler, Cyrus G.
Derr, and many others, a great majority of
whom were admitted within the last forty
years, and no less than twenty-six of them
between ^861 and 1873.
! Lehigh (Lehi) is one of the most highly
cultivated, prosperous and intelligent coun-
ties in the State, with a Pennsylvania Ger-
man population of at least 75 per cent.
t Its territory was originally a part of the great
county of Bucks, included in what afterward
became Northampton, from which (in 1812)
! it was separated and erected into a new
! county under its present name. The original
settlers of this region were Germans, and in
no other part of the State have the



and their dialect so well maintained their
hold as in this. Prominent among them were
the Mickleys, Bretzes, Balliets, Kirstens,
Ochses, Meyers, Rausches, Williamses, Betl-
zarts, jNlachlings, Hasts, Stubers, Kohners,
Benuers, Zimmermans, Weinachts, Bauge-
oners, Ords, Dubbses, Eberhardts, Hubers,
Mumbauers, Eoeders, Spinners, Stahls, We-
andts, Dickenschieds, Hetricks, Mtillers,
Schelleys, Keifers, Schneiders, Riidoljahs,
Dretzes, Heinbachs and Derrs. They were,
as the local history informs us, Palatinates —
refugees from religious persecution at home,
and sometime prior to the year 1736 were the
founders of the now historic Grosz Schwamm
Kirche, or Long Swamp Church, in, now.
Lower Milford Township. They were of the
Reformed or Calvinistic faith. The church
has had nineteen pastors, all German, and all
of German descent except two : Friederich
de La Gour, a Frenchman, called by the
Pennsylvania Germans Dellieker, and Fried-
erich Wilhelm von der Schlut, Sr., who was
probably a low- Dutchman. Prominent among
them, also, were Johann Heinrich Goetschius
(the tirst pastor, 1736-39), Johann Rudolph
Kidweiler, Casper Wack, Johann Theobald
Faber, J. Albert, C. Helfenstein, Daniel C.
Weiser and Clement C. Weiser, D. D. The
present congregation numbers over 400 com-
municants, representing not less than, prob-
ably, 1,000 substantial, thrifty, intelligent
Pennsylvania German speaking people. As
early as 1840 a Sunday-school was established,
which has had nine superintendents, nearly
all of whom were Pennsylvania Germans.
Several ladies have been teachers in this
school for at least forty years, notably the
Misses Eberhart. Beside this, there are in
the two townships of Upper and Lower Mil-
ford some six other churches and congrega-
tions of German Reformed and Lu.theran
Christians, with their respective Sunday-
schools attached, whose membership and lists
of pastors are as thoroughly Pennsylvania
German as that of the old "Long Swamp"
Church, and among them we find many
familiar ancestral names, such as Moser,
Eckert, Wentz, Ritter, Lutz, Fischer, Kohler,
Kohler, Schweigert, Schaffer, Wittmeier,
Wagner, Jacob von Buskirch, Kurtz, Schlos-
ser, et al. In addition to these and other
church people (Rircheleid) there are societies
and organizations of Mennonites, Schwenk-
felters and others, all Pennsylvania German,
and representing a large proportion of the
landed industry and wealth, if not of the
intelligence of the general population.

Prior to the year 1805, a pious and intelli-
gent Schwenkfelter, Balthaser Krauss, Jr.,

donated a tract of land to Gregorius Schulze
and Jacob Gerhard, in trust for a burying
ground. In 1815 a meeting-house was erected
on it, when the entire male membership con-
sisted of eleven persons: three Krausses, three
Yeakels (Jeckels), two Schulzes, one Neu-
man, one Gerhard, and one Meschter. In
connection with it a school was established
in which, besides German, Latin and Greek
were taught for many years. Andrew, one of
the sons of Balthaser Krauss, of Kraussdale,
became an organ builder, and when he was
only nineteen years old, he, assisted by his
brother John, built the first pipe-organ ever
made in Pennsylvania.

Among the many honored and intelligent
Pennsylvania Germans of Lehigh County
are: Hon. Edwin Albright, president judge
of its several courts; he was admitted to the
bar in 1862, at the age of twenty-four; was
district attorney for one term and State sena-
tor two terms, prior to his elevation to the
bench, in 1878. Rev. Henry S. Bassler, a
minister in the German Reformed Church for
more than fifty years. Drs. C. F. , C. and John
H.Dickenschied. Rev. Joseph S. Dubbs,D. D.,
now professor of History and Archeology in
Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster,
is a descendant of Jacob Dubbs, Jr., one of
the pioneer settlers, and founder of the
Dubbs family in this country. They were
remotely of Bohemian origin, and in that
language the name signifies an oak, Duba,
or, in German, Eichen; deejj-rooted, sturdy,
wide-spreading, flourishing and useful. The
great ancestor and his family in Europe,
were followers of the celebrated reformer
and martyr, John Huss, and the head of the
family so distinguished himself in the relig-
ious wars that he received the honors of

The late Hon. Jacob Dil linger was the
son of a distinguished merchant from Wiir-
temberg, who settled at an early day in
Lehigh County. Jacob was educated in the
English, German and French languages. He
represented his native county four successive
terms in the State legislature; was deputy
surveyor; clerk of the courts, prothonotary, a
member of the constitutional conveation of
1837-38; twice a (democratic) presidential
elector; associate judge, first president of
the Allentown (National) Bank, alderman,
mayor of the city, and first superintendent of
the Lehigh Valley Railroad, all of which, be-
sides numerous minor trusts, he filled with
ability and fidelity. He left several children,
! all of the highest intelligence and respect-
1 ability, among them several sons, now among
1 the leading business men of the county, one




of whom is a member of the bar, and has,
like hia father, filled numerous positions of
public trust and confidence with equal honor
and integrity.

The late Eev. E. W. Hutter, D. D.,* who
was a native of Allentown, and of German
descent. He was the grandson of Christian
Jacob Hutter, who established and edited
the Easton Sentinel and the Allentown Re-
publikaner, and the son of Charles L. Hut-
ter, who succeeded his father in the editor
ship of the latter paper. At the age of sis-
teen E. \Y. Hutter, on the death of his father,
returned home from school and succeeded
him in the editorship of the Independ-
ent liejniblikaner and the Lehigh Herald.
While yet in his minority he was appointed
by Gov. Wolfe prothonotary of Lehigh
County, and afterward, by Amos Kendal,
postmaster at Allentown. Subsequently he
held a position in the surveyor-general's of-
fice at Hai-risburg, whence he was called to

Online LibraryJohn GibsonHistory of York County Pennsylvania From the Earliest Time to the Present → online text (page 53 of 218)