John Greig.

The musical educator; a library of musical instruction by eminent specialists (Volume 2) online

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Cello.



Basso.



Rubinstein Sonata in F minor, Op. 49.
Morceaux de Salon, Op. 1 1.
Sitt Concertstiick in G minor, Op. 46.
Kiiffner Concerto, Op. 139.
Naumann Sonata in G minor, Op. i.
Kreuz, Emil Concerto.

" Liebesbilder," Op. 5.
Blanc, Adolnhe " La Farfalla;" Scherzo, Op. 7.



104



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOK



THE VIOLA D'AMORE.

TheViola d'Amore(Viole d' Amour, Fr.; Die LiebesgeigCjG^r^is a practically obsolete member
of the viol family. It claims passing notice, however, from the attempts which from time to time
have been made to re-introduce it. In size somewhat broader and larger than our viola, it had
seven strings for playing on, and seven sympathetic or resonance strings. These latter were usually
of wire, were tuned in unison with the gut or playing strings, and were set in vibration merely by
the sympathy of the corresponding strings on the bridge. These resonance strings passed down
the instrument immediately under the gut strings, but quite close to the body or sound box,
and consequently quite close to the foot of the bridge. The gut strings, lying as they did close
together upon a very flat bridge, were best adapted to double notes, chords, and arpeggios. A
slow melody could also be well rendered ; but on account of the " lie " of the strings any great
execution was almost impracticable.

The tuning in common use was

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As stated above, the experiment has been lately made to revive the Viola d'Amore as a
solo instrument. What success the endeavour may meet with, it is too early to say, but it
may with safety be predicted that it will not again appear in general use. Two very fine
transcriptions, from the old Italian masters, have lately appeared for the instrument by Herr
L. van Waefelghem, and are of considerable interest, shewing, as they do, the capabilities of the
instrument. It is chiefly on account of Meyerbeer's use of the Viola d'Amore, however, that
its name is remembered, and that it claims our attention here. The very grand " Scena and
Romance," in the First Act of the " Huguenots," for the Tenor (Raoul), accompanied by the
Viola d'Amore solo, is regarded by all violists as one of the chef (Tauvres for their instru-
ment. Unfortunately the obbligato, in this country, has usually to be played on an ordinary
viola, thereby losing much of its character. The obbligato opens thus



RAOUL.



Recii.




Rerit.



THE ORCHESTRA



8va.



105




In the last two bars the actual sounds of the harmonic notes are given in the top line, the
lower line notes shewing the positions where they are obtained. The Scena is a very long one,
in fact so long that part of it is frequently omitted at performance. We give, however, one
more small extract from the Romance :



Andante Grazioso.
RAOUL.




io6



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR







ia.




I



We have given these quotations in the original keys, D and B|), but as the Romance is
frequently sung in A, the Viola d' Amore is in that case tuned half a tone lower thus :



\To be continued^



HARMONY.

BY JOHN ROBERTSON, Mus. BAC. (CANTAB.)

(CONTINUED.)



Suspensions.

WE have seen discords used on the unaccented or the accented parts of the bar in the form
of passing notes : we shall now see them used on the strong or accented parts of the bar in the
form of what are called suspensions.

A suspension is the holding on of one note which has been previously sounded in another
chord, over the following chord, of which the retained note forms no portion ; and it must
proceed to a note of the chord over which it is suspended.

In the following example (No. i), the treble note D proceeds at once to C in the
next chord, along with the other notes; but if the D is prolonged into the next chord,
and falls into the C after the other notes have been sounded, we have then a suspension, thus
(No. 2). Here the treble D, instead of moving at the same time with the other notes,



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No. 2.



seems to have forgotten to have come down to C, and only arrives after all the other
notes have gone to their places. It is thus an intruder into the chord, and it sounds dis-
cordant by being prolonged. The ear longs for the note of the chord that is kept bark, and is



Bad.



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Bad.



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No. 4.

not satisfied till it is heard. The sounding of the note in the first chord is called the prepara-
tion of the discord ; the holding of the note over the chord to which it does not belong is the



107



io8



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



suspension itself; and the progression of it to the note of the chord to which it belongs is
called the resolution of the discord. The notes that may be suspended as discords are the
ninth and fourth of any root, that is, the octave of a chord kept out by a ninth, and the third
of a chord kept back by a fourth, along with their inversions ; also the dissonant fifth of the
third and seventh degrees of the major and minor scale. The suspension should always occur
on the stronger accent, and the resolution on the weaker ; and the note of preparation should
not be shorter in duration than the note of suspension (No. 3). The suspended note
should never be doubled (No. 4). The note of resolution should not be heard at the
same time with the suspension, except the ninth when the root is in the bass. The ninth
must never be written as a second to the bass.



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If the octave to the note of resolution be approached by step, it may sometimes be heard
in an upper part along with the suspension, but at best it is harsh and undesirable, and should
only be used on rare occasions.

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A progression that is bad without a suspension, is equally bad when the suspension is
present ; therefore consecutive octaves and fifths are bad, even although the second octave or
fifth be delayed by a suspension.

Bad. Bad. Bad.

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The note of resolution should never be approached in another part by similar motion to
the progression of the discord, but it is quite good to approach it by contrary motion.

Bad. Good.

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|0



HARMONY



109



When the suspension is over a moving bass, it may be resolved upon the third of a chord instead
of the root, and is figured 9 6 showing that the suspension is resolved on the first inversion.



s



9



One important exception from the rule that .suspensions should always be resolved upon the
same chord is, when a discord that cannot be considered anything else than a suspension is
resolved upon a chord, the root of which is a third beiow the note over which the ninth is
suspendedj or on one of its inversions.




The first inversion of the suspended ninth would have the third of the chord over which it
is suspended in the bass : thus the ninth would become a seventh to the bass note, and would
be resolved on a sixth, being the first inversion of the chord.




761 76

The suspended ninth may be taken over the first inversion of dissonant triads, although it
cannot be taken over them in their root position.

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7 6

The suspended ninth may be taken over a chord in the second inversion, but only over
such chords as may be used in the second inversion, namely, tonic, dominant, and subdominant
It is figured |i.



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When the ninth is put in the bass and resolved on the root, it is called the last inversion.
The third of the chord is now the second to the bass, and the fifth is now the fourth, either
of which may be doubled ; and when the discord is resolved in the bass, the fourth and second
then become five and three.




Care must be taken not to confound the figuring of suspended discords with that of funda-
mental discords, as they are very similar. For instance, a dominant seventh discord is figured
7, so is the first inversion of the suspended ninth: but the first is resolved upon another
chord, while the second is resolved upon the same chord. Whenever the figure 7 is followed
by 6 on the same bass note, it is always a suspension ; and it must not be accompanied by the
fifth, as that does not belong to the chord over which the seventh is suspended.



FUNDAMENTAL SEVENTH.



SUSPENSION.





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Of the last two examples the first is a fundamental chord of G resolving on the chord of C ;
the second example is the suspension of F held over the first inversion of E.

As the ninth keeps back the octave or eighth, so the fourth keeps back the third of a
chord (No. 5). Here the chord of C is going to the chord of G; but the third of the
chord G is kept back, by the C being prolonged into that chord.

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No. 6.



The suspended fourth may also be taken over a chord in its first inversion, but the bass
must be approached by step of a second. The fourth is then the ninth to the bass, and
resolves upon the eighth (No. 6). This inversion of the suspended fourth must not be
confounded with the suspended ninth, as the figuring is very similar, with this difference



HARMONY in

that, in the case of the suspended fourth, the figuring 9 8 is accompanied by 6, whereas the
suspended ninth is accompanied by implied. Thus :



SUSPENDED NINTH.



FIRST INYERSION OF SUSPENDED FOURTH.

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This suspension may be taken over the dissonant chords in their first inversion, although
it cannot be taken over them in their root position. The second inversion of the suspended
fourth has the fifth of the chord over which it is suspended, in the bass. The suspended
fourth then becomes the seventh to the bass, and is resolved upon the sixth. Like all other
second inversions, it is only admissible on the chords of the tonic, dominant, and subdominant.



Key of A minor.



Key of C major.



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The figuring is apt to be confused with that of the first inversion of the suspended ninth-,
but in this case it is accompanied by the fourth from the bass note, while in the first inversion
of the suspended ninth, it is accompanied with the third from the bass note. When the sus-
pended fourth is placed in the bass, it is then said to be in the last inversion, and is resolved
upon the third of the chord into which the discord is introduced, that is, upon the first inversion.
The fifth and the root of the chord above the discord become the second and fifth ; and when
the discord is resolved upon a first inversion, of course these notes then become the third and
sixth from the bass, thus :







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This suspension can be taken under any chord that bears a first inversion.
When suspensions resolve upwards, they are sometimes called "retardations." These occur
when the fifth above the triads on the third and the seventh of the key both in major and minor



112



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



resolves upwards into the sixth, the resolution thus producing the first inversion of a
chord.

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The fifth above any other bass note may either go by step to the sixth or leap to any other
note \ but above the third or seventh of the key it must resolve upon the sixth. A very common
retardation is the seventh suspended into the eighth, that is, the root suspended by the note
below it (No. 7).



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No. 7.



No. 8.




No. 9.



This usually occurs only on the tonic of the key, although Wagner in his " Meistersinger " has
an example of the seventh from the submediant resolving upwards into the root (No. 8).

Sometimes the second will be found suspended into the third (No. 9).

Any suspension may have what is sometimes called an ornamental resolution, that is, it may
either leap or proceed by step to a consonant note of the same chord, before it proceeds to its
note of resolution. Passing notes may also be introduced as in the first of previous example.



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Double Suspensions.



When two notes are suspended at the same time, the combination is called a double sus-
pension. The ninth may suspend the octave of the root of a common chord at the same time
that the fourth suspends the third ; or any of the suspensions may be heard at the same time
provided they are prepared and resolved in the same manner as if they were used singly.



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HARMONY



Here, in the first of this example, we see the ninth suspended into the eighth at the same
time that the fourth is suspended into the third. Then we have the same suspensions in the
first inversion. Next we see the ninth suspended into the eighth in treble, and the fourth
suspended into the third in the bass. Lastly, we see the fifth on the mediant suspended into
the sixth, while the ninth is suspended into the eighth in the tenor. The suspended fifth over
the third of a key may be taken at the same time with the first inversion of a suspended fourth,
and the first inversion of an inverted ninth (No. 10). This is called a triple suspension.



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No. ii.




No. 12.



Sometimes whole chords are suspended over a bass note. This may be done whenever the
root of the chord of resolution is a fourth above the root of the chord of preparation, but each
part must not move more than a second (No. 1 1). This will often be found in a final cadence

when the whole of the chord of the dominant is suspended over the tonic chord (No. 1 2).

^

This is sometimes figured but the better way and more usual is to draw a line of con-
s'
tinuation, as in previous example.

What are called appoggiaturas are in reality simply passing notes on the accented part of
the bar, and sometimes taken by leap. They keep back some note of a chord, and always occur
one degree above or below the note kept back. When they are taken above a note, they may
be at the distance of either a tone or a semitone, according to the key on which they occur,
but when used below a note, they should always be at the distance of a semitone from the note
of resolution.





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These appoggiaturas, like passing notes, do not make false relation.

Sometimes a note instead of coming in after its time, as it does in suspensions, comes in
before its time. When this occurs, it is called a note of anticipation. These notes of anticipa-
tion are the reverse of suspensions. They are generally heard in proceeding from the dominant
to the tonic, when a note of the dominant chord goes to the tonic while the dominant chord
remains, the resolution on the tonic chord coming in afterwards.







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VOL. II.



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114



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



This is very usual in Handel's works. Here, in previous example, the note Bb of the
tonic chord is heard during the continuance of the dominant chord F, the resolution taking
place a little later.



Essential Discords.

We have seen that suspensions are entirely foreign to the harmony, and that they keep
back some note of the chord of resolution. Essential discords, on the contrary, are themselves
part of the harmony ; and they differ from suspensions by being resolved, together with the
chord of which they form an essential part, upon a chord having another root, whereas sus-
pensions resolve upon the same chord as that over which they are held (No. 13).





Suspension. Es

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No. 13.




The suspension is here held over the chord of C ; the essential discord belongs to the
chord of the seventh on E, resolved on the chord of A, the fourth above. A seventh may be
added to any triad, provided it is prepared in previous chord, and can be resolved on a chord
the root of which is a fourth above the root of the discord (No. 14). Here the seventh C
is added to the chord of D, F, A, prepared in the previous chord, and resolved upon the
chord of G, which is a fourth above the chord of D, over which the discord is taken.

The resolution may even be delayed by suspending the C over the last chord
before resolving on B the third of the chord, making a suspension of the fourth (No. 15).

The first inversion of a chord of the seventh may also be taken, i.e., may be taken when it




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No. 16.



No. 17.



has the third in the bass. The seventh then becomes the fifth to the bass, and it requires the
same resolution in whatever position it may appear (No. 16). Here the seventh of the
chord is in the tenor, and the bass being a first inversion, rises one degree to the root of the
next chord. The second inversion is not used.

The last inversion has the seventh in the bass, which, descending one degree to the third
of a chord, must resolve on a first inversion (No. 17). The powerful effect of the chord
in this position is very marked.

The fifth on the third degree of the major and the minor key can be taken in the same
manner. Instead of rising as a suspension to the sixth, the fifth as an essential discord rises to



HARMONY u 5

the third of a chord with another root (No. 18). This may also be inverted by placing
the third in the bass, and though the bass rises only one degree, the root relationship is quite
the same (No. 19).



Essential Discord.



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A seventh can be added to this chord on the mediant of major and minor keys, when the
resolution of both is the same as when taken separately (No. 20).

In the inversion of the chord of the mediant, with or without the seventh, in a major key,
the fifth not being a discord, does not require preparation ; the seventh only requires to be
prepared (No. 21). Here the fifth of mediant B being now the third from the bass, and
in no way a discord, is not prepared in previous chord.

The diminished fifth on the supertonic of the minor key is only taken when accompanied
by the seventh, and it, like the seventh, is resolved downwards (No. 22). In the inversion
of this chord also, the seventh only requires to be prepared, the fifth, then, not being a discord.









No. 20.



No. 21.



7

NO. 22.



In modern composition all those essential discords are often taken without preparation.
Even in the last century, the old law of preparation and progression was often set aside, so
that now we may safely say that any essential discord can be taken without preparation ;
and the reason is that, as the science has advanced, all these essential discords can be shown
to be part of the dominant chord, the seventh of which, as has already been shown, can be
taken without preparation. This will be shown more clearly further on. It must be remem-
bered, however, that this preparation of these discords, and their resolution on another chord,
the root of which is a fourth above their own, was the practice of the best masters ; and it will
be expedient for the student not to cast aside that practice entirely. Nothing could be finer
than the effect of a succession of chords of the seventh prepared and resolved on each other,
making a sequence which might be carried through the whole scale.



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THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



Here the seventh on D is resolved on the chord of G with a seventh, which in its turn is
resolved upon C with its seventh, resolving upon F, to which a seventh has been added,
resolving on B, and so forth, during all the sequence : the roots in every instance rising
a fourth, or, what is the same thing, falling a fifth. Sevenths on any note of scale in the key, except
the dominant, are called secondary sevenths, to distinguish them from dominant sevenths,
which are termed fundamental sevenths.



Chromatic Concords.

Chromatic chords are those which have notes not belonging to the signature of the key,
and yet induce no modulation. What is called the harmonic chromatic scale contains
twelve semitones, all of which can be used in the key without necessarily causing modulation.
The following is the harmonic chromatic scale of C :



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This scale, it will be seen, consists of all the notes contained in the major and minor scale
of C, together with the minor second, minor seventh, and the sharp fourth. It is very
customary to write this scale in what is called the "melodic form," that is, with sharps ascend-
ing and flats descending, thus :



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Many of these notes, as written in the so-called " melodic form " of the chromatic scale,
could not possibly belong to the key of C ; but they are often employed by composers in order
to save the use of accidentals, which would be necessary had they used the "harmonic form."
When so used, they are said to constitute expedient " false notation ; " that is to say, the corre-
sponding note in the harmonic form is the true note which belongs to the chord. Thus No. 23
is often used instead of No. 24, the D sharp being false notation for E flat, and used to save





No. 23.



No. 24.



the additional accidental natural before the following E. In order to find the true chord,
however, the D sharp must be read as E flat : this will be clearer when we come to deal with
chromatic discords. A chromatic chord can easily be known, by the music both preceding
and following it being undoubtedly in the same key.



HARMONY



1x7



Chromatic Chord on Minor Second of the Key.

In the key of C this would be the chord of D flat major ; and although there is no restric-
tion as to what chord in the key may follow this, it is generally followed either by the dominant
seventh in root or inversion, or by some inversion of the tonic.




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The first inversion of this chord is called the Neapolitan sixth. It is very frequently met
with in this position. The best note to double in this inversion is either the bass note, which


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