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effect of these three feet is exactly the same as if they were written thus :

At the point where the syncopated feet begin (at i), the first syncopated foot borrows two
pulses from the preceding foot. These borrowed pulses must be paid back at some future
time. This, we find, is done at the point marked 2.

In the second measure the primary foot is broken and left only with its two first pulses,
and in the second last measure the missing portion of the broken foot is restored.

At b the first two feet are in the secondary form; but the next three feet, through the
effect of the syncopation, and without any borrowing in this case, are primary. The secondary
form is restored at the last foot.

At c the triple foot is changed, by the syncopation, to a duple foot. Borrowing and repaying
are here resorted to, as in the first example.

At d overlapping takes place. In the Treble part the foot is primary, and in the Tenor
part secondary. Borrowing and repaying are employed here also. At i the Tenor borrows
two pulses from the primary foot and repays them at 2 in the form of two silent pulses. The
balance of feet is then restored, and both parts move in primary feet at the following measure.*

See chorus " Let us break their bonds, " measures 29-34.


At e the foot is compound, but the example will be easier understood by dividing it into
simple feet, which the curved lines do. In the first measure of the extract all the parts begin
the foot together, but the Bass and Alto parts do not finish it. At i these two parts take up
an overlapping foot, by borrowing one pulse from the first foot At two the Alto part pays
back its borrowed pulse, and falls in with the regular feet of the Treble and Tenor parts. The
Bass part, however, goes on with its overlapping feet, and pays back its borrowed pulse at the
end of the passage.*

At/" we have a very interesting example of syncopation and overlapping combined. In the
first measure, at i, the Bass part borrows three pulses from the quadruple foot to form a triple
foot. The whole passage here in the Bass part, through the influence of syncopation, consists
of four triple feet overlapping the quadruple feet in the Tenor part. At 4 the Bass pays back
the three borrowed pulses in the shape of an additional triple foot. At 2 the Tenor borrows
two pulses from the last foot of the Bass passage, to form an overlapping triple foot : these two
pulses are paid back at 5. At 3 the Tenor may also be considered as borrowing one pulse
from the previous foot, to form an overlapping quadruple foot ; this pulse is repaid at 6. Here,
then, we have the borrowed pulses all repaid at the same point, and at 7 the balance of the
feet is, for a time, restored.!

At g we have the feet moving by three distinctly different figures. The figure of the foot
in the Bass part contains but two notes, the second of which is a syncopation. The foot in the
inner part consists of a chord in arpeggio. The foot in the Treble part differs in figure from
both of the others ; it is also overlapping, borrowing at i two pulses which are paid back, in
the third last measure of the movement, by a descending arpeggio, f

No doubt it will already be plainly seen, that Musical Analysis presents a wide field for
examination. Here at the very threshold of the subject, and dealing but with its germs, we
have matter and variety enough to fill all the space assigned for the whole of this article. But,
under the circumstances, we must push on. With some degree of reluctance, then, we leave this
part of our work in the hands of the student. In doing so we would ask the student to test
the various points that have been referred to, and to supplement what has been here given, by
separating for himself, into feet and their members, any musical examples he may have by him
beginning with the simplest forms.


A Phrase consists of two or more simple feet, and is the smallest passage in the music that
can give us an idea of both its time and its tune. In other words, it is the smallest portion
capable of rendering the composition recognisable ; this, of course, assumes previous acquaint-
ance with the music. If, for instance, without being told the name of the piece, but still
being quite familiar with it, we were asked to listen to this

Ex. VI.

* This is not shown in the example, but see " Hallelujah " Chorus, measure 32.

t See " Amen " Chorus, measure 47.

Not shown in the example. See Sonata Op. 31, No. 2 ; concluding measures.


we could scarcely tell the name of the tune, although we may have known it all our days, so
to speak. But when another foot is added, thus

Ex, VII.

we recognise " The Garb of Old Gaul " at once. Let the student examine any of the extracts
already given (Exs. I.-IV.), and he will find that in no case can a simple foot render a previously
known melody recognisable; and that even a compound foot is sometimes insufficient to
do so.

The Phrase is perceptably marked off to the ear by a. break or joint in the music, more or
less distinct. It is a separating point of a more decided character than the foot ; but it is not
necessarily a resting point, unless when it is the last phrase in a series.

A Section is a longer and still more definite portion of the music, containing an appreciable
rhythmic balance, and ending with a distinct cadence. This produces a sense of satisfaction
and a feeling of rest, which the phrase cannot afford. The following (Ex. VIII.) will illustrate
this : *




The end of a Section, then, is a resting point, as well as a separating point, but it is not, on
that account, a stopping place, unless it be a final section, or is accompanied by a pause, or
followed by a rest ; but these two latter are only partial stoppages.

A Period usually consists of two or more sections.! It finishes with a well-defined cadence
and clearly-marked rhythm. It is a complete musical idea : it is a finished portion of the
music. It requires nothing to be added to it : it will surfer nothing to be taken away. In
listening to the conclusion of a. period we. experience a feeling of ending we have arrived not
merely at a resting point, but at a stopping place. Of course, in many compositions several
periods occur in close succession ; but this does not in the least interfere with the completeness
of each, although, as we 'shall see further on, they may have some dependence on, or con-
nection with, each other.

Psalm tunes, short hymn tunes, and simple songs consist of but one period. Shorter forms,
such as versicles, responses, &c., consist sometimes of but a single phrase. Yet, although
these forms may be quite complete in themselves, they cannot be called periods, as they do not
contain the constituent elements which a period comprises they want the portion and the
counter-portion, melodically contrasted and rhythmically balanced, which all properly con-
structed periods require.

In dealing with simple tunes, similar to those mentioned above, the phrase, the section, and
fat period do not present much difficulty. The measured lines of the words assist us in this

* The application of the foregoing remarks will be more fully appreciated by the student, if he studies the tune
innocents with its harmonies. The tune will be found in almost any ordinary Hymnal.

t Even one section periods, although not very common, are to be met with. " God Save the Queen," noticed
further on, is a good specimen.




respect Still a very palpable mistake is sometimes made here in dividing times of this
description too mechanically into sections, corresponding in every case with a verbal line.
This is pushing the inch-tape measurement, of which we spoke, too far. Some tunes may admit
of such a division, others will not. The melody of " God Save the Queen," for instance (Ex. IX.),
does not lend itself to such a division. It consists of two periods, each unmistakeably complete
in itself; the first period containing six measures, and the second containing eight. There are
three phrases in the first period, and four in the second. These phrases each correspond to a
line of words, but they are only phrases notwithstanding, they are not sections. We consider
them as phrases, because shorter portions would not be individually recognisable ; and we
refuse to consider them as sections, because they are not resting points they are not marked
off by distinct cadences. The only cadences in the tune occur, one at the end of each period.
1'nis makes the section and the period here identical.

Ex. IX.

" God Save the Queen."

A One-Section Period.




A One-Section Period.




In Ex. X. we have a specimen of a tuna of one period containing three sections. In this
case each section corresponds to a line of words, and has a strongly marked cadence none
seeming to have predominance over the others. This would be much better seen in the
harmonised arrangement of the tune. If we wished to divide this tune into phrases, they
would simply require to be identical with the sections, just as the sections correspond with the
periods in the preceding example. Instances such as these (Exs. IX. and X.), might be easily
multiplied. They are peculiar, however, and must be looked upon as being in some degree

Ex. X.

Litany (776) DR. MONK.

Let us look now at what we consider to be the most common method of using phrases,
sections, and periods. The simplest periods contain an equal number of measures, usually
eight or sixteen. A period of this description is generally divided into two equal portions,
these are the sections. The cadences employed at the end of the sections are the Tonic
Cadence and the Dominant Cadence. The Tonic Cadence is sometimes used in both sections,
but the most effective and the most numerous examples to be met with are those in which tne
Dominant Cadence closes the first section (this is called the half-close), and the Tonic closes
the second section (this is called the full-close). The Dominant Cadence may be employed
either with or without modulation. (See Ex. XL)


Ex. XI.



ist Sec.



: =3 = -*-=2==3=4L U

and Sec.





St. Peter.


It is impossible not to feel that the sections, as here indicated, are the most important
portions of the tune ; and if this be so, no smaller portions can occupy a position of equality
with them. The smaller portions must take the subordinate position of phrases.

The sections, as shown in the above examples, are sometimes spoken of as periods. This
we cannot for a moment admit. Let us remember what a period is something complete in
itself. Now, no one, surely, with an eye or an ear in his head, could fail to perceive that, in
the examples before us, the two sections are most plainly and distinctly parts of the same
whole. Of course, each section might exist separately as a complete thing, so might any one
of the phrases ; but, when they are brought into connection with each other, as they are in the
tune, the one becomes most emphatically the complement of the other : they are then but two
parts of the one idea.

When a section is large enough to be divided into four portions, with a strongly marked
cadence in the centre, the term sub-section may reasonably be given to the two halves, and the
termflhrase be reserved for the smallest portions, as shown in Ex. XII.

Ex. XII.

ist Principal Section.



2nd Principal Section.

| p~=q ^y-: ^

J Q I O H -&- H^

We have already said that several periods may succeed each other in a composition.
Even in this simple class of music, with which we are presently dealing, we find this to be
sometimes the case. In pieces of a more extended and more advanced character, we find this
combining of different periods occurring more frequently and in various ways. First, we have
Independent Periods ; second, Correlative Periods ; third, Co-existing Periods; and fourth,
Mixed Periods

Independent Periods are those that have absolutely nothing binding them together ; so that,
were they separated, they might pass for two different melodies, having no resemblance to each
other, beyond that of key and time, and sometimes even without either of these. To this class
belongs the example given below :



ist Independent Period.


and Independent Period.





Space will not permit any more examples, but in the following pieces named the student
will find an interesting variety of Independent Periods : Hymn tune, " Rutherford," where
the first half and the second half might quite well exist separately. Scotch song, " Macgregors'
Gathering," where the centre portion in the Tonic Minor, and the portions preceding and
following, form Independent Periods. " Should he upbraid " (Bishop), where the Independent
Periods are easily discovered. " The Better Land " (Cowen), in which the last verse is totally
distinct from the others. " Rose Softly blooming " (Spohr), containing three periods of twelve
measures each, the second being a Dominant Period perfectly distinct from the others.
"Arm, arm, ye brave" (Handel), where the centre portion of eighteen measures, beginning
with the words " In defence of your nation," forms a Relative Minor Period, dividing the
whole number into three Independent Periods.

Correlative Periods are as complete in themselves as those in the previous case; but by
reason of a similarity between them, it is easy to perceive that they were made for, and belong
to each other. Here is a good specimen :



Ex. XIV.

Sonata (MOZART)>

ist Correlative


and Correlative

Period. 10 measures.


Extended Section. *


The completeness of each of the two periods in the above example will be readily acknow-
ledged, and their resemblance to each other easily perceived.

A very large number of national and other songs belong to this order. The student will
find ready access to some of the following, all containing two Correlative Periods, which he may
easily analyse without another word of explanation: "Robin Adair," "Duncan Gray," "Ye
Banks and Braes," "Last Rose of Summer," "Kate Kearney," "British Grenadiers;" Hymn-
tunes " Grosvenor," "Rousseau," "St. Asaph," " Ellacombe," and others. In all of these the
musical idea, or part of it, expressed in the first period, comes round again in the second.

Co-existing Periods are those which, while they are in themselves complete, and express
fully and conclusively the musical idea contained in them, seem to lean more or less on that
which immediately follows, or to be attached to that which immediately precedes them. Co-
existing Periods, then, cannot be separated they exist by mutual support. In the following
(Ex. XV.) we have the melody of the well-known hymn tune, " St. George's, Windsor," in
which the first period closes in the key of the Dominant, which leaves a faint feeling of
expectancy in the mind of the listener. Therefore this portion of the tune could not, strictly
speaking, form an isolated period, it requires the support of what comes after it. The opening
of the second period is in sympathy with the close of the first. There is, therefore, an attach-
ment here, which would prevent the possibility of the second period being independent by
itself, the second period would be a tune beginning in the key of D, with a very awkward

Explained further on.



modulation to the key of C, and ending in the key of its Subdominant, G. As separate periods,
then, these two would be faulty, for, as a general rule, a tune should begin and end on the same
key, especially tunes of the present kind which have to be repeated to a number of verses.

Ex. XV.

St. GeorgJs, Windsor. (ELVEY.)

Dominant Period.




-#* i5
& p- r r


-^ J <s>

r' ? r P

L-^i zJ <s>



4-r~ rrr

hd J i

- 1

_j i

Tonic Period.






-rH r

j_ J ~

i^i? *


fr^ <-a

r j ^*



- ^ &E

J i


There are many examples of periods of the foregoing description. The hymn tunes
"Wellesley" (Elvey) and "The Blessed Home" (Stainer) are good specimens, and exactly
similar to the above (Ex. XV.) The " Dead March " in Saul (Handel) is also a very interesting
example. This march contains thirty-two measures, divided into two equal portions, each con-
taining an eight measure period repeated. The first period ends with a Dominant Cadence,
without modulating ; the second period begins in the key of the Dominant, and finishes in the
usual way with the principal key. The duet "Hail, Judea," from Judas Maccabasus (Handel)
is another good specimen. In this number, not including the introduction, the voice parts
comprise two Co-existing Periods ; the first being of ten measures, ending in the key of the
Dominant ; the second having twelve measures, also ending in the key of the Dominant. Both
of the periods in this last example lead the mind to expect something to follow them. Neither
could stand alone ; nor indeed could the two of them together stand without the support of
something else. And so we find that immediately following the second period comes a cfwrus,
which flings back the music to the principal key. The student should study as many of these
examples as he conveniently can.



Mixed Periods are those of different orders in combination. For example, we may have
two or more periods in succession, where one is independent and another is not, as in the
hymn tune "Nun Danket" (Now thank we all our God), where the first period finishes with a
perfect Tonic Cadence, and the second period begins in the Dominant key, ending, of course,
with the principal key. In this case the first period could very well stand alone and form a
complete tune in itself it is an Independent period ' : but the second period is not independent,
it can only exist by its connection with the first period. The tune " Hollingside " (Dykes)
is another case, slightly different from the preceding. Its first period closes with a Tonic
Cadence ; its second period opens in the key of the Subdominant, and closes, of course, in the
principal key. But the closing section of the second period is identical with the corresponding
section in the first period. Here, then, while the periods are mixed, they are also correlated.
The following is an example of Mixed Correlative Periods :

Ex. XVI.

Afton Water. (HUME.)

Correlative compound foot.

Correlative compound foot

Correlative three-quarter section.

Correlative compound foot
in the Dominant Key.

Correlative compound foot.

Correlative three-quarter section.


It will be noticed that the above example contains several highly interesting points. The
independence of the first period, finishing so conclusively as it does, will be readily admitted j
while the want of independence in the second period, by reason of its Dominant Section, is
clearly shown. The correlation of the two periods is remarkably strong. The correlative
compound foot No. i, in the first section, occurs again at the beginning of the last section.
The correlative compound foot No. 2, in the first section, occurs again in the key of the
Dominant in the third section. The correlative three-quarter section, No. 3, that closes the
first period, is used again at the finish of the second period.

There are other ways of combining mixed periods than those we have exemplified ; but, with-
the explanations given, the student should have no difficulty in analysing them.

\To be continued. \





BEFORE the members of the choir have any practical acquaintance with any particular
music which is to be practised, it will be necessary for the conductor to decide in what way the
work is to be treated ; in other words, the finished performance must be in the conductor's
mind before even the choir have seen the music. If the conductor merely begins his work
simultaneously with the choir, not only is there a great loss of time, but, speaking strictly, he is
not treating either the music or the choristers fairly ; with all his superior knowledge, he will be
at first acquaintance nearly as much at sea as his choristers ; and the more complex the piece
is, so much greater will become his difficulties. Private study of every composition should be
had previous to its introduction to the choir.

Every conductor, whether he has had previous study of a piece, or whether he begins simul-
taneously with his choir, has to decide at some time or another the best way to treat a piece,
so that he may produce the finest effect. In order to do so, he should be able to decide at once
what the nature of the writing is, harmonic or contrapuntal. The treatment of these two
great classes of writing is widely different ; and it is in his power of discriminating between
them, that the conductor derives his guides as to his future methods. Every student of har-
mony and counterpoint will naturally appreciate the use of the terms, harmonic and contra-
puntal writing ; but for the sake of those conductors who may not have grasped the meaning, or
rather the difference of the terms, a short explanation will be useful.

Harmonic writing defined simply is a melody or part harmonised as richly as the mind of
the composer can wreathe it ; that is to say, the effects are to be gained, not from the indi-
vidual vigour and excellence of the different parts, but entirely, or nearly so, from the wealth of
chord-contrasts to be found therein.

Contrapuntal writing is exactly the converse of this : its strength and effect lies in the vigour
and in the related cohesion of the parts, each of which is technically not only a melody, but
the melody.

In the former, the parts may be so simply written, that when criticised by the eye un-
assisted by the ear, the verdict might easily be condemnatory.

In the latter, the harmony may be such that, when criticised by the ear "nassisted by the
eye, the same verdict might be arrived at.

At the same time, it is far from impossible to say that harmonic writing cannot produce
vigorous and charming part-writing ; numberless examples could be quoted which are most
admirable from whichever point of view they may be examined. Again, it would be absurd to
say that contrapuntal writing may not contain the wealthiest of harmonic effects.

If the conductor finds the parts of a harmonic piece to be more than usually interesting,
he should take full advantage of them in perfecting the ensemble of the production ; or if, in a
contrapuntal piece, unusually fine harmonies come under his notice, due attention ought t^
be given, that such devices may be properly accentuated.



Many modern efforts in writing consist of fragments of a harmonic and contrapuntal nature,
indiscriminately mixed together, from which it would be difficult for any conductor, however
discriminating, to reduce order and form a successful whole ; in such a case a knowledge of
the two classes of writing will at least prove very useful, and should produce a better result
than qualified ignorance.

When the conductor has decided on producing an anthem, or any other kind of vocal work,
his first attention will naturally be given to the words.

The meaning, tone and style of the words is the first object in the mind of the composer;
so should these also be the first in the mind of the conductor.

If the composer has treated his words in a sympathetic and artistic manner, whatever inspira-
tion he may have derived from these words ought to be found embodied in the composition.
There undoubtedly are cases where the mind of the conductor is troubled at the apparently
inconsistent treatment of the words in the music ; but it is a fact that such inconsistencies are
often smoothed away by closer and more intimate acquaintance with the matter; even if this
does not come to pass, the fact that the composer has treated the words in such a way, ought

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