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number of those which have. This will be evident from the following considerations.

No major scale entirely resembles any other major scale in its groupings of black and white
keys.

No major scale entirely resembles in that same respect any minor scale in its harmonic form.

No minor scale in its harmonic form entirely resembles in that same respect any minor scale
in its melodic form.

The only cases in which entire " resemblance in grouping " occurs between any two scales,
are the following seven :

E7 major and C minor.

AT^it
*# >

** Jl "

E Ctf

B n > G#

Dfc Bk

UV- ,, ,, &*- ,,

Gz Et?

And it is to be noticed that in each of the above pairs the resemblance occurs only when the
scales are descending.

By the term "resemblance in grouping," is to be understood that entire coincidence of
Notes with Fingering which is found in the following pair :

E b MAJOR.





and in all the other six pairs given above. As an example of non-coinddencc y compare D major
with B minor.

D MAJOR. B MINOR.





87. It will be evident that, in the major scales, few groups consisting of only white keys are
possible, when it is remembered that, as each new scale appears proceeding from C major



THE PIANOFORTE 13

through the order of sharps to B, or through that of flats to Db a new black key is added on ;
in other words, that the number of seven white keys in the scale of C, is gradually reduced to
two in B and Dt?. (Among the minor scales there are to be found several examples in the
melodic form containing as many as five black keys, but in its harmonic form no minor scale
has more than four.)

88. A study of the following groups of black and white keys will be helpful to the student
while practising the Scales. In stretching forward or withdrawing the finger used for the black
key, let him do so always at the earliest opportunity ; that is, as soon as possible after the thumb
has played its note, whether in an ascending or a descending scale. For example : In the
first group




when the thumb (ascending) touches C, the first, second, and third fingers should quickly
pose themselves on D, E, and F# the third finger being stretched farther forward than
the second. And when the first G is played by the thumb, the whole hand should be
moved quickly over into position on G, A, B, C, and D (No. 23) previous to its being brought
back on the return journey. Similarly, when the thumb (descending) plays the second G,
the first, second, and third fingers must quickly take up their position on D, E, and F#
(No. 24), the second finger being placed not so far forward as the third. The student, in





No. 23.



No. 24.



adapting his hand to the requirements of the following groups, must remember that in each
of them there is some detail not to be found in any of the others ; and also, that a mastery
of the special difficulty contained in any particular group will ensure a more perfect execution
of the scale from which that group is derived.

89. Each group must be practised with the same hand at the various "octaves" of the



8va.





No. 25.



No. 26.



key-board, as, for example, No. i, when placed an octave higher (No. 25), or two octaves
lower (No. 26).

In " transplanting" the groups after this manner, let the player endeavour to alter his position
at the key-board as little as possible ; and while doing so, let him also try to keep that imaginary
line drawn across the knuckles (spoken of in the previous chapter), and the line of the front of
the keys, parallel with each other. This, while comparatively easy when the hand is engaged at the
middle octaves of the key-board, becomes more difficult when the extreme (high or low) octaves
are used.



14



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



~ Right Hand.
U +



Groupings for Scales.

IN MAJOR KEYS.

+



28+1+3





+ 2+1+2 +



+ L + *



G!?



- F I F-P-WT

^_lc_4__ 1 I i i ^ _.

i- UJ - ,, '- i- - -






+ 2 + a + *
=tt*3*=*==X



A^




+^**




4- 1




8 +



+,



Bl? 1




Left Hand



+ s + i +




D



t + ! + + 1 + 3







THE PIANOFORTE



4- a + i + a




IN MINOR KEYS.



II* 4- A -*- -t * ii * ii* 4- m

^-yi^^

' * i i Hi 1 """"^L.!" -~>- II - U i i I " ~ 't ipal





+ *ll+ Abiii + * +*+*+

==tt3e$gSlp^^

*"~Pb~_ *- i 1 - ?J.r-i*i - j <I - *~J'




Bi? ,

i _j - ' ? ! ! i i f r







i6



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



+ 1+ +1+ + +

-b - H*-^ -i *#*fr - 1-1 - -bi*-* "h 1 ^*-* n - w~*-*-f- -~<hH* -*- n

gi^ggfcE^iSjjgg: 4! ^^^^^sg^^S^^SS=Pfl
^^^^^^ - ^*<MJ- 1 ^-^**^ !! ^_ ^^"^J-^-H g^* !g ^^^S~_-



148



+ 3 + 1 +



+ 3 8 + 1 + J



^pE^Z^|^^| : p^^^^EEfe^^S3|

ai r *'! r i J ~L - - S>* J ^ ' rj^ ^**^ii5



Left Hand.




eE||-L!l H ?^



IL il fU-'hiw 2 +* ' - li+ S +33+ 3

H'i^^V-'^?^r^=^l^^^^?^ = h I F^^-|^
^&^^^5^ : fc^^^^^^&K%^^^ti^ rq^zipiH

^ LI um*^^ -^ '-i 2 ft-p-H k^*J '







EtT



BIT



^JM^^g^^^^fe^^^^^ife^^

j p 0* * L * 0- m u ^ ? i^ ^"



+838+ a + i + a + 3 a 3 + a +




THE PIANOFORTE



90. After the above groups have been studied at all parts of the key-board, the Diatonic
Scale may be taken up.

Every scale must be studied

1. With each hand separately, throughout the entire length of the key-board.

2. Starting from each of the places from which a two-octave scale is possible : thus, in
the case of C, from





531=1= ep=

X-_ j I_j



and



for the right hand ; and from







~ and




8va. bassa.

for the left hand.

3. With the right hand ascending, and with the left hand descending, three times as often
as with the right hand descending, or with the left hand ascending.

4. With both hands together, at the distance of one, two, three, and four octaves.

5. With every variety of shading, ranging from tone of all degrees of power (pp to ff}
similar in both hands, to tone of all degrees of power, the two hands playing as dissimilarly
as possible.

A few examples of this dissimilarity are here given.



R. H. / -









6. Starting from the highest notes of the key-board as often as from the lowest,

7. With the hands crossed, as in the following example :

i



L. H.




R. H.



+ 1



VOL. II.



i8



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



Diatonic Scales.

MAJOR MODE.



-

i f~^~* J ^~

fa^j-h- ~*-if- H




THE PIANOFORTE




34- 84- 3 f -0-



Sva.




MINOR MODE.
HARMONIC FORM.



MELODIC FORM.



4-





HARMONIC FORM.




MELODIC FORM.



+ 2 4-







D



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

HARMONIC FORM.
f




-t- 2



MELODIC FORM.










+ a



HARMONIC FORM.




MELODIC FORM.




HARMONIC FORM.




MELODIC FORM.




B



HARMONIC FORM.
a 11 wi



4 -*- + + a + s + s+ ^*^ ii^J 4-



MELODIC FORM.



+ a




THE PIANOFORTE

HARMONIC FORM.



21



+ +



i^=&-^:4iz^=H?
J-^jd gE-FHp-. f"F> , =C

E -i < 1 I L__l




MELODIC FORM.



P + __ ' __ - ' + '








HARMONIC FORM.



_ L __ iB^-fBd tj + -^ - ^ J - -L-,



+ +

MELODIC FORM.



s 4- a +




HARMONIC FORM.




MELODIC FORM.
Sva..



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



HARMONIC FORM.




3

__*j:_ g = ^fj = 1 j^r-S=f :*- +r ^> + '.-_:





MELODIC FORM.

A*



tfcldZ



_'-t L- + ^^ ^j->gp:ppJ. tJ

-^ ^ H ' m- "-F- H ! h-f 1 I - ,



+^



+ 2 +



*f7



^== A ^*~ ~ ^*+^ - ^-v* *-^

3 h+31++ 3 + 0-0



HARMONIC FORM.




MELODIC FORM.




\Ti be continued^



SINGING, SIGHT- SINGING, AND
VOICE PRODUCTION.

BY JAMES SNEDDON, Mus. BAG. CANTAB.

(CONTINUED.)

CHAPTER III.
EFFORT AND ITS REWARD.

The Tones Fan and Lah. Three Major Chords. Exercises with Melodic and
Chordal Imitation. Rhythms. Rules for Reading 1 . Solfeggios. Phrasing.
"Pitching" Tunes. Octave-marks in Sol-fa. Illustrated Pieces. Pedal
Tones, direct and inverted.

35. THE late David Kennedy, the Scottish singer, to give him the title which he was so
proud to wear, and which is engraved on his tombstone, was wont, in his homely, genial way,
to compare voice-cultivation with the preparation for planting, the gradual growing, the tending
and the reaping, that are associated with the life and work of a husbandman. You prepare the
soil ; you sow or plant your seed ; you wait patiently, tending diligently, while

" Sunbeams shining, earth combining,
And the summer rain "

all assist in bringing the desired fruits to autumnal maturity, till

" On every hand

Waves it yellow, rich and mellow,
O'er the land."

No one saw it in the act of growing, yet growing most assuredly it was all the time. So
with Art. Improvement must in every case, where permanency of attainment is desired, be
very slow; in most cases it will be imperceptible. "Art," says Ruskin, "properly so called, is
no recreation ; it cannot be learned at spare moments, nor practised when we have nothing else
to do. It must be understood, and undertaken seriously, or not at all. To advance it, men's
lives must be given, and to receive it, their hearts. Love of Art is the only true patronage."
Therefore, we would add, love your art or leave it ; for if, as Sir David Wilkie said in regard to
the art of painting, " there are no secrets " connected with music and song, neither, as we have
already said, is there any " royal road " to attaining excellence.

36. So much by way of warning : the following for encouragement. The student who has
perseveringly gone through the work suggested in the previous chapters, and has successfully
encountered the difficulties connected with the exercises therein given, will find that a new
power is being developed, and that " fields and pastures new," both of personal pleasure and
public usefulness, are opening to the mental vision. To take music on its lowest ground, it is



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



no mean thing to be able to give and to receive pleasure from the practice of any art. " Plea-
sure," said Dr. Johnson long ago, " is a word of dubious import : pleasure is in general dangerous
and pernicious to virtue : to be able, therefore, to furnish pleasure that is harmless, pleasure
pure and unalloyed, is as great a power as a man can possess." Exalted as this is, we claim
that vocal music, when joined to poetry of sterling merit, takes even a higher altitude ; for it
combines in the most unostentatious, unlocked for, and attractive way, instruction with amuse-
ment. A noble thought, a beautiful description, a useful maxim, brought home to the heart by
means of song, will, again like the seed spoken of by Kennedy, take root and be an influence
for good while mind and memory last. " Sing me a bairn's sang," said the dying Dr. Guthrie.
37. Attention being always directed to maintaining good position of the body and the
tongue, the opening of mouth and throat, and to the proper management and restraint of the
breath, voice exercises and the tuning exercise as given in Chap. II., should still occupy a few
minutes at the beginning of every lesson or hour for study. The following kooing exercise has
been found useful. Sing to koo as directed in par. 22, Vol. I., p. 72.

EXERCISE 44.




/I PI :d |s, :ri, I m :d |r :s, [ s, :



:n



:d |d :-



38. With five of the seven sounds of which the ordinary scale consists, the student is now,
it is to be hoped, fairly familiar. Our present and pleasant duty is to introduce, for purposes
of study, the two that remain. A full tone (major 2nd) below soh and a semitone above me,
will be found the subdominant, which, for singing purposes, is called fah; and a full tone above
soh, the submediant, whose singing name is lah (Rudiments of Music, Vol. I., p. n, par. 33). In
the tones already known, it was found that each left on the mind, when heard in its scale-relation,
a certain effect, or, as we might say, spoke to us in its own particular character, and, with its own
distinctive tone of voice, giving an idea of strength, sweetness, boldness, brightness, rest, motion,
and the like, according to its position and importance in the scale. The complete scale, however,
would seem to have been designed to give expression to every mood of mind, and every feeling
and emotion of which the human heart is capable. It is thus that a composer, by bringing into
prominence this or that note of the scale, is enabled to produce a bold, bright, joyful, peaceful,
pleasing melody, or, on the other hand, a composition, sad, solemn, mournful, as may be
required. In the latter class of tunes, fah and lah are frequently called upon to play very
important parts, supplying in this way the necessary dark ground to many a musical picture.

39. To take fah first. When placed in a strongly accented part of a measure, it may,
when properly preceded and followed, be said to produce an almost wailing effect. When so
treated, fah is, with perhaps the exception of te, the most easily recognised by the ear of any
note in the scale. Let the following be sung to figures as directed in par. 18, Vol. I., p. 70 :

MENTAL EFFECT OF FAH SOMEWHAT HIGH IN PITCH.




S^E^iFfEEE^E^piEp^

EiE BE



KEY



:t,d |r



m:-KEvG.s



|d.r ;n.s I



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING,



VOICE PRODUCTION



25



Before singing the following, firsts/7 the ear with the key by means of the tonic chord :



Front Song, "The Diver."



From MOZART.




Walking a -lone in the depths of the sea.

KKY A?. I! f :r .jn |f :r .,m If :r .,d| t,:-||K E v a|d :- :d I t, :-.l,:s, If :- :f I n:-:-||

There being only a semitone between the subdominant and the note below it (Rudiments of
Music, par. 35, p. n, Vol. I.), the tendency of fah when dwelt upon is as naturally downward,
as that of te is upward; hence its pleading, or, as Mr. Curwen calls it, its "awe inspiring" effect.

40. Lah, the sixth of the scale (submediant) has been spoken of as the " sorrowful " or
11 weeping " tone ; and where earnestness, tenderness, longing, yearning are to be expressed, it
is often employed to excellent purpose. Note the effect of lah in the following :

1 + + &C.



A b '* m


m






- m m


1L>


1 ( m ' \ m


F*=


iin A.









A


f




i 1 \ m -


\u) 4-










- L U_




III 1 *


M , 9


KEY B7. f|d :t| :d


lit- :d s,:-


Oh ! the

-:- || :d .r


auld boose, the auld boose, What tho" the rooms

n :- | r :d ) r :d | 1, :-d | s ( :-l,|d



The submediant being a z#/k?& tone above the dominant (Rudiments of Music, par. 35,
p. n, Vol. I.), lah does not so decidedly as fah show its desire for upward or downward pro-
gression, but its inclination to lean on soh may here be felt :



NOTE. The keys are purposely varied to prove that
these effects belong to the scale, not to any particular key.




The auld boose, the auld boose.

Q./:d I r :- |n :s | 1 :- | s
\ I




Last night there

KEvF./:d I n :- :r



were four Ma - ries.

d :n :s I 1 :-:-| s :-



Will ye no come back a - gain?

1 : -.1 |s :n | r : -.d | d - I



41. The chord relation oifah and lah being as root to third and third to root (Rudiments of
Music, par. 34, p. n, Vol. L), they are very frequently associated in melody, when their simi-
larity and yet ^-similarity of character may be easily observed, e.g., (establish key as before).



Slowly.



In the song " Too Late," (contrast /with/").



/\ b u f


L_P


p *


*








i r


1


r 1 I


f\\ * *-








9 * m


i}


{^


o tZ3


11


^\) Z


i I


I






9 \




t~s \_


\ S


J 1


KEY B^.

ft L


So


in the

1 :t


last the


dread - ful hour.

f : -.PI | n 1
*


Too

|f:-H-

*


late,


Too late,


ye

1 :d }


- y , V fc


\ j




I




1


I ll


I/I b u *


>








^ .


i 1 1


in\ y v J




XO




\ r>


1



can-not en-ter now, Too late,

r .r:- |r .r:- n:-|-:- 1,:-| -:-s,:- |



too late, ye can -not en-ter now.



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



JFah and lah, or lah and fah, are often seen in consecutive order in the bass or lowest
part of the harmony, when the downward tendency of fah in general gives place to a seem-
ing inclination for a steady, stately, upward march, e.g.



In bass clef.




From what has been said, and from the examples given, the student will perhaps be induced
to cultivate personal habits of observation in connection with this very interesting fact for such
it undoubtedly is viz., the mental effect of musical tones in the scale.

42. It would be well for the student now to study, or to re-study, carefully what has been said
on the diatonic scale in Rudiments of Music, Vol. L, Chap. III., pp. 10 and u, and which need
not be here repeated. As there explained, the key of C being in what may be called its first
octave neither very high nor very low and so offering the scale at a pitch capable of being
performed by most voices, is taken as the standard (sometimes called the natural') key. Study
it here also as known, (i) by letters, (2) by its scientific names, (3) by its singing or Sol-fa
names, and (4) by its names as given by Mr. Curwen for the different "effects" connected
with the various tones according to their scale relation

Scientific. Singing or Sol-fa Names. Mental Effects.

Octave Tonic. d 1 Replicate of the strong tone.

Leading Note. Te The piercing or sensitive tone.

Submediant. Lah The sad or weeping tone.

Dominant. Soh The grand or bright tone.

Subdominant. Fah The desolate or awe-inspiring tone.

Mediant. Me The steady or calm tone.

Supertonic. Ray The rousing or hopeful tone.

Tonic. Doh The strong or firm tone.

Doh, me, and soh, collectively considered, are sometimes called the strong tones or pillars of
the scale ; the others in their various degrees being leaning tones, te and fah, the one going up
and the other coming down, showing most of this tendency.

43. The following exercises are designed to give familiarity with the scale tones, (i) in easy
and (2) in more difficult positions or successions. They should be (i) sol-faed, (2) sung to la,
and (3) sung to various rhythms as directed, par 19. Melodic Imitation means that a phrase
of melody (generally three or four notes) is taken as a " subject," and imitated higher or lower
in pitch by matter which follows. Thus in Ex. 45, the phrase m f m d is imitated by s I s m.
The ear is in this way led to expect what comes after. In Exs. 51 to 58 the imitations are
mostly by the parts or steps or constituents of different chords, as root, third, &c.

MELODIC IMITATION.

To be sung backward as well as forward.

Leaps to Doh, Me, and Soh. Leaning tones by step of a Second.

EXERCISE 45.
3t





SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION






MELODIC IMITATION (continued}.
EXERCISE 46.

=4 =j=1 -



KEY F. / d



r r

r n f s f

EXERCISE 47.




j_-



KEY D.



D. / n



nsfnsd'tlsnsd 1

EXERCISE 48.




-] -1




i > ^


i r




_J J


J J J r r r


m *





KEY Eb. / d



n s



f s

EXERCISE 49.



PI S




=t



KEY G.



d s f s d r

EXERCISE 50.



zeiH








j


n




, "


,






- 1


8 J 4 f


p


f


1










|


,






,^2 Kt











J i


*






*







. I **r


.1..


1


*








4 *




-L





Dt>.| d 1 t d 1 ri s f s d n f n d 1 s 1 s

EXERCISE 51.




r.


F-





4-





j 1


f


I -


-


^





J f



KBY B. f d r ri



1, t, d



s, 1, s, d t, d



IMITATION BY CHORD CONSTITUENTS.

Leaps to " Leaning" Tones.

EXERCISE 10.




^



KEY G. /



. / d s, n d r 1,



r n



d 1 s f n



EXERCISE 52.



dr n H d :




^





.__J__ i L_ f _



KBY c. { d ns ri rf If n st s 1 td 1



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

IMITATION BY CHORD CONSTITUENTS (continued).
EXERCISE 53.



l^Ktfjf - -j


J _i _i


9 F r r


KEY D. / n d n


- ^J j 3 f ^j=^=d

sfrflsns

EXERCISE 54.


i

d 1 t r 1 d 1 1

m 1


TOT 1 i"


* ^ p 1 ff


r= ? -


\\) * t 9





i


KEY C. / S n S




d d 1 d 1 f r 1 t r 1

EXERCISE 55.


s n 1 r 1 d 1 ||


' X k^^r^: : p




m * \ *


f fl\ I? n 1




r


'VlJ f - j p


- -




KEY DK/ d d 1 n


s r r 1 f 1 n n 1 s

EXERCISE 56.


r - - -

t d 1 r* d 1 II

II


./I b ll f _l


Vm 1 * 9


_ p .


(dr r


r f j _i r











KEYEb./d 1 1 f

7^ f 1"


1 i m i

Isndnrst
EXERCISE 57.

, F r i r F-^=


s n s d 1 J




_f_ p_ i J p f_l d
d r f li r n s t|

EXERCISE 58.

f - f


d r n d ||

31 n


*-J[ k r^m 1




*=*=-




^ _i 'f


r *


VM/ ^


-


1


KEvAk/n 8| d


1
nflirfsns


~ t
t t n r d



44. The student, who has sung with care and intelligence through the above exercises, will,
it is believed, be able to give vocal expression to any interval likely to occur in this chapter ;
and will have become familiar with all the constituents of the three great or major chords found
in the ordinary scale. (See Rudiments of Music, Vol. I., p. 10, pars. 30 to 34). As there
described, a common chord consists of three parts, viz., a root, a third and a fifth. Heard or
sounded together, these notes form harmony ; heard in succession, they form melody. Melody
may, in this way, be said to be harmony drawn out, and, conversely, harmony may be considered
as melody condensed. When the notes of a chord are sounded one after the other, they are said
to be heard in Arpeggio^ i.e., after the manner of the harp.



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION



ILLUSTRATION THREE MAJOR CHORDS IN KEY O.



HARMONY.



MELODY.



B -
/ i


8th C? K<>ot


- lrt& i




-. . .- ^_^ f^j


*v ^ >


4-Root &




\ n




Hoot 5 1


^


' C2 1 c>


Tonic. Subdominant. Dominant. Tonic. Subdominant. Dominant.




d 1 :-


f 1 :-


s 1 :-


d n s d 1


f 1 d' f || s t r 1 s 1


.


s :-


d 1 :-


r 1 :-








m :-


1 :-


t :-






.


d :-


f :-


s :-







Root .

Fifth .

Third .

Root .

In tonic sol-fa the names of chords are always represented by Capital letters : thus D, F, S,
would signify the chords, not the notes of which these letters are the initials.

45. The difficult and frequently much neglected subject of Time should now occupy the
student's attention. Letwhat is said on compound duple time (Rudiments of Music, Vol. I., p. 26,
pars, 77 to 79) be carefully re-studied. In the following, let the student note the different effects
which in a, b, c, and d can be produced from the same notes by altering the rhythm. To assist
in forming a true conception of the accent required, and the relations that exist between the simple
and its compound, (a) is given in both. Sing (i) to la on one tone for time only, and (2) in time
and tune.

EXERCISE 59. Simple Duple Time.




KEYEb/|d t r.n :f - ,n I r:-,s :n ,f ,
II I

The same in Compound Duple Time.

-N




:r :n | f :- :n |r :- :s | n :f :s II:-:- 1 1:- :- I d 1 :- :-








r :- :m I f :PI :r | s :- :- I n :f ;s | 1 :- :t I d 1 :-:- |- :-:-



KEY Eb :d I r :n :f n :- :r







It:-:-,-:-:-!*:^-!-:-:-!

The last three forms should now be re-written in \ time. Study the following rhythm in
quadruple time, (i) to time names, (2) to la on one tone, (3) with melody in b and c.



3



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

EXERCISE 60.




id' : -.d 1 1 d 1 .d 1 , d 1 :d' .d' I d'.d'.d^d 1 :d' .d 1 | d 1 :d' | d 1 :-. ,d',d' | d 1 d'.d'id' ,d' .d 1 ,d' j

Taa-aa-tai taa-te - fe taa-tai ta fa-te-fe taa tai taa taa Taa - aa te-fe Taa te-fe Ta-fa te-fe



(*)



The above Rhythm with Melody.




/fl 1 . :d'. | d 1 :- lI
Taa sai Taa sai Taa-aa.



: -.r | n .r ,d ;t, .d I r ,n .f ,s :1 .s | f



:n



(c) The same Rhythm.

K.EYG-.




/Is ;- .1 ,t|d' .t ,1 :s,f ,n,r | d. :t,. | d :- II /In : -.r | d. t, ,d :r .d |



/|n,r.d,t| | 1| .f | n :r I s :- .f ,m |r .d ,t, ;l,,M,r



:r



d :-



In the same way study the following in Simple Triple Time (three-pulse measure) :

EXERCISE 61.



- a -i



KEY 01 d 1 : -.d 1 :d' .d 1 | d 1 : :d' | d 1 :d' .d 1 :d' .d 1 I d' :d' I

Taa-aa tai taa tai taa saa Taa taa taa tai taa tai taa taa saa




-F-



/Id 1 .d 1 ,d' :d' .d 1 :d' .d 1 I d 1 :- :d' I d'.d'.d 1 ,^ :d' . :d' . I d! :- :

Taa te-fe taa tai taa tai Taa-aa taa ta- fa -te-fe taa saa taa saa taa - aa saa

The foregoing Rhythm with Melody.




:1 I s :f .n :r .d n : r



: }








{[n .r ,d r^jn ;f j j 1 : :d' | t ,1 .s ,f :n :r I d : :



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION



The same Rhythm.



r gn^~^q:~ ~ =zq

i=^_feE^E?E=l




j [PI .f ,3 :1 .s :r



46. The student is now so far advanced that an endeavour should occasionally be made to
read (sing at sight) from the staff notation, without the help of sol-fa, and from sol-fa without
the aid to the eye which the staff imparts. For the latter purpose, careful study should always
be made of the position of the given notes on the scale-chart or Modulator ; and, to assist in
sol-faing from the staff, let attention be given to the following extended RULES FOR READING.


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