John Greig.

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The constituents or parts of a chord (any chord), counting from the root upward and fifth down-
ward, are always similarly placed. Thus root, third, and fifth of the tonic and dominant chords
given above are on lines, while the same parts of the subdominant are in spaces. The octave
of any note, whether we count from above or from below, is always ^V-similarly placed. Thus
while the roots of two chords exemplified above are on lines, the octave roots are in spaces. In
other words, thirds, fifths, and sevenths, up or down, are similarly placed, while fourths, sixths,
and eighths are ^-similarly placed. Let what is here stated be verified. Where the melody pro-
ceeds by step of a major or minor second, the student will have little or no difficulty if the
position of doh (or the key-note) be kept in mind. All that is to be done in such a case is
simply to induce the voice to ascend or descend the ordinary scale with correct intonation.

47. A. Solfeggio is a " Song without words," written with intent (i) to cultivate sight-singing;
(2) to assist the student in acquiring staying power, or the power of sustaining, another way of
saying " learn to breathe properly : " and (3) to teach the correct delivery of the different parts
of a composition, i.e. PHRASING (par. 24). The two part solfeggios which follow are given
alternately in staff and sol-fa, thus saving space, and affording the student an opportunity of
translating from the one notation into the other. Experience will very speedily prove that, in
a case like this, the pen is the quickest and surest of all teachers.



EXERCISE 61. Sing and Translate into Sol-Fa.



J. S.




ah



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

EXERCISE 62. Sing and Translate into Staff Notation in J Time.



KEYQ.
:d t, :-.d|r


* ~
:t, d : -.r | n :d r : -.n f :1 s :-


* J. s.
1 - :s


:pii S| : -Pii 1 f


, :S| ri, :-.Si|d :d t, : -.d r :d t, :-


1- :t,


Ah


ah ah . .


... ah


*/

11 : -.m |f :r


. Ft

s : -.r |PI :d f : -.m | r :s d :-


ne.
|- 1 d


d : - |- :d


t,.d :r.t,|d :d 1, : -.d |d :t, d :-


1- !


ah


ah .....


ah .



r .d :t,d | r :t, I d ;r .m | f :r_
: | ;s, I l,.s,:f,.8,| 1, :f.



r


n


.r


:d


r


PI


:f


s


:-




-


:s


f,


s.




|i


t,


d


:d


ti.l,


:s


.1,


t,



ah



ah



ah



EXERCISE 63. Sing and Translate into Sol-Fa.



ah.



J. S.



m



r r

ah



r rT T

ah .



r



Ah



4



mt



f



m



r r r r *



ah ah

Tra la la la la la la



\ P

ah



Tra la. &c.



a



i



=



a



r r Ittt r ~f~^~ T r *&&*

Tra la la la la la la la, Tra la, &c.



^



T r



-



EXERCISE 64. Sing and Translate. (May be sung to words by Mrs. Hemans.)



1



KEY F.



J.S.



:d


t,.d :r .n |f :t,


d :- |- :n


r .n ;f .s


H :r




n :-


T~- *s ]




s, :s, |1, :s,


n, :- 1- :d


t, :t,


Id :t,


d :-


1- :r j


Come to me, gen - tie
Come to the fold - ing


sleep! I pine, I
flow'rs, To birds in


pine for thee ;
for - est deep ;


Come
Long,


*-== * ==. ~

Id' :t |1 :m |1


"Ts |f :r


B^IS^


Id^^fr


n : -.f


Ts :l_Jt 1


|n


:r |d :d |f


:PI |r :d


t, ;d .t.


111 :t,


d :-.r


In :f



with thy spells, the soft, the deep, And set my long - ing spir - it free ; Come
dark and dream - less be thine hours, Oh, gen - tie strength - re - viv - ing sleep ; Long,



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION

EXERCISE 64 continued.



33



d 1 :t



:m



n :r Id :d



1 :s |f :r

f :n Ir :d



s .f :n_ |d
t| :d ,t| 1 1|



m.



with thy spells, the soft, the deep, And set my spir - it free.

dark, and dream - less be thine hours, Oh, gen - tie, gen - tie sleep !



EXERCISE 65. Sing and Translate.




La la la



La la



La



La la



la



r r^



La






H



KEY C.
Ah .



EXERCISE 66. Sing and Translate,
ah .



fl



n .r :n .f | s :f



n : -.f | s :-
d .t,:d .r I n :r



1 .s ;1 .t | d 1 :t

*

d : -.r I PI :-



j.s.

ah ,



Ah



f_.pj:f_.s | 1 :f

ah .



s :1 .t | d 1 :r'

n :- | * :f

ah



pi 1 :- I

d 1 :- *| t_.l :s .f

ah
VOL. II.



n :f .s



r 1 ;n' .f | s 1 :t
d 1 :- |t .1 :s .f



ah ...



n .d :r .PI | f .s :1 .1



ah



ah



:-



d 1 :-


r' :-


n' :-


\ r' :-


d 1 :-


1 - :


:s .f


PI .d :r .PI


f -s:l .t


d 1 :-


I t .1 :s .f


n


1 - :








^^^
















ah .







34



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



48. To OBTAIN THE PITCH OF THE KEY-NOTE, or doh where a pianoforte or other in-
strument is not at hand the prongs of a C tuning-fork are struck or pressed together. The student
with ready voice takes up the sound so produced, and runs down, with correct scale intonation,
and to the letter names, as far as the note or sound required. Upon this sound the voice rests
for a brief period, swelling in volume, the singer mentally calling it doh ; and afterwards
sounding the other notes of that tonic chord of which this doh would be the root. Thus, if
the key of B were to be set up, the student, obtaining the first sound from the fork, would sing

C, { | B: | - : doh, soh, me, doh. For the key of A the procedure would be C, B, A

(equal to d 1 1 1) and this A, dwelt upon as before, would be elected as doh, and the notes of
its chord sounded. So with the other tones. Let it be remembered that the letter and singing
names of the scale are, in the case under consideration (key C), exactly alike (par. 42). In
connection with this exercise it may help the memory to observe that, between C and its octave
below in descending this standard scale, we spell the words b-a-g bag, and f-e-d jfo/.

49. In "pitching" tunes, it is frequently found convenient mentally to ask the question,
" Does the sound C occur as a constituent of the scale, in the key now wanted ? " If it does,
then the quickest, and, in general, the surest way to obtain that key-note would be to call C by
this scale name. For example

C in the scale of Db stands in the scale relation of te to doh



C
C
C
C

C



Eb
G

F



ray to doh
me to doh
lah to doh
fah to doh
soh to doh



In pitching the key-note F, therefore, it would be best simply to sound C as soh and run
down s f m r d. The above being known, other " short-cuts " may be left to the search of the
student. Musicians, however, do well to memorise the sound of the C tuning-fork, so that the
power of pitching a tune properly may not always depend on the possession of this instrument.

50. In connection with the standard scale, and the Tonic sol-fa notation, attention should now
be directed to the proper use of the marks one or two (i or 2) above or below the notes, the usual
and general name for which is " octave marks." It was explained in Rudiments of Music, Vol. I.,
p. 4, par. 10, that, when music for men's voices was printed in or with the treble clef, it was usually
sung an octave lower than printed. So in sol-fa, C (or doh in key C), which is really the sound
for the fourth space in this clef, if sung as now said, would sound as middle C an octave lower.
Thus music written or printed is kept clear of a great many really unnecessary octave-marks.
The standard scale (beginning at middle C) is unmarked, the first mark above appearing with the
octave of doh. This is a model for all the keys, the only difficulty associated with the subject
being that the singable portions of keys B and Bb, A and Ab, are so low in the ordinary voice,
that the fact of many of the scale notes appearing with lower octave marks is apt to con-
fuse the learner. This small " lion in the path " may easily be overcome by study of the
following :

ILLUSTRATION FOR OCTAVE MARKS.

STANDARD SCALE. i | j



(nv


i 1 \~


-y-


1


-jf> *=*?


^^=


= i




1 J. J


-V-









d 1



f 1



s 1



IN KEY OF




m,



s, 1, t.



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION



35



Key B would be marked in. the same way as B|j, and keys A and Afr would simply mean
the transposition of the same, a semitone or a tone lower, with, in sol-fa, the same octave
marks.

51. The following pieces are designed for further practice in connection with words. When
singing tunes such as Ex. 67, written in three-pulse measure, care should be taken, not so
much to mark with the voice the strong accent, as to leave the others unaccented. A PEDAL is
a long sustained sound, the root note of either the dominant chord or the tonic chord, which
generally appears in the bass or lowest part, and may or may not belong to the general har-
mony. This/dY/a/ is sometimes transferred to one of the upper parts, in which case it is said
to be inverted. Of THE INVERTED PEDAL an example is given in Ex. 68. The voices which
sing the pedal note should endeavour to make up for want of variety in pitch by variety in
degrees of intensity, the strong accents being in general well marked, while the weaker are rather
lightly sustained.

52. In Ex. 69, we have ventured to give a well-known and popular part-song in four part
harmony, because (i) the upper two may be sung without the lower parts; (2) because the
effect will be greatly enhanced if the lower can be added ; and (3) because where only two
voices or parts can be had, the chords can be played by way of pianoforte accompaniment
Ex. 70 is a very fine song by Burns, set to a beautiful old melody. It will be found very
effective, either as a simple duet or as a two-part chorus.



EXERCISE 67. WE MERRY MINSTRELS.
ROUND FOR THREE PARTS.



mf , dim. PURCELL.


zfoN ; J J J


111111





E3EE3EE=E


' i




i :


-


fB> 4 - :




^ ^


u - ^ *


b=3 J !_!



We mer - ry min - strels soft mu - sic en - joy ;



For mu - sic doth



X k 2


1 1 \


1


-rf r p3


F^-F^rN



ma - lice and ba - tred de - stroy.



We sing so blithe - ly we




dim.



drive a - way care,



And with our soft bar - mon - y ban - ish de-



fe






spair.



Then



hail,



sweet



sci ence ! All hail ;



hear



my



Tftr P


j


L-


1 1 1 ^


^




~n-i rjl


[Z=: ' : ~


AM7 1


~d~





jhJ *-^


i 1 1


1 i


^3 EE




Jr

sound !


^"

No plea


- sure like mu


T?
sic


+ +'

on earth


* i

can be found.



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



EXERCISE 68. A BOAT SONG.



KEY G mf cheerfully

d :r | PI :d



f :n |r :d



cres.

n :f
d :r



|s
|n



:n
:d



:s

;m



Arranged from CALLCOTT.

s :s |s :s



:d



n,



d :n



(1) When the morn is bright - ly glow - ing, When the sum - mer breeze is blow - ing, On the wave the

(2) When the moon is bright - ly gleam - ing, And the wave with sil - ver stream-ing, When the ev'n - ing




:f
:r



:f
:r



:PI
:d



:s
:d



d :-



sun-beams danc-ing, As our nim-ble oars are glanc-ing, Glide we o'er the bright blue sea,
bell is peal - ing, O'er the wa - ters gent - ly steal-ing, Glide we o'er the bright blue sea,



a :s



a :t, |d :-



si :fi In, :-



n :d |f :f,

Glide we o'er the bright blue sea ;
Glide we o'er the bright blue sea ;



s :s ; s :-
Glide we o'er .


- :- |- :-


- : - 1- : ~


Thou-sand stars .






: 1 :


n :r d :m


f :r |n :d



O'er our heads the blue vault bend - ing,
Thou - sand stars a - bove are shin - ing,



:1



:n



n :r | d :PI f :r | m :d f :f | n :d r

And the clouds their swift course wend - ing, Trace their shades on sea
Sweet-est sights and sounds com - bin - ing, All their charms on us



:r | d

:t, Id

and shore.

to pour.



Ii 11 | f :r
Oh, what plea - sure



s, .l,:t|.

thus to



| d :d.

mea - sure,



mf

a :1 |f :r

Oh, what plea - sure



mf



i .s



:d



thus to mea - sure,



cres.
\ 8

1 n


:s
:s,


|s :s
| d :n




f


= 1


Oh,


what


plea - sure thus


to


1 S
1 "


:s
:d


1 1 :1
If :fi


S
S|


it,


Cheei


-ful


song and nim


- ble



1 s


:f


f


:f


If :f


1 n


:r


r


:s,


1 t, :r


mea -


sure, Ob,


what


plea - sure



frail
' a :s

m :d

Cheer - ful



I 1



a :f
n :r

thus to



| f :n
| r :d

mea - sure,



Id



song



and nim - ble oar.



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION 37



WM. BALL.



EXERCISE 69. THE VILLAGE CHORISTERS.



Come, broth - ers, tune the lay,



J. MOSCHELES.



w^r- r




_ P ^ J*


s p ~~





ft a _(J


ICp 4 wh


' J


! ! !


: 2


5 ~u jt


*i *


J Allegro vivace. ^ ^ ~p~" V
i

Come, broth - ers, tune the lay ; For

. ..,_ m. , - -. ,. (-__ ^..-r .







r* ^


i? ^ ^


H t*


I W^> 4 r-




1




*



Ye jo - vial sons of song.



r v, i/ I J
^k^- *- *-


-s=it^


1 J~


'


^=rUJ -4-1


-j-' > .


1 J 'rl


F-M


1 i -m * 5* *

r f- i* i


*-t m> "~~r p^"

f 5 I


all who can must sing to - day,
i i


Ye




4 ^ s j J. ^


- r




(m}' h |


!Z










LJ


^


^ ^




*






p


r*






r*


1 ^ ^-7 I i


^ ^


^ff jC


- F




5





!




^ r r-







r^^r



s



S3 = E ?



r ' f



jo - vial sons of song. Here, at plea - sure's sum - mons throng, Now



*=



N *-



pray let all be har - mon - y. Be - ware !



be - ware ! Now pray let all be



\ S N >







u_p-



Now pray let all be har-mon - y. Be - ware ! be-



* Called / in Sol-fa. See Chap. IV.



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

EXERCISE 69. THE VILLAGE CHORISTER continued.







Tra la, la,



Tra la, la, la,



J.



9



la, la,



^=f=f=
~^rt-\



P :



^



cres.

S3^2



r



Repeat pp ad. lib.

* tn



Tra la, la,



la,



la, la,



Tra



la, la, la,



la.



J



H*



irir






=*=



2 Now we with Primo start, we'll take the Alto part,
The rest will try their choral art ;

Now you, sir, mind what you're about, mind what you're about,
Keep time, or else you'll all be out.

Now, pray let all be harmony, &c.

3 So far there's nothing wrong, so far there's nothing wrong,
For ever live the soul of song ;

Let all the burthen share, let all the burthen share,
And Music's glorious praise declare !
Bravissimo ! what harmony ! Aha ! aha !

Sweet harmony, brave harmony, aha ! aha !

Victoria, a noble strain ! We'll have it yet again.
Tra la, la, &c.



BURNS.

KEY F Dolce



EXERCISE 70. THE LEA RIG.



Old Scottish Melody, arranged by J. S.



:d.r



n :s, |s,



n



|d :n
In, :d



r :-.ri [ f .n :r .d
t, :-.d 1 1| :1|



When o'er the nil) the east - ern star Tells bught - in" time is near, my



I'-**.



m



;d'.t



:n



:d'.s

;d.t,



PI :d



4 }

n, J



An' ow - sen frae the fur - row'd field Re - turn sae dowf an' wear - y,



f

\:PI



Doon



|:d.r



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION

EXERCISE 70. THE LEA RIG continued.



Lf


L.


b~|d


:-.n


LD


:f^s


"U


f


:f


|H


:-.d


LA


:r.n


If


by


the


burn,


where scent


- ed


birks



I'll meet thee on



the



lea



Id
Jn,

rig,



:-.d


r :


-.PI


1 f -n :r .d


n


!*l


:-.d


t, :


-.d


11. :1,


s (


:f.


Wi' dew


are


hang - in* clear,


my


:d'.t


1 :


-.8


jl.t rd'.s


n


:d


:m


f :


-.n


|f .r :d.t,


d


:n,


My ain




kind dear


- ie,



39



11 1

I'' J



jo,

Id

I n.
O.



2 In mirkest glen, at midnicht 'oor,

I'd rove an' ne'er be eerie, O,
If through the glen I gaed to thee,

My ain kind dearie, O.
Although the nicht were ne'er sae wild,

An' I were ne'er sae weary, O,
I'd meet thee on the lea-rig,

My ain kind dearie, O.



3 The hunter lo'es the mornin' sun,

To rouse the mountain deer, my jo ;
At noon the fisher seeks the glen,

Alang the burn to steer, my jo.
Gie me the 'oor o' gloamin* grey,

It mak's my heart sae cheerie, O,
To meet thee on the lea-rig,

My ain kind dearie, O.



CHAPTER IV.

VOICE EXERCISES, AND HOW TO PERFORM THEM.

Importance of "Ear Tests." With Explanations and Examples. Necessity of
a Thorough Knowledge of Music. Positions of Chords with Illustrations.
The "Cadence" or "Close" in Music, with Illustrations. Transition or
Change of Key. Tetrachords. Transition to first-sharp and first-flat
Keys. How brought about and Effects produced. Method of writing
Transition. Illustrations, Exercises. Solfeggios, Sequences, Inversion of
Parts. Illustrative Pieces.

53. With the notes of the complete scale at command, voice exercises of a more interesting
character may now take the place of those given in previous chapters. At this comparatively
early stage, the aim, both of teacher and student, should be to get the voice thoroughly under
control and perfectly in tune. The exercises which follow, giving the constituents of the three
major chords in various easy and melodious positions, are designed to assist all earnest workers
in attaining these ends. These exercises should prove interesting in themselves, but the interest
attaching to them will be greatly increased if a soft, chordal pianoforte (or harmonium) accom-
paniment can be given while they are being sung. Such an accompaniment both sustains the
voice and gratifies the ear. Here, therefore, several of these are given. The student would,
however, do well to study the chordal notes that are being employed in the melody (par. 44),
so that when no accompaniment is printed, it will be easy to supply its place by personal inven-
tion. To assist in attaining this power, the first letter of the chord to be employed will,
meantime, occasionally be given : thus T for tonic, D for dominant, and S for subdominant
(par. 44).

54. Attention being given to previous instructions as to position of body, breathing, opening
of mouth and throat, and to the training of the tongue to lie flat, let Exs. 71 to 73 be sung



40 THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

softly, (i) to koo, (2) to at (as in fail), and (3) to ah, in phrases as indicated. The higher notes
should be sung very softly, and the tones should be formed well forward in the mouth.

EXERCISE 71.




__;.



II d:n|s:n Is :m|d :m If :1 |d':l Id 1 1 | f :1 Is :t | r':t |r':t|s:t |d':d|n:s |d':-|-:-j







EXERCISE 72. May be sung to above Accompaniment.









4-* I-



KEYO||n:d 's :dl n :d |n:s |l:f ld':f II :f |1 :d' |t:s |r':s |t:s | tir 1 |n :d'| s :n

EXERCISE 73.



I



r':t |s :rd:n | s:d' n:s |d':m' I f':r'|t:s Id 1 :- |-









3^3-E







22:



/I n 1 :d'|s:n |d' :s | n :d It, :r | s :t I r :s 1 1 :r' |n' :d'| s :n |d':s I PI :d It, :r | s :t I d 1 :










122:



:s_



SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION 41

55. There are two ways by means of which musical knowledge can be tested or demonstrated,
viz. (i) by being able to perform it atjirsf sight, and (2) by being able to write down a melody,
or harmonised piece when it is performed by another. The latter is undoubtedly the more
difficult of the two, requiring considerable natural ability, and thorough familiarity with all the
notes of the scale, and as the student advances with accent, rhythm, and, in short, all that
pertains to music. Meantime, it will be well to study the scale-tones without regard to time.

56. Ear exercises, or " ear tests," as they are frequently named, should now occupy a brief
portion of time at every lesson. They may be directed (i) to finding out one particular tone,
the student being asked to tell where soft comes, or on what la, first, second, third, or fourth,
me was heard to speak; or (2) the learner may be asked to name all the notes of a short and
simple phrase. Experience proves that it is more difficult to tell by ear when the melody goes
by leap, as doh, soh, me, than when it moves by step of a second, as me, ray, doh. These should
therefore be alternated according to the progress made, and the ability manifested.

57. Every tone of the scale having its own peculiar characteristics, it follows that the more
these are brought into prominence the easier will the recognition of the tone be. Thus in doh,
te, doh, /a/i, the latter tone could be easily named ; for (i) te is introduced and decides the key, the
little phrase thus keeping close to the key ; and (2) lah is contrasted with te and doh, and thus its
plaintiveness is made evident even to the ear only partially trained. The phrase \\doh\ \lah
\fah \soh || is, on the contrary, very difficult, because it leads away from the key, and suggests
the tones, soh, me, doh, r, and (2) the contrast of note against note is not good, the contrasting
note soh being the last, and, in point of accent or stress, the weakest of the four. A few
examples of ear tests progressively arranged are here given. Ear tests, to be played or sung to
la, by the teacher :

Three notes by Step. Keys C to F or G.

Id :r |n :- (In :r |d :- II n :f |s :- (Is :f |n :- II



(I 1
(I

(I



d 1 :t |1 :- 111 :t |d' :- II r :n |f :- || f :n |r :-

Three notes by Leap. Same keys.

d :n |s :- [In :s | d 1 :- ||d' :s |n :- II s :n |d :-

n :d |s :- II s :d |n :- || s :n |d' :- ||d' :n |s :-



Four notes by Step. Same key.

:d' |t :1 |s || s |1 :t |d' lid lr :n |f II f |n :r |d II
:r |n :f |s |s If :n |r |1 |s :f |m ||n |f :s |1 ||

Four notes chiefly by Leap. Same keys.

Id :n |s :d' lid 1 :m |s :d |n :s |d :d' II n :d |d' :s II
d 1 :t |r' :s Is :t |r' :d' Id 1 :1 |f :m n :1 |s :d I

Five notes chiefly by Step.

\ :1 |s :f |n II n :f | m :r I'd llm :d |s :f |ii |s :n |d' :t
i :r |d :t, |d ||d' :r' | d 1 :t |T ||d :t, |d :r \n ||

Five notes by Leap or Step.

/Id It, :r :f |n :- llm |r :f :1 |s :- ||d' |s :t :r' |d' :-
Each of these forms may be multiplied and varied to almost any extent.



42 THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

58. While it is by no means necessary, or even desirable, that every vocalist should also be
a composer, it may safely be said that the most intelligent singer will always be the one who
has the most thorough musical knowledge. Some acquaintance with harmony is almost a
necessity to every interpreter of the ar/-song ; and therefore a few hints, in connection princi-
pally with the tonic sol-fa notation of the subject, are here given.

59. Position Of Chords. When the root of a chord is in the bass or lowest part of the
harmony, the chord is said to be in its first or root position ; when the third of the chord is in
the bass, the chord is in its first inversion ; and when \hzfifth is in the bass, the chord is in its
second inversion. (See Article on Harmony.) These chord-positions are distinguished in
sol-fa by the letters a, b, and c, thus



Root Positions.



ILLUSTRATIONS.
First Inversions.

ft



Second Inversions.



S


r 1


d 1


d 1


s


f


n


n


t


1


s


r


d


d


d


8


f


n


t,


1


s,


Da


Sa


Fa ' Db


S3


F3 DC



(c}
t

S

r



1
f

d

Fa



The bass or lowest note always gives the name to the chord-position: either of the other
notes may be upper or undermost, in pitch, close together, or far apart, the names and relations
remaining the same. Observe that (as before stated) the chord names are given in capitals.
The a position is in general understood, the others are always distinctly marked.

60. Nearly every chord sounds best when it is in its root or a position, which is, therefore,
as a rule, greatly to be preferred. For the sake, however, of melody and variety in the lowest
part, the b position is not unfrequently introduced ; thus, key C, || d :m | s :d' || is much more
graceful and gratifying to the ear than || d :d | s :d' || The c position of a chord is not nearly
so sonorous, or ear-satisfying, as either of the others ; and, consequently, in its use is subject
to many limitations. Briefly it may be said here, that the c position of a chord is most effective
if the bass note is (i) employed as a kind of "pedal" or repeated note, and (2) if it is ap-
proached and quitted by step of a second, e.g. :



o (a)


ILLUSTRATIONS.

_) 1 1 ^_ n ( fL| 1 _J 1_, $ J 1 1 [_ T ._ H ,


>y ^^E


1 * 1 '\


; ^ P~* * *


^~




i* ^ ^ mT


-=J- -


1


VK~^


=3 F *-


i-r . r-





^2


r* f f


-S i


r rJ


'l 'l 'l ''


1 r i i i r


r


*Sfe*~


r P~~T ^~


1 &


-gr \ =L





&


* i 1 1


=^


KEYF


w

s :1 |s :s
n :f |PI :r
a :f |s :s

d :d |d :t :
Yc S3


Ei:;:


(*)

8 :s ] s :s
n :t, |d :r
s :s ! s :s
d :r in :t,
Sc D3 S3


El:;:


l 1 1

s :s s :f
n :t| |d :d
s :s js :1
d :r |n :f
Sc D3


(* i -H

n .r |d :-
d :t, ]d :-
s :s }PI :-
s :s. Id :
DC



[To be continued^



THE VIOLIN.

BY W. DALY.

SECTION II. (continued).

AT this stage the subject of bowing must again be considered. Hitherto the difficulties of
bowing have been, firstly, to get the bow to move properly on the strings ; secondly, to acquire
a facility in the use of different forms of bowing ; and thirdly, to be able to combine two or


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