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THE MUSICAL
EDUCATOR

A LIBRARY OP
MUSICAL INSTRUCTION




THE LIBRARY

OF
THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES



MUSIC
LIBRARY








LI




EDUCATOR

A LIBRARY OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION
BY EMINENT SPECIALISTS



EDITED BY

JOHN GREIG, M.A., Mus. Doc.



IN FIVE VOLUMES

VOLUME THE FOURTH



LONDON
CAXTON PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD.

CLUN HOUSE, SDRREY STEEET, W.C.
1911



Music
Library

CONTENTS



THE ART OF ORGAN PLAYING. By EDWIN H. LEMARE . . . iv
THE PIANOFORTE. By WILLIAM TOWNSEND, A.R.A.M. (To be continued} i

SINGING, SIGHT-SINGING, AND VOICE PRODUCTION. By JAMES

SNEDDON, Mus. Bac. (To be continued) ....... 20

THE VIOLIN. BY W. DALY. (To be continued} ...... 37

THE HARMONIUM AND AMERICAN ORGAN. By J. C GRIEVE,

F.E.I.S ...... ........ 55

THE ORGAN. By JAMES S. ANDERSON, Mus. Bac. (To be continued) . .71

THE ORCHESTRA. By F. LAUBACH . ...... 82

HARMONY. By JOHN ROBERTSON, Mus. Bac. ...... 113

COUNTERPOINT. By JOHN ROBERTSON, Mus. Bac ...... 121

IMITATION, CANON, AND FUGUE. By JAMES SNEDDON, Mus. Bac.

(To be continued*) ......... . 134

MUSICAL FORMS. By J. C. GRIEVE, F.E.I.S. . ... 142

COMPOSITION. By J. C. GRIEVE, F.E.I.S. (To be continued) . . .148
MUSICAL ANALYSIS. By J. C. GRIEVE, F.E.I.S ....... 157

CHOIR-TRAINING AND CONDUCTING. By HENRY HARTLEY and JOHN
HARTLEY

HISTORY OF MUSIC. By W. DALY, Junr. (To be continued) .
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF MUSICIANS. By W. DALY, Junr.

LIST OF PLATES

FRONTISPIFCE THE FIRST SINGING OF THE MARSEILLAISE.

PLATE X. PADEREWSKI, LADY HALLE, SIR CHARLES HALLE,

YSAYE, MME. NORDICA .... Facing page 64

XI. SIR JOHN STAINER, SIR HERBERT OAKELEY,
DR. HUBERT PARRY, DR. C. V. STANFORD,
F. H. COWEN ....... , 144

XII. ADELINA PATTI, MARGARET MACINTYRE,
CHRISTINE NILSSON, MARIE ROZE,
FANNY MOODY ...... , 184



PORTRAIT EDWIN H. LEMARE . . . . . * xvi

BEN DAVIS ... 32

CHART OF SOME ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS . . . 112



THE ART OF ORGAN-PLAYING

BY EDWIN H. LEMARE.

WHEN recently requested to write this article for the " Musical Educator," I
replied that I should feel more at home if I could supplement my remarks
with a practical demonstration on the keyboard of a good instrument. With
this apology for the difficulty I feel in expressing myself in "cold, hard type"
I submit these sentences for the benefit, I hope, more especially of the advanced
student, who has reached the stage when he desires to study a more orchestral
form of organ-playing a more realistic and life-like style, calling for individuality,
accent, and sou/, as distinguished from the colourless, expressionless, and
monotonous interpretations too often heard.

Of course, the first thing requisite is an instrument so designed that these
things are made possible. One must have a perfect action in the way of
response and touch, nicely-balanced Swell pedals, perfectly sound-tight Swell
boxes, a practical arrangement of stops, interchangeable combinations, Willis
pedal board (not any of the absurd and unnecessary modifications of same, so
frequently to be met with), foot and thumb pistons, full compass of manuals and
pedals, good Tremulants, "Celestes" and soft string-toned stops, &c. Much,
however, is possible on organs which do not contain all the above-mentioned
requisites, except, I fear, the balanced Swell pedal, which in my view is an
absolute necessity to any artistic rendering of a composition calling for expression
ar independent " light and shade " on the various manuals.

Before touching on the subjects of registration and interpretation, it may be
well to discuss, even in a purely cursory way, a few points concerning the organ
itself : to give, as I may put it, an imaginary lesson on the control of the various
mechanical necessities of the instrument. First of all take the Swell pedals.
The Swell pedal is, unfortunately, the only means so far devised of giving
any expression at all to the monotonous or "one-toned" pipes. One of the
greatest secrets in the use of the Swell pedal is to so arrange your combinations
that you have just sufficient tone when the Swell pedal is closed (I use this
expression "Swell pedal closed" meaning, of course, the shutters of the Swell
box) so that you have means at your control of making the slightest possible
crescendo and resultant diminuendo. I have noticed many players of the old
iv Y a



vi THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

school, when they are confronted with a balanced Swell pedal for the first
time, forget that it has to be closed}-

The student must remember that even an eighth of an inch opening in the
shutters lets out a great amount of tone, and this comparatively small movement
of the Swell pedal means several inches in actual area, when you consider the
number of shutters and height of same. Therefore, be very careful of the first
movement, and practise opening the shutters the smallest, infinitesimal amount,
so that the increase of tone is only just noticeable. To do this it is necessary
to place the foot firmly on the centre of the pedal, and, using a slight pressure,
let the muscles of the ankle do the rest. There must be no movement from
the leg and knee, as is necessary with the old arrangement, but it must be
purely from the ankle such movement as you would use in ordinary pedal
playing. To give all the necessary examples so as to become au fait at this
art would take pages, but I will mention one or two to make myself clear. If
the student is good at improvising, let him try the following exercise in the use
of the Swell pedal. Prepare on the Choir organ, say, Gamba and Lieblich 8,
Flute 4, and Super, and, to give a little more life and interest to the melody,
the Tremulant. Couple the Choir to the pedals, and play a melody with the
left foot (low down and without any pedal stops being drawn) and fill in a
suitable accompaniment on the Swell organ. Place the right foot on the Choir
Swell pedal, and use it for crescendi and diminuendi effects. If the student's strong
point is not improvising, let him take a hymn-tune and play the melody on the
pedals with either foot : the bass, or usual pedal notes, on a 16 feet stop some-
where, with the left hand, and fill in an accompaniment on another manual
with the right hand. Next try a melody on the upper part of the pedal board
with the right foot, and use the left on the Swell pedal for giving the expression.
Then change about from one foot to the other, until both feet can use the
Swell pedal as naturally and as easily as they play the pedals. Try also the
"Chant Seraphique," by Guilmant, in the same way, and impart expression to
the melody by giving a few taps, with the left foot, to the Swell pedal, to open
it slightly or close it (between the detached pedal notes in the Bass). Try a
Bach Fugue, and practise crescendi here and there whenever you can spare a
foot, and never leave the Swell pedal in the same place twice, when you have
to resume the pedal part. One of the most "life-giving" effects on a good
modern organ is the introduction of accents and sfortzandi. Practise opening
the shutters very slightly, and then play a chord, at the same instant close the
shutters, or Swell pedal, rapidly. The left foot must be trained for this purpose

1 This is the only point I have been able to discover during my professional career that is in favour of the
old " pump-handle" contrivance, viz., that it at least has the advantage of remaining closed most of the time ;
unless, of course, the player has succeeded in getting it open and the catch has stuck, and he has not had
sufficient courage, or strength, to kick hard enough to release it.



THE ART OF ORGAN-PLAYING vii

as much as the right a thing, of course, impossible with the old and useless
arrangement (sometimes to be met with beyond the top F of the pedal board !).



STOP COMBINATIONS.

And now a few words as regards stop combinations.

An absurd and ridiculous idea is in vogue at the present day, viz., having
special pistons for string-toned stops, reeds, flue work, &c. This is almost as bad
as the organ-builder's idea of a " suitable bass 1 " As a matter of fact, to
represent anything resembling the strings in the orchestra a combination of
stops is required. There is much more body in a violin than in a Viol d'orchestre
or other imitative stop in the organ. Many such stops in themselves do not
resemble their prototypes of the orchestra, but may be made to do so to a
certain extent if the organist has mastered the art of mixing his tone-colours.
A Gamba, for instance, is a hideous-sounding stop at the best, and is only
useful on a Choir organ to give predominance to the 8 feet " thin-toned "
work. I have occasionally seen such a stop on a Great organ, where it is absolutely
useless. In America this unfortunately is only too common. If drawn with
the Diapasons, its thin, raspy tone cuts through them and absolutely destroys
the Diapason effect. Also it is impossible to use it as a solo stop on the
Great organ, when there is no Swell box or any means of giving expression.
But to return to "string-toned effects." A mixture of thin-toned "Celestes,"
with "Vox Humana" (if soft) Tremulant, and the addition of a soft 8 feet
Lieblich, is much more realistic than anything I know. But here again so much
depends upon the voicing : certain combinations which would be very beautiful
on an organ by one builder would be quite the reverse on that of another.

We very often see the instruction, {< Swell to Oboe " or " Great to Principal."
Whoever heard of full chords on the oboes of an orchestra, even if there were
a sufficient number ?

The old-fashioned, what one might call, " Cathedral formula " of Swell
Diapason, Principal and Oboe, has been allowed to survive so long as it has
only because of the beautiful acoustical properties of our old cathedrals " cover-
ing a multitude of sins." I remember once remarking to a friend of mine,
who was showing me round the cathedral in which he played, what a beauti-
ful place it was for sound. "Yes," he replied, "if you blow your nose it
sounds like a Bach Fugue ! " Another point I wish to warn my readers against
is that a Principal must be put in the same category as the Mixtures ; it ought
rarely to be used unless capped by an 8 feet reed. There are certain other
imitative stops which are improved in combination with others : the Choir



viii THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

Clarinet, for instance, which sounds better when a soft 8 feet Lieblich is
added. An Orchestral Oboe (properly voiced) with a soft 4 feet Flute can
also be very beautiful. My space is limited, otherwise I could give many
more examples ; these, I fear, must suffice.

Before leaving the subject of stop combinations I should like to say a iew
words on the use of Subs and Supers.

A Super coupler can never take the place of good Mixtures or "filling up"
stops. The principle of the whole thing is wrong, even if there be an extra
octave of pipes added to each stop. In the first place the charm of a good
Diapason is in its scale being kept well up and down, with -very little diminuendo
at the extremes of the keyboard. The same thing may be said of the Principal,
although this stop must necessarily be smaller in scale compared with the
Diapason, just the same as the Fifteenth must be softer than the Principal.
Now if the Diapason and Principal are voiced as they should be, and a
Super is drawn to give corresponding 4 feet and 2 feet effect, the latter are
absolutely out of all proportion in tone to the Diapason, and the effect is
heavy, cumbersome, and unmusical. The only reason I have been able to elicit
from organ-builders who eliminate Mixtures from their instruments is, that they
are so difficult to keep in tune ! I am well aware of the inadequate and miser-
able sums paid to builders for tuning, &c., and this may possibly account for
leaving out many effective stops which require careful and frequent tuning ; but
is it not sad to think that the organ should suffer through the ignorance of
many clergymen, churchwardens, and organ committees (so-called), who regard
an organ as something pleasing to look upon and an ornament to the church :
and who, so long as the exterior of the instrument is sufficiently gilded and
decorated, pay little or no attention to the condition and upkeep of the organ
itself ? Their general and most legitimate use is, of course, in solo work, and
for duplicating the melody, either the octave below or above, when there may
not be suitable stops to give the same effect. Taking it all round, a Sub-octave
is much more useful than a Super, providing there is sufficient overwork and
brilliancy in the way of 4 feet and Mixtures. Again, the melody, or upper
part at least, is not broken up with the Sub-octave as it is with the Super
when playing within the top octave of the keyboard. Generally speaking, the
Subs and Supers are most useful in big chords on soft, string-tone stops,
when one hand only is available : they ought never to be abused with the
full organ or heavy-tone stops. Also, if there is only one 8 feet Tuba on
the Solo organ, a Sub and Super are very acceptable, as they practically
give an extra 16 and 4 feet reed ; but of course the Tuba ought not to be
used in more than three- or four-part harmony, when the disproportion of
the 1 6 and 4 feet is not so noticeable.



THE ART OF ORGAN-PLAYING



MANIPULATION OF STOP KNOBS.

Those who have read my article entitled "The Modern Organ and its
Possibilities" will know my reasons for advocating the solid ivory, easy mov-
ing and accessible draw-stop knob, and it is unnecessary, apart from lack of
space, for me to go into the question again in the present article. It is extra-
ordinary what you can do with one hand in the way of rapid changes of
stops.

Let me give a few "stop changing" exercises.

First, and most simple of all, we will try the Choir organ (the stops of
which ought for convenience always to be on the left of the player). We will
presume that the Dulciana, Gedacht, and Viol d'orchestre are next one another,
say, the Gedacht is at right angles to the Dulciana, and the Viol d'orchestre
above it. Take an ordinary hymn-tune and play it with the right hand and
pedals only, the left hand being free to move the stop knobs. Practise
drawing out the Gedacht and pushing in the Dulciana simultaneously. This
can easily be done by drawing out a stop, say, with the third and fourth fingers,
and pushing in the one next to it with the first finger or the thumb. The
Gamba above can be treated in the same way by slightly turning the hand over.
Play the hymn-tune through slowly, and change one of these stops for every
chord, so that the change does not overlap the chord, but occurs directly the
chord is struck. Such an exercise as this is more or less impossible where
there are stop keys over the manuals in the place of draw stops, because,
apart from the unnatural position of the left hand being raised up and extended
forward (which in itself is very tiring to the muscles of the arm), it is extremely
difficult to raise one stop key at the same time that you depress another, un-
less it so happens that the stop key you wish to raise is on the same side as
the thumb of that particular hand. Try it for yourself on some organ and
you will see my point. Nay, I will go so far as to say, and I am absolutely
convinced I am right, that quick changing of stops, such as can be done with
easy-moving, properly-placed ivory draw-knobs, is an absolute impossibility
with stop keys, unless pauses are made or a great amount of notes sacrificed.
There never ought to be the slightest pause or delay when changing stops,
and the audience should never be made aware that there are any stops at all.

Another exercise in what I will call " dissolving tone effects." One of the
greatest arts in organ-playing is to make your crescendi and diminuendi so
gradually, and in such a way, that the adding or the putting in of stops should
not be noticeable. This may very often be done by the proper use of the
balanced Swell pedals. It is possible to start with the Choir Dulciana



x THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR

and add almost every stop in the organ, thus making a gradual crescendo with-
out any one being aware of the fact. To give an idea of what I mean : Couple
the Swell to the Choir; hold a chord with the right hand on the Choir
Dulciana, with the Swell box closed ; place the left foot on the Choir Swell
pedal and the right foot on the Swell pedal ; gradually open the Choir pedal
to its fullest extent and add, say, the Swell Lieblich. Now simultaneously
close the Choir pedal and gradually open the Swell pedal. By so doing the
tone of the Dulciana will gradually disappear and the Lieblich will come into
prominence and take its place. When the pedals are fully reversed, the Choir
Lieblich (and perhaps Gamba, if it is soft) may be added, and the pedals again
reversed. The new tone added to the Choir will now predominate, and, if the
Swell boxes are thick and well fitted, will be sufficient to overpower or cover
up, say, the Open Diapason on the Swell. Continue this process until you
have full Swell and full Choir, and take the same chord up on a soft Wald
Flote on the Great (with the Swell coupled) and add each stop in proportion
to its tone. If you have to make a change which is a big jump in the way
of tone (such, alas, as is so common in some of our modern " Mixture-less,"
" Super-abundant," " Same stop on all manuals," " borrowing and never pay-
ing back " organs), add the additional stop always at the beginning of a new
phrase, or on some chord on which a sudden accent would be legitimate ; in
other words, use as much "phrasing" with your stops as you do in your
music.

Always remember never to reduce, or put in a stop, or an unresolved dis-
cord ; unless it is a long one and a diminuendo, more than the Swell pedals
can give is necessary, or some similar special effect. Above all, beware of an
awful invention called the " Crescendo pedal," which is responsible for more
inartistic, clumsy, and mechanical performances (especially in the States where,
alas for the artist and earnest student, it is very common) than any other contri-
vance to get over the difficulties of moving the stop knobs in detached consoles,
&c. As long as this "aid to ignorance" exists and is used, there will never be
any true advancement in artistic organ-playing nor individuality of performance.
The same thing may be said of many other deceptive and so-called "helps
and accessories."

PEDALLING.

I feel that a few hints on pedalling may be useful to the student, although
it is almost impossible to aid him much on this subject without a pedal board
on which to demonstrate my remarks. First and foremost, the use of the
heel must be cultivated as much as that of the toe. This, of course, is im-



THE ART OF ORGAN-PLAYING xi

possible with the usual position in which pedal boards are placed, viz., right
under the bench instead of right under the keys. Another point of great im-
portance is that the pedal keys should be sufficiently long to enable the player
to place one foot immediately behind the other (the toe of the front foot to
be just clear of one of the sharp keys), so that the heel of the back foot is able
to depress one of the natural keys. Needless to say, with the exception of the
genuine Willis pedal board, such a thing as the above is impossible. It is
nevertheless most essential to a good pedal technique. The heel movement
must be purely from the ankle, the same as the toe, very little movement of
the knee being perceptible. If the student is not so fortunate as to possess a
properly-placed pedal board, I advise that the bench be moved back to the
utmost limit, so long as it is just possible to play on the highest manual.

Regarding the use of the heel, try to cultivate the habit of striking almost
every natural key with the heel except, of course, when you have a succes-
sion of natural keys. Reserve the toe for the sharp keys alone ; unless it is
essential to pass one foot behind the other, playing a note at the same time,
in which case use either, as may be most convenient. In deciding how to
pedal a certain passage the best method to adopt is, I think, to dissociate one
foot from the other, and after determining which foot is to take the various
notes, pedal it toe and heel as if the feet were independent of one another.
To make my meaning clear, let us take the following passage :



A U






N *


U A




( -~ ^


h N


U h U A






-fr


\~s ItZZ^ "* L




J r


ft


L (


^ !


A U A


ir


<* - *



The great thing at which to aim is the least possible movement, so that the
feet do not shift or swing backwards and forwards. If the heel is nearly
always used for the naturals, it will tend greatly to this aim. Practise shakes
(commencing slowly and gradually increasing the tempo) with each foot separately
(the heel being on a natural and the toe on a sharp key), and move the bench
back until a free movement of the ankle is possible, whether you can reach the
top manual or not ! A good practice, when pedalling a passage in which there
are no big intervals, is to press the knees together and watch them carefully
to see that there is little or no movement. When this free and rapid movement
of the ankle is acquired, such things as Pizzicato, Double-Bass effects may be
obtained by drawing the "Open Wood 16" and tapping the keys very sharply
(or staccato] with the toe of the foot. I am presuming the organ action is perfect.



301



THE MUSICAL EDUCATOR



One other point to be remembered in regard to the proper use of the heel is
that the bench must be raised sufficiently to allow free movement ; in other
words, the pedal board should be placed considerably lower in relation to the
keys than it usually is, owing to so many builders adopting the measurements
suggested some years ago by the College of Organists. These measurements,
alas are still to be found on some of our best modern organs; but since the
R.C.O. have wisely withdrawn them, I hope they will ultimately disappear
entirely.

TOUCH.

It is difficult to lay down any hard and fast rules as to the touch one should
cultivate on the manuals. So much depends upon the building in which the
organ is placed, the rapidity and response of the action, and, most of all, the
character of the music to be performed and the speed at which it is to be played.
The first thing to remember, however, is that rapid passages must always be
clear and distinct, even though the player may have to resort to a greatly
exaggerated staccato. Nothing is more painful than to hear an organist play
a Fugue, or some other florid composition, with a purely legato touch, when there
is a certain amount of resonance in the building. The effect is nothing but
a smudge, and the charm of counterpoint and construction of the same is
absolutely lost. On the other hand, we have the " Staccato fiend," who pecks
at the keys as if they were red hot, and never even gives the pipes time
enough to speak or "get on" to their full tone. I was at the opening of a
large cathedral organ not many years ago, and listened to a player who had
a bad attack of this complaint. The poor organ-builder, who was sitting
beside me, said, " Oh ! if only he would hold on the chord of C for a few seconds,
the people would hear some tone and our reputation might be saved."

The step from a clear and legitimate staccato to exaggeration and burlesque
is but a small one. Like everything else, discretion must always be used. I
would advise the student to cultivate both the wrist and the finger staccato. In
some instances both can be used alternately, and, for very special staccato
effects, they can be used together.

Take, for instance, the well-known Toccata in F, by Widor, and play
the first page with the finger staccato, the second with the wrist staccato, and
so on, being careful that the one is as clear as the other. This has also the
advantage of giving both the fingers and the wrist an occasional rest. I
think one of the best examples, where three different touches can be used
in the same work, is the "St. Anne" Fugue of Bach. The first movement
(Diapasons and heavy 8 feet flue work no Gambas, reeds or "Great to



THE ART OF ORGAN-PLAYING xiii

Principals ! ") cannot, in my opinion, be played too legato (and I might also say too
slowly). The second movement (full Swell, closed, without 16 feet reed), being
of an entirely different character, may be played very rapidly with finger
staccato. Iii the third and last movement (beginning on Great 8 feet work,
coupled to full Swell, without 16 and gradually and carefully adding reeds,


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