mon, have given place to sober grays, and browns and
olives; black predominating over all. The light, show-
ily-trimmed dresses, which were once displayed in the
streets and fashionable promenades, are now only worn
in carriages. This display of showy dress and glaring
colors is generally confined to those who love ostenta-
tion more than comfort.
DEESS FOE EECEIVING CALLS.
If a lady has a special day for the reception of calls,
her dress must be of silk, or other goods suitable to the
season, or to her position, but must be of quiet colors
and plainly worn. Lace collars and cuffs should be
worn with this dress, and a certain amount of jewelry is
also admissible. A lady whose mornings are devoted to
the superintendence of her domestic affairs, may receive
a casual caller in her ordinary morning dress, which
must be neat, yet plain, with white plain linen collars
and cuffs. For New Year's, or other calls of special sig-
nificance, the dress should be rich, and may be elabo-
rately trimmed. If the parlors are closed and the gas
lighted, full evening dress is required.
The material for a dress for a drive through the pub-
lic streets of a city, or along a fashionable drive or park,
cannot be too rich. Silks, velvets and laces, are all
appropriate, with rich jewelry and costly furs in cold
weather. If the fashion require it, the carriage dress
may be long enough to trail, or it may be of the length
of a walking dress, which many prefer. For driving in
the country, a different style of dress is required, as the
dust and mud would soil rich material.
Visiting costumes, or those worn at a funeral or in-
formal calls, are of richer material than walking suits.
The bonnet is either simple or rich, according to the
taste of the wearer. A jacket of velvet, or shawl, or
fur-trimmed mantle are the concomitants of the carriage
dress for winter. In summer all should be bright, cool,
agreeable to wear and pleasant to look at.
DBESS FOR MORNING CALLS.
Morning calls may be made either in walking or car-
riage dress, provided the latter is justified by the pres-
ence of the carriage. The dress should be of silk; col-
lar and cuffs of the finest lace; light gloves; a full dress,
bonnet and jewelry of gold, either dead, burnished or
enameled, or of cameo or coral. Diamonds are not
usually worn in daylight. A dress of black or neutral
tint, in which light colors are introduced only in
small quantities, is the most appropriate for a morning
MORNING DRESS FOB STREET.
The morning dress for the street should be quiet in
color, plainly made and of serviceable material. It
should be short enough to clear the ground without
collecting mud and garbage. Lisle-thread gloves in
midsummer, thick gloves in midwinter, are more com-
fortable for street wear than kid ones. Linen collar*
and cuffs are most suitable for morning street dress.
The bonnet and hat should be quiet and inexpressive,,
matching the dress as nearly as possible. In stormy
weather a large waterproof with hood is more convenient
and less troublesome than an umbrella. The morning
dress for visiting or breakfasting in public may be, in
winter, of woolen goods, simply made and quietly
trimmed, and in summer, of cambric, pique, marseilles
or other wash goods, either white or figured. For
morning wear at home the dress may be still simpler.
The hair should be plainly arranged without ornament.
THE PROMENADE DRESS.
The dress for the promenade should be in perfect
harmony with itself. All the colors worn should har-
monize if they are not strictly identical. The bonnet
should not be of one color, and parasol of another, the
dress of a third and the gloves of a fourth. Nor should
one article be new and another shabby. The collars
and cuffs should be of lace; the kid gloves should be
selected to harmonize with the color of the dress, a per-
fect fit. The jewelry worn should be bracelets, cuff-
buttons, plain gold ear-rings, a watch chain and brooch.
Opera dress for matinees may be as elegant as for
morning calls. A bonnet is always worn even by those
who occupy boxes, but it may be as dressy as one
chooses to make it. In the evening, ladies are at liberty
to wear evening dresses, with ornaments in their hair,
instead of a bonnet, and as the effect of light colors is
much better than dark in a well-lighted opera house,
they should predominate.
THE BIDING DRESS.
A lady's riding habit should fit perfectly without
being tight. The skirt must be full, and long enongh
to cover the feet, but not of extreme length. The boots
must be stout and the gloves gauntleted. Broadcloth is
regarded as the more dressy cloth, though waterproof
is the more serviceable. Something lighter may be
worn for summer, and in the lighter costumes a row of
shot must be stitched at the bottom of the breadths of
the left side to prevent the skirts from being blown by
the wind. The riding dress is made to fit the waist
closely, and button nearly to the throat. Above a small
collar or reverse of the waist is shown a plain linen
collar, fastened at the throat with a bright or black
necktie. Coat sleeves should come to the wrist with
linen cuffs beneath them. No lace or embroidery is
allowable in a riding costume. It is well to have the
waist attached to a skirt of the usual length, and the
long skirt fastened over it, so that if any accident occurs
obliging the lady to dismount, she may easily remove
the long overskirt and still be properly dressed.
The hair should be put up compactly, and no veil
hould be allowed to stream in the wind. The shape of
the hat will vary with the fashion, but it should always
ibe plainly trimmed, and if feathers are worn they must
be fastened so that the wind cannot blow them over the
A WALKING SUIT.
The material for a walking suit may e either rich or
plain to suit the taste and means of the weaier. It
should always be well made and never appear shabby.
Bright colors appear best only as trimmings. Black has
generally been adopted for street dresses as the most
becoming. For the country, walking dresses are made
tasteful, solid and strong, more for service than display,
and what would be'perfectly appropriate for the streets
of a city would be entirely out of place on the muddy,
unpaved walks of a small town or in a country neigh-
borhood. The walking or promenade dress is always
made short enough to clear the ground. Thick boots
are worn with the walking suit.
DRESS FOR LADIES OF BUSINESS.
For women who are engaged in some daily employ-
ment such as teachers, saleswomen and those who are
occupied in literature, art or business of some sort, the
dress should be somewhat different from the ordinary
walking costume. Its material should be more service-
able, better fitted to endure the vicissitudes of the
weather, and of quiet colors, such as brown or gray,
and not easily soiled. While the costume should not be
of the simplest nature, it should dispense with all super-
fluities in the way of trimming. It should be made with
special reference to a free use of the arms, and to easy
locomotion. Linen cuffs and collars are best suited tc
this kind of dress, gloves which can be easily removed,
street walking boots, and for jewelry, plain cuff-buttons,
brooch and watch chain. The hat or bonnet should be
neat and tasty, with but few flowers or feathers. For
winter wear, waterproof, tastefully made up, is the best
material for a business woman's outer garment.
ORDINARY EVENING DRESS.
The ordinary evening house dress should be tasteful
and becoming, with a certain amount of ornament, and
worn with jewelry. Silks are the most appropriate for
this dress, but all the heavy woolen dress fabrics for
winter, and the lighter lawns and organdies for summer,
elegantly made, are suitable. For winter, the colors
should be rich and warm, and knots of bright ribbon of
a becoming color, should be worn at the throat and in
the hair. The latter should be plainly dressed. Arti-
ficial flowers and diamonds are out of place. This is
both a suitable dress in which to receive or make a cas-
ual evening call. If a hood is worn, it must be removed
during the call. Otherwise a full dress bonnet must be
DRESS FOR SOCIAL PARTY.
For the social evening party, more latitude is allowed
in the choice of colors, material, trimmings, etc., than
for the ordinary evening dress. Dresses should cover
the arms and shoulder; but if cut low in the neck, and
with short sleeves, puffed illusion waists or some similar
device should be employed to cover the neck and arms.
Gloves may or may not be worn, but if they are they
should be of some light color.
DRESS FOR CHURCH.
The dress for church should be plain, of dark, quiet
colors, with no superfluous trimming or jewelry. It
should, in fact, be the plainest of promenade dresses, as
church is not the place for display of fine clothes.
THE DRESS FOR THE THEATRE.
The promenade dress with the addition of a handsome
cloak or shawl, which may be thrown aside if it is un-
comfortable, is suitable for a theatre. The dress should
be quiet and plain without any attempt at display.
Either a bonnet or hat may be worn. Gloves should be
dark, harmonizing with the dress.
DRESS FOR LECTURE AND CONCERT.
For the lecture or concert, silk is an appropriate dress,
and should be worn with lace collars and cuffs and
jewelry. A rich shawl or velvet promenade cloak, or
opera cloak for a concert is an appropriate outer gar-
ment. The latter may or may not be kept on the
shoulders during the evening. White or light kid
gloves should be worn.
CROQUET, ARCHERY AND SKATING COSTUMES. '
Croquet and archery costumes may be similar, and
they admit of more brilliancy in coloring than any of
the out-of-door costumes. They should be short, dis-
playing a handsomely fitting but stout boot, and should
be so arranged as to leave the arms perfectly free. The
gloves should be soft and washable. Kid is not suitable
for either occasion. The hat should have a broad brim,
so as to shield the face from the sun, and render a para-
sol unnecessary. The trimming for archery costumes is
usually of green.
An elegant skating costume may be of velvet,
trimmed with fur, with fur bordered gloves and boots.
Any of the warm, bright colored wool fabrics, however,
are suitable for the dress. If blue or green are worn,
they should be relieved with trimmings of dark furs.
Silk is not suitable for skating costume. To avoid suf-
fering from cold feet, the boot should be amply loose.
Flannel is the best material for a bathing costume,
and gray is regarded as the most suitable color. It may
be trimmed with bright worsted braid. The best form
is the loose sacque, or the yoke waist, both of them to
be belted in, and falling about midway between the knee
and ankle; an oilskin cap to protect the hair from the
water, and merino socks to match the dress, complete
Comfort and protection from dust and dirt are the
requirements of a traveling dress. When a lady is
about making an extensive journey, a traveling suit is
a great convenience, but for a short journey, a large
linen overdress or duster may be put on over the ordinary
dress in summer, and in winter a waterproof cloak may
be used in the same way. For traveling costumes a.
variety of materials may be used, of soft, neutral tints,,
and smooth surface which does not retain the dust.
These should be made up plainly and quite short. The
underskirts should be colored, woolen in winter and
linen in summer. The hat or bonnet must be plainly
trimmed and completely protected by a large veil.
Velvet is unfit for a traveling hat, as it catches and
retains the dust; collars and cuffs of plain linen. The-
hair should be put up in the plainest manner. A water-
proof and warm woolen shawl are indispensible, and
may be rolled in a shawl strap when not needed. A
satchel should be carried, in which may be kept a change
of collars, cuffs, gloves, handkerchiefs, toilet articles,
and towels. A traveling dress should be well supplied!
with pockets. The waterproof should have large pock-
ets, and there should be one in the underskirt in which
to carry such money and valuables as are not needed for
THE WEDDING DRESS. <
A full bridal costume should be white from head to
foot. The dress may be of silk, heavily corded, moire
antique, satin or plain silk, merino, alpaca, crape, lawn
or muslin. The veil may be of lace, tulle or illusion,,
but it must be long and full. It may or may not de-
scend over the face. Orange blossoms or other white
flowers and maiden blush roses should form the bridal
wreath and bouquet. The dress is high and the arms
33 G DRESS.
covered. Slippers of white satin and white kid gloves
complete the dress.
The dress of the bridegroom and ushers is given in
the chapter treating of the etiquette of weddings.
DRESS OF BRIDBMAIDS.
The dresses of .bridemaids are not so elaborate as that
of the bride. They should also be of white, but may-
be trimmed with delicately colored flowers and ribbons.
White tulle, worn over pale pink or blue silk and-caught
up with blush roses or forget-me-nots, with bouquet de
corsage and hand bouquet of the same, makes a beauti-
ful costume for the bridemaids. The latter, may or may
not, wear veils, but if they do, they should be shorter
than that of the bride.
TRAVELING DRESS OF A BRIDE.
This should be of silk, or any of the fine fabrics for
-walking dresses; should be of some neutral tint; and
T)onnet and gloves should match in color. It may be
more elaborately trimmed than an ordinary traveling
-dress, but if the bride wishes to attract as little atten-
tion as possible, she will not make herself conspicuous
by a too showy dress. In private weddings the bride is
sometimes married in traveling costume, and the bridal
pair at once set out upon their journey.
DRESS AT WEDDING RECEPTIONS.
At wedding receptions in the evening, guests should
wear full evening dress. No one should attend in black
or mourning dress, which should give place to grey or
lavender. At a morning reception of the wedded couple,
guests should wear the richest street costume with white
The people of the' United States have settled upon no
prescribed periods for the wearing of mourning gar-
ments. Some wear them long after their hearts have
ceased to mourn* Where there is profound grief, no rules
are needed, but where the sorrow is not so great, there
is need of observance of fixed periods for wearing
Deep mourning requires the heaviest black of serge,
bombazine, lustreless alpaca, delaine, merino or similar
heavily clinging material, with collar and cuffs of crape.
Mourning garments should have little or no trimming;
no flounces, ruffles or bows are allowable. If the dress
is not made en stiite, then a long or square shawl of
barege or cashmere with crape border is worn. The
bonnet is of black crape; a hat is inadmissible. The
veil is of crape or barege with heavy border; black
gloves and black-bordered handkerchief. In winter
dark furs may be worn with the deepest mourning.
Jewelry is strictly forbidden, and all pins, buckles, etc.,
must be of jet. Lustreless alpaca and black silk trimmed
with crape may be worn in second mourning, with
white collars and cuffs. The crape veil is laid aside
for net or tulle, but the jet jewelry is still retained. A
still less degree of mourning is indicated by black and
white, purple and gray, or a combination of these colors,
Crape is still retained in bonnet trimming, and crape
flowers may be added. Light gray, white and black,
and light shades of lilac, indicate a slight mourning.
Black lace bonnet, with white or violet flowers, super-
cedes crape, and jet and gold jewelry is worn.
PERIODS OF WEARING MOURNING.
The following rules have been given by an authority
competent to speak on these matters regarding the de-
gree of mourning and the length of time it should be
"The deepest mourning is that worn by a widow for
her husband. It is worn two years, sometimes longer.
Widow's mourning for the first year consists of solid
black woolen goods, collar and cuffs of folded untrim-
med crape, a simple crape bonnet, and a long, thick,
black crape veil. The second year, silk trimmed with
crape, black lace collar and cuffs, and a shorter veil may
be worn, and in the last six mouths gray, violet and
white are permitted. A widow should wear the hair
perfectly plain if she does not wear a cap, and should
always wear a bonnet, never a hat.
" The mourning for a father or mother is worn for
one year. The first six months the proper dress is of
solid black woolen goods trimmed with crape, black
crape bonnet with black crape facings and black strings,
black crape veil, collar and cuffs of black crape. Three
months, black silk with crape trimming, white or black
lace collar and cuffs, veil of tulle and white bonnet-
facings; and the last three months in gray, purple and
DRESS. 339 1
violet. Mourning worn for a child is the same as that
worn for a parent.
" Mourning for a grandparent is worn f ov six months,
three months black woolen goods, white collar and cuffs,
short crape veil and bonnet of crape trimmed with black
silk or ribbon; six weeks in black silk trimmed with
crape, lace collar and cuffs, short tulle veil ; and six
weeks in gray, purple, white and violet.
" Mourning worn for a friend who leaves you an in-
heritance, is the same as that worn for a grandparent.
" Mourning for a brother or sister is worn six months,
two months in solid black trimmed with crape, white
linen collar and cuffs, bonnet of black with white facing
and black strings; two months in black silk, with white
lace collar and cuffs; and two months in gray, purple,
white and violet.
"Mourning for an uncle or aunt is worn for three
months, and is the second mourning named above, tulle,
white linen and white bonnet facings being worn at
once. For a nephew or niece, the same is worn for the
same length of time.
"The deepest mourning excludes kid gloves; they
should be of cloth, silk or thread; and no jewelry is per-
mitted during the first month of close mourning. Em-
broidery, jet trimmings, puffs, plaits in fact, trimming
of any kind is forbidden in deep mourning, but worn
when it is lightened.
"Mourning handkerchiefs should be of very sheer
fine linen, with a border of black, very wide for close
mourning, narrower as the black is lightened.
"Mourning silks should be perfectly lusterless, and
the ribbons worn without any gloss.
" Ladies invited to funeral ceremonies should always
wear a black dress, even if they are not in mourning;
and it is bad taste to appear with a gay bonnet or shawl,
as if for a festive occasion.
"The mourning for children under twelve years of
age is white in summer and gray in winter, with black
trimmings, belt, sleeve ruffles and bonnet ribbons."
HE selection and proper arrangement
of colors, so that they will produce
the most pleasant harmony, is one
of the most desirable requisites in
dress. Sir Joshua Reynolds says:
" Color is the last attainment of ex-
cellence in every school of painting."
The same may also be 'said in regard to
the art of using colors in dress. Never-
theless, it is the first thing to which we
should give our attention and study.
We put bright colors upon our little child-
ren; we dress our young girls in light and del-
icate shades; the blooming matron is justified
in adopting the warm, rich hues which we see in the
autumn leaf, while black and neutral tints are declared
appropriate to the old.
One color should predominate in the dress; and if an-
other is adopted, it should be in a limited quantity aad
only by way of contrast or harmony. Some colors may
never, under any circumstances, be worn together, be-
cause they produce positive discord to the eye. If the
34:2 HAKMONY OF COLORS IN DRESS.
dress be blue, red should never be introduced by way of
trimming, or vice versa. Red and blue, red and yellow,
blue and yellow, and scarlet and crimson may never be
united in the same costume. If the dress be red, green
may be introduced in a minute quantity; if blue, orange;
if green, crimson. Scarlet and solf erino are deadly ene-
mies, each killing the other whenever they meet.
Two contrasting colors, such as red and green, may
not be used in equal quantities in the dress, as they
are both so positive in tone that they divide and distract
the attention. When two colors are worn in any quan-
tity, one must approach a neutral tint, such as gray or
drab. Black may be worn with any color, though it
looks best with the lighter shades of the different colors.
White may also be worn with any color, though it looks
best with the darker tones. Thus white and crimson,
black and pink, each contrast better and have a richer
effect than though the black were united with the crim-
son and the white with the pink. Drab, being a shade
of no color between black and white, may be worn with
equal effect with all.
A person of very fair, delicate complexion, should
always wear the most delicate of tints, such as light
blue, mauve and pea-green. A brunette requires bright
colors, such as scarlet and orange, to bring out the bril-
liant tints in her complexion. A florid face and auburn
hair call for blue.
Black hair has its color and depth enhanced by scar-
let, orange or white, and will bear diamonds, pearls or
HARMONY OF COLORS IN DEESS. 343
Dark brown hair will bear light blue, or dark blue in
a lesser quantity.
If the hair has no richness of coloring, a pale yellow-
ish green will by reflection produce the lacking warm
Light brown hair requires blue, which sets off to ad-
vantage the golden tint.
Pure golden or yellow hair needs blue, and its beauty
is also increased by the addition of pearls or white
Auburn hair, if verging on the red, needs scarlet to
tone it down. If of a golden red, blue, green, purple
or black will bring out the richness of its tints.
Flaxen hair requires blue.
MATERIAL FOR DRESS.
The material for dress must be selected with reference
to the purpose which it is to serve. No one buys a yel-
low satin dress for the promenade, yet a yellow satin
seen by gaslight is beautiful, as an evening-dress.
Neither would one buy a heavy serge of neutral tint for
SIZE IN RELATION TO DRESS AND COLORS.
A small person may dress in light colors which would
be simply ridiculous on a person of larger proportions.
So a lady of majestic appearance should never wear
white, but will be seen to the best advantage in black
or dark tints. A lady of diminutive stature is dressed
in bad taste when she appears in a garment with large
344 HARMONY OF COLORS IN DRESS.
figures, plaids or stripes. Neither should a lady of large
proportions be seen in similar garments, because, united
with her size, they give her a " loud " appearance. In-
deed, pronounced figures and broad stripes and plaida
are never in perfect taste.
Heavy, rich materials suit a tall figure, while light,
full draperies should only be worn by those of slender
proportions and not too short. The very short and.
stout must be content with meagre drapery and quiet
Tall and slim persons should avoid stripes; short,
chunky ones, flounces, or any horizontal trimming of
the dress which, by breaking the outline from the. waist
to the feet, produces an effect of shortening.
HOW COLORS HARMONIZE.
Colors may form a harmony either by contrast or by
analogy. When two remote shades of one color are
associated, such as very light blue and a very dark blue,
they harmonize by contrast, though the harmony may
be neither striking nor perfect. When two colors which
are similar to each other are grouped, such as orange
and scarlet, crimson and orange, they harmonize by
analogy. A harmony of contrast is characterized by
brilliancy and decision, and a harmony of analogy by a
quiet and pleasing association of colors.
When a color is chosen which is favorable to the com-
plexion, it is well to associate with it the tints which
will harmonize by analogy, as to use contrasting colors
would diminish its favorable effect. When a color is
HARMONY OF COLORS IN DRESS.