by the defcription of it in Merfennus, that there was a fpecies of it,
which by himfelf and other foreigners was termed the Englifh Flute,
* Fiftula dulcis feu Anglica *.' The proper and moft difcriminating
* See before, page 129.
Chap. 6. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 479
appellation for it is that of the Flute a bee, or beaked flute*; never-
thelefs we meet with ancient books of inflections for the inflrument,
wherein it is termed, but very improperly, as it is conceived, the
Recorder. Milton could never mean that they were one and the
fame inflrument, when in the fame line he mentions
■ Flutes and foft Recorders.'
Among bird-fanciers the word record is ufed as a verb to fignify the
firft eflays of a bird in finging-f* ; and it is well known that Bullfinches
and other birds are taught to fing by a flajolet. Lord Bacon, in his
Natural Hiftory, Cent. III. Sedl. 221, fpeaks of Recorders and Flutes
at the fame inflant, and fays that the Recorder hath a lefs bore and
a greater, above and below ; and elfewhere, Cent. II. Seel:. 187, he
fpeaks of it as having fix holes, in which refpett it anfwers to the
Tibia minor or flajolet of Merfennus. From all which particulars it
fhould feem that the Flute and the Recorder were different inftru-
ments, and that the latter in propriety of fpeech was no other than
Neverthelefs the terms are confounded ; and in a book of inftruc-
tions and leffons for the flute, fo old that the notation is by dots, the
inftructions for the inflrument are entitled directions for the Recorder.
We are now to fpeak of the method of notation by dots, which
will eaflly be underftood by fuch as have ever had occafion to look
into the books published for the inftrudlion of learners on the flute,
German flute, or hautboy, for it conflfts Amply of a ftave of eight
lines, anfweringto the number of holes on the inflrument, whereon
dots are placed to fignify when the holes are to be flopped, the up-
permoft line anfwering to the thumb-hole; fo that dots on all the
eight lines befpeak the note F, and dots on all the lines but the low-
* See an explanation of thii term vol. II. pag. 451, in not.
t Neverthelefs the paftoral poets ufe it for the finging of birds in general, ;s in thefe
Sweet Philomel, the bird,
that hath the heavenly throat,
Doth now alas ! not once affoord,
recording of a noate.
N.Breton, in England's Helicon.
Now birds record new harmonie,
And trees do whiffle melodies ;
Now every thing that nature breeds,
Doth clad itfelf in pleafant weedes.
Tho. Watson, in the fame collection.
480 HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE Book IV.
eft, G ; and fo of the reft : and as to the time, it was fignified by
fuch characters as were ufed for the fame purpofe in the tablature for
the lute. The like way of playing by dots was ufed for the flajolet,
as appears by a book entitled ' The Pleafant Companion, or new
' Leffons and Inftru&ions for the Flagelet by Thomas Greeting,
' Gent.' printed for John Playford in 1675.
The laft publication of this kind was a book called The New Flute
Mafter, printed in 1704, in which are fundry preludes by Mr. John
Banifter, the grandfon of that Banifter mentioned before to have been
fent.to France by king Charles II. for improvement on the violin ;
in this the learner is furniftied with directions for playing either Dot-
way or Gamut-way, for thefe were the terms of didindion, and is
left to his choice of either.
After what has been faid of the tablature, and of the notation by
dots, it muft appear that the playing at fight after either of thefe
methods, was fcarcely practicable, and that the rejection of them
both is but a confequence of the great improvements of mufic with-
in this laft century.
From the account herein before given of the progrefs of mufic, it
appears that through every ftage of improvement, befides that it was
the profeffion of perfons educated to the practice of it, it was the re-
creation of gentlemen : among the latter, thofe of a more grave and
ferious turn, betook themfelves to the practice of the lute and viol da
gamba *, reforting to it as a relief from ftudy, and as an incentive to
fober mirth. Others, lefs fenfible of the charms of harmony and me-
lody, looked upon mufic as a mere accomplishment, and were content
to excel only on thofe inftruments on which a moderate degree of
proficiency might be attained with little labour and application;
and thefe feem to have been the Flute a bee and the Flajolet : the
latter of thefe was for the mod part the amufement of boys ; it
was alfo ufed for the purpofe of teaching birds, more particularly bull-
finches, to fing eafy tunes j for which reafon one of the books of in-
ftruclions for the flajolet now extant, is entitled The Bird-fancier's
Delight ; but the flute, efpecially of the larger fize, was a more fo-
lemn inftrument, and was taken to by the fine gentlemen of the time,
* In the wiil of Sir Henry Wotton, printed in his remains, is a bequeft of his viol da
gamba to one of his friends. Sir John Bolles, Sir Francis North, and Sir Roger L'Eltrange,
as above .related, were excellent performers on this inftrument.
Chap. 6. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 481
whofe characters were formed after that model of good breeding ex-
hibited in the French court towards the end of the laft century.
Cibber, in the Apology for his Life, page 214, has with great pro-
priety marked the character of the beaux of his time, who he fays,
were of a quite different caft from the modern ftamp, and had more
of the ftatelinefs of the peacock in their mein than now, which feems
to be their higheft emulation, the pert air of a lapwing ; to which re-
mark we may add, that the charader of a gentleman, in the vulgar
apprehenfion, confined then in the aflemblage of fuch external qua-
lifications, as ferved to recommend him to the favour of thofe who
looked no further than the mere outfide; among which fome fmallfkill
in mufic wafc thought as necefiary as the accomplishment of dancing.
As the French mode of behaving and converfing had been adopted
here, fo were in fome degree their recreations and amufements.
From the time of making that prefent of Englim flutes to the king
of France, which Merfennus fpeaks of, the flute became a favourite
inftrument among the French, and many gentlemen were notable
proficients on it ; and though the inftrument had paffed from Eng-
land to France, the general practice of it by perfons of fafliion was
derived from thence to us. x That the flute was formerly the inftru-
ment of a gentleman may be inferred from the following circum-
ftance : in that fpecies of graphical reprefentation called ftill life, we
obferve a collection of implements and utenfils thrown in diforder en
a table, exhibiting a group of various forms, contrafted with each
other, at the will of the artift. He that fhall carefully attend to pic-
tures of this kind, will feldom fail to find a lute, and alfo a flute, fre-
quently with a book of leflbns for one or the other inftrument ; but
if this particular fails to prove that the flute was the'recreation of gen-
tlemen, what fhall be faid to a portrait of one of our poets, who died
above fifty years ago, drawn when he was about twenty, wherein he
is reprefented in a full trimmed blue fuit, with fcarlet (lockings rolled
above his knees ; a large white peruke, and playing on a flute near
half an ell in length; or to this, which is the frontifpiece to a book
of inftrudions and leflbns for this inftrument, published about the
Vol. IV. 4 CL And
HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE Book IV,
And to come nearer to our own times, it may be remembered by
many now living, that a flute was the pocket companion of many who
wiflied to be thought fine gentlemen. The ufe of it was to enter-
tain ladies, and fuch as had a liking for no better raufic than a fong-
tune, or fuch little airs as were then compofed for that inftrument ;
and he that-could play a folo of Schickhard. of Hamburg,, or Robert
Valentine of Rome, was held a complete mailer of the inftrument.
A defcription of the mutual compliments that attended a requeft to
one of thefe accomplished gentlemen to perform, or' a- recital, of the
forros of entreaty or excufe, with, a relation, of the apologies, the
bows, the congees that paffed upon fuch an occafion, might furnifh
matter for a diverting fcene in a comedy; but here it may fuffice to
fay, that in the prefent.ff.ate of manners, nothing of the kind is to be
found amongft us •*.
As the French had fet us the example for the practice. of the flute
a. bee, fo did they for the German or traverfe flute, an inftrument of
little lefs antiquity. The Sieur Hotteterre le Romain of Paris was the
firfl that published instructions for it ; and thefe were confiderably im-
proved in a treatife entitled ' Meihode pour apprendre aifement a,
* This account will not feem exaggerated to thofe who remember fuch old gentremen. .
as had been the fcholars of Banifter, Woodcock, Bafton, and other mailers of the flute.
Chap. 6. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 483
* joiier-de la Flute traverfiere,' by Monf. Corrette ; the former of
thefe books was published about the year 1710; and from that time
the practice of the flute a bee defcended to young apprentices of
tradefmen, and was the amufement of their winter evenings ; the
German or traverfe flute ftill retains fome degree of eftimation among
gentlemen, whole ears are not nice enough to inform them that it is
never in tune *.
Nicholas Staggins, a man bred under his father, a common
mufician in London, had intereft enough to procure himfelf the
place of compoler to Charles II. and afterwards to be matter of the
band of mufic to William III. In the year 1664, more by the fa-
vour of Dr. James, the vice-chancellor, than any defert of his own,
he attained to the degree of dodtor in mufic. His exercife mould
have been a vocal compofition in five or fix parts, and alfo one for in-
ftruments, but the former, as being the more difficult work, was
difpenfed with. The partiality ftiewn to this man feems to have 00
cafioned great murmurings, and to filence them the following adver-
tifement was published in the Gazette for the year 1684, No. 1945.
' Cambridge, July 6. Dr* Nicholas Staggins, who was fome time
' fince admitted to the degree of Dr. of mufic, being defirous toper-
* form his exercife upon the firft public opportunity for the faid de-
' gree, has quitted himfelf fo much to the fatisfaftion of the whole
' univerfity this commencement, that by a folemn vote they have
' conftituted and appointed him to be a public profeflbr of mufic
At Cambridge is no endowment for a mufic profeflbr, fo that the
appointment here mentioned muff have been merely honorary ; how-
ever, in virtue of it Dr. Tudway fucceeded to the title upon the death
of Dr. Staggins, and it has been continued down to the prefent time.
In a collection entitled ' Choice Ayres, Songs, and Dialogues to
' fjng to the Theorbo-Lute or Bafs-Viol,' publifhed in 1675, is a
* This is an objection that lies in common againft all perforated pipes; the beft
that the makers of them cm Ho is to tune them to fome one key, as the hautboy to C,
the German flute tp D, and the flute a bee to F ; and to effect this truly, is a matter of
no fmalj difficulty. The flutes of the latter kind of the younger Standby approach the
neareft of any to perfection ; but thofe of Breflan, though excellent in their tone, are all
tcto flat in the upper octave. For thefe reafons fome are induced to think, notwithlland-
ing what we daily hear of a fine embouchure, ami a brilli.int finger, terms equally non-
1'enllcjl applied, as they are, to the German flute, that the utmoft degree of proficiency on
My of thefe. iiiftrumcnts is fcarceiy worth the labour of attaining it. .
484 HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE Book IV.
foog compofed by Dr. Staggiris, to the words * While Alexis ;' and
in Playford's Dancing-Mafter is a country-dance tune called Dr.
Staggins's Jig ; a few other fuch compofitions of his may poffibly be
found, but it does not appear that "he ever compofed anthems or fer-
vices, or indeed any works that could render him juftly eminent in
John VVallis, an eminent divine and mathematician, was born
at Alhford in Kent on the twenty-third day of November, 16 16.
From a grammar-fchool at Felfted in Effex he went to Emanuel
college in Cambridge, and became a fellow of Queen's college before
a vacancy happened in his own. About the year 1640 he was ad-
mitted to holy orders, and, leaving the univerfity, became domeftic
chaplain to Sir Richard Darly of Yorkshire, and the Lady Vere, the
dowager of Lord Horatio Vere. In 1664 he was chofen one of
the fcribes or fecretaries to the affembly of divines at Weftminfter.
Having made a confiderable progrefs in mathematics and natural phi->
lofophy, be was in 1649 appointed Savilian profeffor of geometry at
Oxford ; upon which occafion he entered himfelf of Exeter college,
and was admitted to the degree of mafter of arts, and in 1654 to that
of doctor in divinity : foon after which, upon the deceafe of Dr.
Gerard Langbaine, he was appointed Cuftos Archivorum of the
In his younger years he invented the art of decyphering, and by
his great penetration and ingenuity difcovered and eflablifhed thofe
principles, which have been the rule of its profeffors ever fince, and
have entitled him to the appellation of the father of the art. His
fingular readinefs in developing the fenfe of fecret writing, drew
upon him the fufpicion of having decyphered the letters of Charles I.
taken at the battle of Nafeby ; but he fully cleared himfelf in
a letter to Dr. Fell, bifhop of Oxford, dated April 8, 1685, an ex-
tract whereof is publifhed in the preface to Hearne's edition of Peter
Dr. Wallis was one of thofe perfons whofe private meetings for the
improvement of philofophy by experiments, gave occafion to the in-
stitution of the Royal Society j and after its eftablifhment he was a
conftant attendant, and frequent correfpondent of the fociety, com-
municating from time to time his difcoveries in various branches of
natural philofophy and the mathematics, as appears by his publica-
tions in the Philofophical Tranfa&ions.
'Chap. 6. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 485
The learning of Dr. Wallis was not lefs deep than extenfive. A An-
gular degree of acutenefs and penetration is difcoverable in all his
writings, which are too multifarious to be here particularized; and
the rather as a copious account of them is given in his life in the Bio-
graphia Britannica, Thofe which it concerns us here to take notice
of, are his edition of Ptolemy, with the appendix, entitled ' De ve-
"* terum harmonia ad hodiernam comparata *;' as alfo ' Porphyrii in
' Harmonica Ptolemcei Ccmmentarius, ex cod. MSS. Graece & Latinc
' editus;' and • ManuelisBryennii harmonica ex Cod. MSS,' which are
contained in the third and laft volume of his works in folio, printed at
Oxford in 1669. Thefe pieces of ancient harmonics, with thofe be-
fore published by Meibomius, complete the whole of what the an-
cient Greek writers have left upon that fubjedt.
Dr. Wallis was alfo the author of fundry papers printed in the
Philofophical Tran factions, particularly A Dilcourfe on the Trem-
bling of confonant Strings -f-; another on the divifion of the mono-
chord J ; another on the imperfection of the organ |] ; and a fourth on
the ftrange effects reported of mufic in former times §.
Many particulars of the life of this great man are related in a let-
ter from him to Dr. Thomas Smith, printed in the preface to
Hearne's edition of Peter Langtoft's Chronicle ; at the end of which
letter is a very ferious vindication of himfelf from the calumnies of
his enemies. What is related of him in the Athen. Oxon. is little
to be regarded, for it is evident that Wood hated him for no other
reafon than the moderate principles which he profeffed, and which
fhew Dr. Wallis to have been a much wifcr man than himfelf.
He died on the twenty-eighth day of Odtober, 1703, in the
eighty-eighth year of his age, and was buried in the church of St.
Mary at Oxford, in which is a handfome monument to his memory.
* The reduction of the ancient fyftem of mufic to the modern, which makes the Greek
fcale, as far as it goes, correfpond with that of Guido, though an arduous undertaking,
Dr. Wallis has happily effected in his appendix to Ptolemy ; and in his notes on that
work he has gone very near todemonftrate an exaft correfpondence between the modes of
the ancients and the keys of the moderns.
+ Philof. Tranf. No. 134, pag. 839, Mar anno 1677.
X Ibid. No. 238, pag. 80, Mar. anno 1698.
\ Ibid. No. 241, pag. 249, July, anno 1698.
§ No. 243, pag. 297, Aug. anno 1698. Low thorp and Jones's Abridgm. edit. 1732,
chap. x. pag. 6c 6, et feq.
Vol. IV. 4 R John
486 HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE Book 1%
JOHN BLOW MUS.DOCT.
John Blow, a native of North Collingham In the county of Not-
tingham, was one of the flrft fet of children after theteftoration,
being bred up under Captain Henry Cook. He was alfo a pupil of
Hingefton, and after that of Dr. Chriftopher Gibbons. On the fix-
teenth day of March, 1673, he was fworn one of the gentlemen of
Chap. j. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 487
the chapel in the room of Roger Hill ; and in July, 1674, upon the
deceafe of Mr. Pelham Humphrey, was appointed mafter of the
children of the chapel. In 1685 he was made one of his majefty 's
private mufic, and compofer to his majefty, a title which Matthew
Lock had enjoyed before him, but which feems to have been at that
time merely honorary. He was alfo almoner and mafter of the cho-
rifters of the cathedral church of St. Paul, being appointed to thofe
places upon the death of Michael Wife, in 1687, who had been ad-
mitted but in the January preceding;, but he refigned them in 1693, in
favour of his fcholar Jeremiah Clark. Blow was not a graduate of ei-
ther univerfity ; but archbifhop Sancroft, in virtue of his own authority
in that refpeft, conferred on him the degree of doctor in mufic. Upon
the deceafe of Purcell in 1 695, he became organift of Weftminfter-ab-
bey. In the year 1699 he was appointed compofer to his majefty, with
a falary of forty pounds a year, under an eftablifhment, of which the
following is the hiftory. After the revolution, and while king William
was in Flanders, the fummer refidence of queen Mary was at Hampton
Court. Dr. Tillotfon was then dean of St. Paul's and the reverend
Mr. Goftling fub-dean, and alfo a gentleman of the chapel. The
dean would frequently take Mr. Goftling in his chariot thither to at-
tend the chapel duty ; and in one of thofe journies, the dean talking
of church-mufic, mentioned it as a common obfervation, that ours
fell fhort of what it had been in the preceding reign, and that the
queen herfelf had fpoke of it to him. Mr. Goftling's anfwer was, ,
that Dr. Blow and Mr. Purcell were capable of compofing at leaft as
good anthems as moft of them which had been fo much admired,
and a little encouragement would make that appear. The dean men-
tioned this to her majefty, who approved of the thought, and faid
they fhould be appointed accordingly, with a falary of 40I. per an-
num *, adding that it would be expected that each mould produce a
new anthem on the firft Sunday of his month of waiting •(-.
*- Thefe falaries have finee been augmented t© 73I. per annum, and thereby made
equal to thofe of the gentlemen of the chapel.
f Dr. 1 Motion's intei ft with queen Mary, which was very great, is thus to be ac-
counted for. Upon her marriage, the prince of Orange and (he were hurried out of town
fo faft (there being a beret defign to invite them to an entertainment in the city) which
the court did not like, that they had fcarce time to make provifion for their journey.
Being come to Canterbury, they repaired to an inn, where, through hafte, they came
very meanly provided. Upon application by Mr. Bentinck, who attended them, to bor-
row money of tbe corporation, the mayor and his brethren, after grave deliberation, were
488 HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE EooklV.
This converfation, according to the account above given, which
was communicated by the fon of Mr. Goftling now living, was had
in the life-time of Purcell, that is to fay, before the year 1695,
but it did not take effect till four years after, and then only as to one
compofer *, as appears by the following entry in the Cheque-
* 1699. Upon a new eftablimment of a cornpofer's place for
« the chapel royal, Dr. John Blow was admitted into it by a
« warrant from the right reverend dean, and fworn in by
* Ralph Battell, Subdean.'
Blow was a compofer of anthems while a chapel-boy, as appears
by Clifford's colle&ion, in which are feveral fubfcribed ' John Blow,
* one of the children of his majefty's chapel ;' and on the fcore of his
merit was diftinguifhed by Charles il. The king admired very much
a little duet of Cariflimi to the words « Dite o Cieli,' and afked of Blow
if he could imitate it. Blow modeftly answered he would try, and
compofed in the fame meafure, and the fame key of D with a minor
third, that fine fong « Go perjured man-j-.' That the reader may be
able to draw a comparifon between the two compofitions, that of the
Italian is here inferted. Blow's is known to every Englishman con-
verfant in mufic.
afraid to lend them any. Dr. Tillotfon, then dean of Canterbury, hearing of this, im-
mediately got together his own, and what other plate and money he could borrow, and.
■went to the inn to Mr. Bentinck with the after of what he had. This was highly accept-
able to the prince and princefs, and the dean was carried to wait upon them. By this
lucky accident he began that acquaintance and correfpondence with the prince and Mr.
Bentinck, which advanced him afterwards to the archbifhoprick. Echard's Hift. ofEng.
Appendix, page 1 1. Rapin, vol. II. page 683. This fadl is related by Dr. Birch in his
life of archbifhop Tillotfon, page 49, with this additional circumftance, that it is drawn
from a manufcript account taken from the archbifhop's own mouth.
* There wat no appointment of a fecond compofer till 17 15, when Mr. John Weldon
was admitted and fworn into that place.
f He afterwards compofed another, little inferior, alfo printed in the Amphion Angli-
cus, to the words ' Go perjured maid.'
Chap. 7. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC.
4 3 9
DITE". o Cieli, fi cm -deli -C°
DITE o Cieli, fi_cru«delL 'l'ono'
j a 1
*' — di — . del mio Ben del tr.io Ben fi crudeli fbno i fg-uarcli
£^, . , r—. 1" ■ ■ »
bUTU I Li
i'jjuardi del mio Ben delinioBen fi crudeli fonoifguurdi
li #f r-i|j | ° 11 1 iKsirVJ^
•^ #1*»1 naio Ren. Ren. fn_no dat-rli rhi
del mio Ben. Ben . fo-no dardi che pun
#_. _^1 „__^
I I $ l l r-j- r l rJ- p f JEi
Ren. fo_no durdi che pun —
del mio Ben. Ren. fo_no dardi che pun
» — r
j "r ,'
tu-re dan fi dure, dan fi
_tu.re dan fi dure, dan 11 du-reche trafitto ne
■2 5 6
490 HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE BooklV.
m s 1 1 s-iu
feTi . fen .
B^ II I !!>•
CIAC ()\iO (ARISS1MT
Chap. 7. AND PRACTICE OF MUSIC. 49 1
The fong of ' Go perjured man,' was firft published fingly, and
fome years after in the fourth and lad book of the Theater of Mufic,
printed fjr Henry Playford in 1687. It was again publi£hed with
the addition of instrumental parts, in the Amphion Anglicus of Dr.
The Orpheus Britannicus of Purcell bad been published by his
widow loon after his deceafe -, and contained in it fome of that au-
thor's fineft fongs : the favourable reception it met with was
a motive with Blow to the publication, in the year 1700, of a work
of the fame kind, entitled ' Amphion Anglicus, containing compo-
« fitions for one, two, three, and four voices, with accompanyments
* of inftrumental mufic, and a thorough-bafs figured for the organ,
' harpfichord, or theorbo-lute.'