John Henry Parker.

Some account of domestic architecture in England from Edward I. to Richard II. online

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SOME ACCOUNT



omtattc architecture



ENGLAND,



FROM EDWARD [. TO RICHARD II.



WITH NOTICES OF FOREIGN EXAMPLES, AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS OF
EXISTING REMAINS FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS.



THE EDITOR OF THE GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURE.



OXFORD,
JOHN HENRY PARKER;

AND 377, STRAND, LONDON.

H DCCCLIII.



OXFORD :
PRINTED BT I. SHRIMPTON.



Stack
Jbfttox

056



PREFACE.



SOON after the completion of the first volume of this
work, Mr. Hudson Turner, whose health had for some
time been failing, was cut off by consumption in the prime
of life. Those who knew him best can most fully appre-
ciate the loss which Archaeological literature has thereby
sustained : few persons have ever possessed such full and
accurate knowledge of the Public Records contained in
the various offices in London, or knew so well where to
find exactly what was wanted for the elucidation of any
particular point. The importance of the series of extracts
from the Records which he collected, translated, and pub-
lished in the first volume of this work has been universally
admitted; but he unfortunately trusted too much to his
extraordinary memory, and has left few written memoranda
or references. The materials which he had collected for the
present volume were so slight, and in so imperfect a state,
that no one who had not been previously acquainted with
the plan of the work, or what they were intended to illus-
trate, could have made any use of them. Under these cir-
cumstances the present Editor, who had all along directed
his labours, undertook the task of arranging and digesting



2052333



IV PREFACE.

his few scattered materials, and thereby was led into edit-
ing the volume himself. In this he relied greatly on the
experience he had acquired in preparing the successive edi-
tions of the Glossary of Architecture ; but if he had not
known that he could safely calculate upon much valuable
assistance from others more competent than himself, he
could never have ventured to have undertaken it at all. It
is now his pleasing task to acknowledge the assistance he
has received : from Mr. W. Twopeny and Mr. Blore, with
whom the work in a great degree originated, and to whose
suggestions, as well as the loan of their beautiful drawings,
its success is mainly to be attributed ; Mr. Richard C.
Hussey, who originally engaged to be the editor, and,
though compelled to relinquish this by the increase of his
professional engagements, has continued his advice and
assistance throughout; Mr. DufFus Hardy, who has given
many valuable suggestions, and directed the careful exami-
nation and selection from the Records, since the death of
Mr. Turner, and the Rev. James Raine of Durham, who
has furnished much information in matters relating to the
north of England. His thanks are also due to Mr. A.
Nesbitt, for the use of many of his drawings, and much
valuable assistance throughout the work ; the Messrs.
Buckler for the free use of their extraordinary collection
of drawings, the result of the labours of three genera-
tions ; the Duke of Northumberland, for the drawings
of the remarkably early oriel at Prudhoe, prepared ori-
ginally for the work on the Castles of the Percys, which



PREFACE. V

Mr. Hartshorne has in hand for his Grace, but very hand-
somely given up to the present work, as belonging rather
to the general history of Domestic Architecture, than to
any local work ; M. Viollet Le-Duc, and M. Didron, of
Paris, M. de Caumont, and M. Bouet, of Caen, for either
the notices themselves, or directions where to find the
existing remains in France, and M. Verdier, for those in
Italy, and many other friends who have supplied in-
formation respecting the existing remains in the several
localities with which they were acquainted.

It is not without anxiety that the Editor now takes leave
of a volume which has occupied every spare moment for
many months, for which he may truly say that he has
often consumed the midnight oil, and for the preparation
of which he has travelled many hundred miles, never being
contented to take from other sources anything which he
had the opportunity of verifying for himself.

TURL, OXFORD.
MARCH 1, 1853.



.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTEE I.

GENEBAL EEMAEKS. Eeign of Edward i. Connection of
France and England. Change in the style of architecture.
Edward n. and in. William of Wykeham. Richard n.
Existing Remains. Country houses in England. Town houses
in France. Plan of manorial houses. Contract for building
the house of Sir John Bishopsden of Lapworth in 1314.
Roofs covered with wooden shingles. Royal manor-houses.
Sale of unnecessary houses of Edward in. Houses with
towers. Pele towers. Tower-built houses. General appear-
ance castellated. The moat. Survey of Newcastle, and survey
of Conway castle. Fortified manor-houses. Illuminations in
MSS. obviously truthful. External decoration of houses.
The Round tower at Windsor called La Rose, painted exter-
nally with roses. Works at Windsor. p. 132



CHAPTER II. THE HALL.

General arrangement The roof. The windows The hearth.
The louvre. Fire-places and chimneys. The dais. The high *
table. The screens. The minstrels' gallery. The spur. The.
lavatory. The side-board.



CONTENTS.

PAINTINGS ON THE WALLS, at "Winchester, "Westminster ; re-
presented in the Luterell Psalter ; described in the Romance of
Guigamar, and by Chaucer ; ordered by Bp. Langton at Lich-
field in 1312.

TAPESTBY. Arras. Specimen in Berkeley castle; represent-
ed in the Luterell Psalter ; bequeathed by Edward the Black
Prince ; charged in wardrobe accounts of Edward 11. ; made in
London and Norwich. A tapiser mentioned by Chaucer. Hang-
ings, bequeathed by earl of Arundel in 1392. Hangings in
Warwick castle, with story of Guy, earl of Warwick, granted
by Richard n. to earl of Kent, Arras bequeathed by duke of
Lancaster in 1397 ; described by Froissart ; the favourite orna-
ment of the day, carried with them by the nobility.

FUBNITITBE. Tables. Benches. Few chairs. Reredos and
hearth. Pots and mugs. Rudeness of furniture, represented
in a MS. of Boccacio, 1409 ; sometimes hid with dorsars and
bankers. Folding chairs. THE DINING TABLE, usually boards
and trestles. THE DINNEB. Hour of dining. Table-cloths.
PLATE AND GABNITUEE OF THE TABLE. Platters. Dishes

Cups. Salts. Glass vessels rare. The ship. The mazer The

wassail bowl. "Washing before and after meals. Knives

Spoons and forks. Two eating off the same platter. Grace
said at meals. At supper Candle-sticks. Minstrels and jest-
ers. Reading at meals The fool. Summons to meals. At-
tendants in hall. The banqueting room. The staircase. The
porch. p. 3378



CHAPTER III. THE CHAMBEES.

I. THE CHAPEL. The sacrarium the whole height. The
nave divided by a floor, as at Markenfield, Hendred, Studley,
Godstow, Maxstoke. Instances from Liberate rolls. Wen-
ham. Chepstow. Chichester. Lyte's Carey. Oratories at
Chepstow. Brougham. II. THE ORIEL. The upper room of



CONTENTS.

the chapel Instances from Liberate rolls Same name applied

to a gallery and loft. Passages from Romances. Matthew Paris.
William of Worcester. III. THE SOLAE The parlour.
EIRE-PLACES AND CHIMNEYS. The lord's chamber. The lady's
chamber. Furniture of chambers. Wainscot. Windows.
Doors. King- knockers. The bed-chamber. Beds. Bed-
steads Curtains Carpets. Rushes and green leaves. Ex-
tracts from Romances and Chaucer. Baths. Iron-work.
Clocks. Lamps and torches. IV. The wardrobe. Extracts from
the Liberate rolls. From wills. Chests. THE GAEDEEOBES
OE PEIVT CHAMBEES. The garden. Fountains. p. 79 117



CHAPTEE IV. THE OFFICES.

THE KITCHEN. Penshurst Eaby. Bishop's Auckland.
Bamborough. Durham. Fontevrault. Chichester. Glaston-
bury. Martock Bolton castle Illuminations of the Luterell
Psalter and Romance of Alexander. Liberate rolls. Inventory
of Edward in. Frying-pans Gridirons. Spits, &c. Plates.
Pots. Kettles. Tankards. Barrels. Vessels of wood or metal,
and pottery. Forges. Trades carried on in baronial mansions
Provisions and cooking. Drinks. THE BUTTEET. THE PAN-
TET. THE LAEDEE. Carriages. Eoads. Mills. Barns.

118152



CHAPTEE V. MEDIEVAL TOWNS.

Origin of towns Plan of towns. English towns in France,
of remarkably regular plans Bastides. New towns. Free
towns. Ville-neuve and Ville-franche very common names in
France. WINCHELSEA, new town, regular plan. HULL, founded
by Edward I., situation similar to Libourne also founded by
him. THE FEEE TOWNS. Foundation. Mode of proceeding.

b



CONTENTS.

Ville-franche de Rovergne. Ville-neuve d'Agen. Libourne.
Sauveterre. Monsegur. Molieres. La Linde. Sainte
Foy Bazas. Beaumont. Montpazier. Important influence
of the Free Towns on civilization. GUILDS. Houses of
guilds. Guild-halls. Town-halls. Hotels de ville. Halls
of the inns of court. Guesten hall at Worcester Belfry-
towers attached to halls in the Low Countries. Ghent. Tour-
nay. Laon. Jacobean town-halls. Weobley. Leominster.
Boss. The king's hall. Winchester. Westminster. Halls for
guards attached to monasteries. Caen. Mont S. Michel. Mer-
chants' halls in London. Houses in towns had the lower story
vaulted and half under ground. Gerrard's hall. General aspect
of a medieval town, from Illuminations in MSS. Upper stories
usually of wood. Views of Constantinople and Venice from
MSS. Houses in Venice painted on the exterior, as described by
Philip de Commines. Covered ways, or piazzas. Gate-houses.
G ateway towers. Of castles. Abbeys. Houses. Col-
leges. Hospitals. Almshouses. p. 153 194



CHAPTER VI. EXISTING REMAINS.

1. COUNTIES OF NOETHUMBEBLAND AND DUEHAM. Cas-
tles. Religious houses, Chibburn. Towers or peles. Ancient
farm-house. Cottages. Elsdon rectory. Bamburgh Alnwick.
Dunstanborough. Belsay. Prudhoe. Corbridge. Raby.
Bishop's Auckland. 195210

2. CUMBERLAND AND WESTMOEELAND. Naworth. Car-
lisle. Dacre. Yanwath. Brougham. 211 225

3. TOEKSHIKE, LANCASHIRE, AND CHESHIEE. Bolton.
Middleham. Markenfield. Spofforth. Dalton. Baggily.

225237

4. DERBY, NOTTINGHAM, AND LINCOLN. Southwell. Lin-
coln. Market-Deeping. 237243



CONTENTS.

5. STAFFORD, LEICESTER, AND KUTLAND. p. 243 4

6. WARWICK, NORTHAMPTON AND HUNTINGDON. Kenil-

worth. Warwick. Maxstoke Coventry. Caludon. Temple

Balsall. Woodcroft. Norborough. Aldwinkle. 244257

7. WORCESTER AND GLOUCESTER Bredon. King's Nor-
ton. Malvern. Broadway. Dudley. Standish. Tetbury.
Beverstone. Berkeley. Gloucester. Stanley Pontlarge. Bi-
shop's Cleeve. Evesham. 2579

8. OXFORDSHIRE, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, AND BERKSHIRE.
Bampton. Broughton. Woodstock. Shirburne Marlow
Burnham. Creslow. Donyngton. Windsor. Bisham. Hur-
ley. Sutton Courtenay. Cumnor. Brimpton. 260 275

9. BEDFORDSHIRE, HERTFORDSHIRE, AND MIDDLESEX.

2756

10. NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK. CAMBRIDGESHIRE AND ES-
SEX. Yarmouth. Ely. 2767

11. KENT, SURREY, AND SUSSEX Penshurst. Nursted.
The Mote. Leeds castle. Battle hall, Leeds. Charing.
Great Chart. Salmstones. Nash court. Canterbury. Wing-
ham. Monkton court. Sandwich. Aldington. Thorne.
Southwark. Farnham. Guildford Croydon. Buckworth.
Bodiham. Chichester. Battle. Lewes. Pevensey. Amber-
ley Crowhurst. Mayfield. 277293

12. WILTSHIRE AND HAMPSHIRE. Laycock Braden-
stoke. Salisbury. All Cannings. Stanton St. Quentin. Beau-
lieu. Bishop's Waltham. Southampton. Winchester. 293 6

13. SOMERSETSHIRE AND DORSETSHIRE. Nunney. Meare.
Martock. Compton Dundrum. Lyte's Carey. Crewkerne.
Clevedon. Chapel- Cleeve. Weymouth. 296303

14. DEVONSHIRE AND CORNWALL. Exeter. Darlington.
Inceworth. Earth. 3045

15. THE MARCHES OF WALES, SHROPSHIRE, HEREFORD-
SHIRE, AND MONMOUTHSHIRE. Ludlow. Shrewsbury. Haugh-
mond. Goodrich. Weobley. Grosmont. Chepstow. Cal-
decot. 30512



CONTEXTS.



16. NOBTH AND SOUTH WALES The Edwardian castles.
Pembrokeshire. Picton. Pembroke. Carew. Manorbeer.
Llawhaden. Upton. Lamphey. Brecon. St. David's.

p. 312331



CHAPTER VII. FOBEKJN EXAMPLES.

FBANCE.

Provins. Rouen. Poitiers. Bayeux Soissons. Noyon.
Paris. Poissy. Coulmier-le-sec. Laon. Mont S. Michel.
Riom Mont-Ferran. Limoges. S. Yriex. Beaumont. Ca-
hors. Villefranche d' Aveyron. Caylus d' Aveyron. St. Anto-
nin. Cordes. Rodez Mende. Langogne. Cluny. Carcas-
sonne. Montreale. Perpignan. Flavigny. Perigueux. Blan-
quefort. Douvres. Cully. 33534-4

FLANDEBS.
Bruges. Ypres. 345

GEBMANY.

Treves. Nuremburg Ratisbon. Rostock. Wismar. Stral-
sund. Greifswald. Auclam. Marienburg. 346 349

ITALY.

Pisa Lucca. Siena. Viterbo. Orvieto. Florence. Bo-
logna. Padua. Verona. Vicenza. Venice. Mantua. Como.

350352



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.



CHAPTER I. GENERAL EEMARKS.

PAGE

INTERIOR of the hall at Penshurst, Kent . Frontispiece.
Dacre castle, Cumberland . . . . .11
External staircase, Belsay castle, Northumberland . .13
Drawbridge and wooden palisading from a MS. . . .14
Castles with towers and drawbridge from a MS. . .15
Belsay castle, Northumberland, general view . . .17
View of Venice in the fourteenth century from a MS. . .26
Part of the old cloisters, "Windsor castle, and barge-board, Wing-
ham, Kent . ... , . . . .30
Interior of the hall, Sutton Courtenay, Berks . . , .32

CHAPTEE II. THE HALL.

Interior of the hall, Great Malvern . . . .35

"Window in the hall, Meare, Somersetshire . . .37
"Windows in the gables of halls at Southwark, Northampton, and

St. David's . . . . . .38

The louvre, Westminster hall . . . , . . 39

Fire-place in hall, Meare, Somersetshire . . .40

The dais and high table, from a MS. . . . . ib.

Wooden spurs to doorways at York . . . .43

Side-board in a house at Lincoln . . . .44

Water-drain, Dacre castle, Cumberland . . .,-*''^ 45

Cistern and lavatory, Battle hall, Leeds, Kent *. . .46

Seat in the hall, from a MS. . . . . . .52

The dining-table, from a MS. . . . . .55

Ancient salt . . . . . . . .59

Domestic bearing the ship ,,.,,, '>-.. ^1

Mazer-bowl with cover, 1345 81 . . . . ib.

. temp. Eic. n. . . ,. . r .V 62

Minstrel from the Luterell Psalter . . ' j>,^ -71
* Misprinted Sussex.



LIST OF ENGBAVINGS.

PAGE

External staircases, from MSS. . . . . .76

Porches from MSS. . . .78



CHAPTER III. THE CHAMBEBS.

East end of chapel, Broughton castle, Oxfordshire . .79

Section of chapel ... . 80

The solar from a MS. . . . . . .86

The solar, Sutton Courtenay, Berks. . . . .87

Chimney, Burford, Oxfordshire . . . . .88

Eire-places, Lincoln and Edlingham . . . . ib.

Eire-place with dogs, and chimney from MS. . . .89

Chimneys, "Woodstock and Grosmont . . . .90

Southwell, Norborough, Exton, Lincoln, Motcombe . 9 1

Furniture : tables and chair from MSS. . . . .93

Windows with seats . . . . . .94

Bedstead and cradle, from a MS. . . . .96

A bath from a MS. . . . . . .102

Iron- work from MSS. ..... 103, 105

Chest, Huttoft, Lincolnshire . . . . .112

Garderobes, Langley castle, Northumberland . . .113

Southwell palace, Notts. . . . .114

Fountain from a MS. . . . . . .116

Garden from a MS. . . . . . .117

CHAPTEE IV. THE OFFICES.

The Abbot's kitchen, Durham . . . . .119

Plan of the same . . . . .120

Interior of the same . . . . . ib.

Cooking in the open air from a MS. . . . .122

Servants carrying up the dinner, from a MS. . . .124

Boiler and pot-hook from a MS. . . . . .125

Pottery found in Carey-street, London . . . .126

- found in Oxford, and at Lewes, Sussex . . . ib.
Forging and grinding from MSS. ; v ; . .128
Baking from a MS. . . .^ . . . 129
Churning from a MS. . ... . . . 138



LIST OF ENGRAYINGS.

PAGE

State carriage from the Luterell Psalter " . . " .141

Chariot from a MS. of the Romance of Alexander . . 144

Mode of carrying provisions ; wheelbarrow and truck from

MSS. . ; : .^ ' . . . . 145

"Water-mill from a MS. . . . . . .150

Wind-mill from a MS. . . . . . .151

Abbot's barn, Pilton, Somersetshire . . . . ib.



CHAPTER Y. MEDIEYAL TOWNS.

House in the principal street of Cordes, Languedoc . .153
Plan of the town of Montpazier, and view of the covered way

round the market-place . . . . .154

House at Yriex, near Limoges . . . . .156

Plan of the town of Winch elsea . . . .158

Bird's-eye view of the town of Hull . . . .164

The palace of the Pope at Cahors . . . .181

View, plan, and details of the crypt of Gerrard's hall, London . 185

Imaginary view of Constantinople from a MS. . . .187

Timber-house, Weobley, Herefordshire . . . .188

Houses in the market-place, Alby, Languedoc . . .190

Exterior, interior, and plan of the treasury, Merton coll., Oxford. 1 93



CHAPTER VI. EXISTING REMAINS.

View of the chapel, and plan, Chibburn, Northumberland . 197

Oriel window, Prudhoe castle, Northumberland . , . 206

Plans of Raby castle, Durham, upper and lower stories . . 208

Carved wooden ceiling, Naworth castle, Cumberland . .211

Staircase, Carlisle castle, Cumberland . . . .212

Plans and view of lower story, Dacre castle, Cumberland . 215

Plans and view of Tanwath hall, Westmoreland . .217

Water-spout on tower of the same . '* . .218

Chimney and watch-tower of the same ' :<. .: .219

Gate-house, Brougham castle, Westmoreland . . ; . 220

Gateway, Brougham hall, Westmoreland . , . 222

View of Markenfield hall, Yorkshire . . . .230



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.

PAGE
Back view of Markenfield hall , , > , . . 233

Plans of upper and lower stories of the same . . &34

Interior of Baggily hall, Cheshire " ... __., . . . 236

Part of the archbishop's palace at Southwell, Notts. . .237

Chantry house, Lincoln ...... 239

Market-Deeping, Lincolnshire, interior and window of parsonage 242
"Woodcroft house, Northamptonshire .... 249

Norborough hall, Northamptonshire .... 252

Plans of the same . . . . . .254

Exterior of the hall, Great Malvern . . . .258

Remains of Bampton castle, Oxfordshire . . . 260

Broughton castle, Oxfordshire, south front . . .261

Ground-plan and groined passage in the same . . 262

Grated opening in chapel, and view of guard room , .264

Gate-house of the same ..... 266
Plan and south view of Sutton Courtenay, Berks. . . 272

Low side window in the hall of the same . . .273

Exterior of the hall, Penshurst, Kent - . . . . 278

Nursted court, Kent, exterior . . . . .281

interior ..... 282

Exterior of the palace, Mayfield, Sussex .... 290

Interior of the hall of the same .... 292
Plans of Meare, Somersetshire ..... 297

North-east view of the same .... 298

The Fish-house, Meare, exterior and interior . . . 300

House at Chapel Cleeve, Somersetshire . . . .303

View of Clevedon court, Somersetshire . . . ib.

Timber house at Weobley, Herefordshire . . . 307

Caerphilly castle. ...... 314

House at Pembroke, South Wales . . . .321

Langley castle, Northumberland, view and plan . . 332

CHAPTEE YII. FOREIGN EXAMPLES.

House at Caylus, Guienne . . . . .337

House of the chief huntsman, Cordes, Languedoc . . 339

The abbot's house, at Cluny, Burgundy . . . . 340

House at Caudebec, Normandy . ; ; . . 341



DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE
FOURTEENTH CENTURY.



CHAPTER I.
GENERAL REMARKS.

THE reign of Edward the First was one of the most
brilliant and flourishing epochs in the whole history of
England. At home the people enjoyed peace and pros-
perity, and made rapid progress in civilization. Abroad
some of the finest provinces of France owned their obedi-
ence to the English crown. These happy results were in no
small degree due to the personal character of the monarch ;
bred up from his earliest youth in the French wars, and
early entrusted with the government of the important pro-
vince of Aquitaine, he shewed all the qualities of a great
king, his prudence and sagacity equalled his valour, and
he succeeded in attaching the people firmly to his cause
by the wisdom and the liberality of his measures.

The good effects of his policy may be traced for above a
century after his time in the hearty adherence of the natives
of Gascony and Guienne to the English cause; far from
feeling themselves to be degraded vassals, they were proud
of belonging to the English party, and even to this day
the people have a fond tradition of the flourishing days of
the English rule . Nor was his government at home less
marked by wisdom and firmness, or his people less flourish-

* In proof of this we need only quote quand nous sommes Francois nous sommes
the popular proverb, " Quand nous som- toujours gueux."
mes Anglais nous sommes totijours riches,



2 DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE : FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

ing b . At that period France was more advanced in civili-
zation than England, and Edward laboured to introduce
and encourage the arts in England by bringing over choice
workmen and artists from France. A marked change in
the style of architecture took place, and this change was
evidently of French origin, though the new style was
brought to greater perfection in England. The window
tracery in geometrical forms, which is the most striking
feature of the new style, appeared in France some years
before it was introduced into England, but once intro-
duced here it soon took root and flourished in a most
wonderful degree c . Simultaneously with the rapid develop-
ment of Ecclesiastical Architecture, similar progress was
made in Domestic buildings ; not only were the halls en-
riched by the introduction of the new style of windows,
but the plans of the houses themselves were improved and
enlarged, and the number of offices increased.

The reigns of the Second and Third Edwards are scarcely
less distinguished in the annals of architecture than that of
the First. There is abundant evidence that these monarchs
all took a warm interest in its progress, more especially
of Domestic architecture, and there can be no doubt that
their personal influence was generally felt. The favours,
the honours, and the emoluments heaped upon William
of Wykeham by Edward the Third were chiefly earned
by his skill as "an architect displayed in rebuilding the
royal palace at Windsor. The three reigns combined
are called by some antiquarians the Edwardian period, and
this period comprises the most brilliant and glorious epoch

b The knights and barons of France, here invented is extraordinary, and un-

who had been at home accustomed to rivalled in any other country. In France

handsome hotels, richly ornamented the same figures are constantly repeated,

apartments, and good soft beds, were by especially the trefoil, and this continued

no means pleased at the poverty they until the vagaries of the Flamboyant

had to encounter. Froissart. style began to mark the fall of Gothic

fc The variety of designs which were architecture.



GENERAL REMARKS. 3

in the whole history of the Art. It was exactly for this pe-
riod and no longer, that the Decorated style prevailed ;
in other words, the Art was then in the highest state
of perfection : previous to this period it was still in pro-
gress, and immediately afterwards it began to decline.
The Domestic architecture of this brilliant epoch in our
history is scarcely less worthy of attention than the Eccle-
siastical ; considered as mere masonry it is impossible to sur-
pass the accuracy, the firmness, the high finish of the work
of this period. The sculpture is equally beautiful, and in
its wonderful fidelity to nature is unrivalled. Nor was the
skill of the architect behind that of his workmen ; the ad-
mirable manner in which the plans and designs are ar-
ranged, and the ingenuity with which difficulties are over-
come, may be equalled, but cannot be surpassed.

In the reign of Richard the Second the last change of
the Gothic styles took place, and though the Perpendicular
style is admirably suited for Domestic buildings, it must
still be considered as a decline from the highest perfection
of the Art. Such structures as the colleges of Wykeham,
the roof of Westminster Hall, and many others, shew that
the architects of the time of Richard the Second can hardly
be said to have declined, though the change then intro-
duced was the beginning of the fall. This is one of the
periods where an overlapping of styles must be looked for.
Some buildings of this reign belong rather in style to the
next century, while others belong almost entirely to the
style then dying out. Just as in the reign of Edward the
First, the Early English and Decorated styles are singularly
intermingled, so is it in the time of Richard the Second
with the Decorated and the Perpendicular. The change
began indeed in the latter years of Edward the Third, but
the instances are not numerous enough to be considered



Online LibraryJohn Henry ParkerSome account of domestic architecture in England from Edward I. to Richard II. → online text (page 1 of 28)