John Howard Brown.

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the close of the war, after which he resumed the
practice of law in St. Johns. He served as sec
retary of the state of Michigan, 1866-70 ; as mem
ber of the Republican state committee, 1871-78 ;
was tendered and declined the appointment of
U.S. district judge of the territory of Utah, in
1871 ; was special agent of the U.S. treasury de
partment, 1875-81 ; and a Republican represen
tative from the sixth Michigan district in the
47th congress, 1881-83, being defeated for re
election by a fusion of the Democratic and Green
back parties. He was chairman of the govern
ment commission sent to the Sandwich Islands
to investigate the alleged violations of the
Hawaiian reciprocity treaty in 1883 ; was again
special agent of the U.S. treasury, January-
December, 1885, and 1889-90,. and was appointed




assistant secretary of the treasury in July of the
latter year, which position he still held by suc
cessive reappointments in 1903. He was married,
Aug. 12, 1863, to Cecilia, daughter of Auditor-
General John and Harriett (Coyell) Swegles, of
St. Johns, Mich. Mrs. Spaulding illustrated the
gift books; "Easter Thoughts" and " Grand
mother s Garden," and also "A Lost Winter,"
by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. General Spaulding
was a member of the Loyal Legion and of the
Grand Army of the Republic, and was a regent
of the University of Michigan, 1859-64, and presi
dent of the first Congress of American Republics,
held in New York in January, 1903.

SPEED, James, cabinet officer, was born in
Jefferson county, Ky., March 11, 1812; son of
John and Lucy Gilmer (Fry) Speed ; grandson
of Capt. James (of the Revolution) and Mary
(Spencer) Speed and of Joshua and Peachy
(Walker) Fry, and a descendant of John Speed,
the English historian, who was born at Farring-
ton, Cheshire county, England, 1852. He was
graduated from St. Joseph s college, Bardstown,
Ky., in 1828; was circuit and county courts
clerk ; studied law at Transylvania university,
Lexington, Ky. ; and settled in practice at Louis
ville, Ky., in 1833. He was married, 1841, to
Jennie, daughter of John Cochran, wholesale
merchant of Louisville, Ky. He was subsequently
professor of law at Louisville university, resum
ing the professorship in 1875 ; was elected to the
state legislature in 1841 and 1847. and was the
defeated Emancipation candidate for the state
constitutional convention in 1849. It was largely
through his influence that the state legislature
pronounced emphatically in favor of the Union,
September, 1861. He was an intimate friend of
President Lincoln, and upon the latter s call for
troops at the outbreak of the civil war, helped to
organize and was mustering officer of the U.S.
volunteers of Kentucky. He was a Union mem
ber of the state senate, 1861-63, and in 1864 was
appointed by President Lincoln U.S. attorney-
general to succeed Edward Bates (q.v.), resign
ing under President Johnson s administration in
1866. He was president of the Loyalist conven
tion at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1866 ; and a delegate
to the Republican national convention of 1872
and 1876. He was the guest of the Loyal League
of Cincinnati, May 4, 1887, presenting an address
on Abraham Lincoln. He died in Jefferson
county, Ky., June 25, 1887.

SPEED, John Gilmer, journalist, was born in
Jefferson county, Ky., Sept. 21, 1853; son of
Philip and Emma (Keats) Speed ; grandson of
John and Lucy (Gilmer) Speed and of George
and Georgiana (Wiley) Keats, and a descendant
of John Speed, the Elizabethan historian of Eng
land, also of Joshua Fry, who commanded the

Virginia regiment of which Washington was
major in the French and Indian war, previous to
the Revolution. His mother was a niece of John
Keats, the English poet. He was graduated from
the Louisville university, Ky., A.M., C.E., in
1869 ; practised civil engineering ; was city en
gineer of Louisville, 1874, and was connected
with the United States Transportation bureau at
the Philadelphia Centennial exposition in 1876.
He joined the staff of the New York World in
1877 ; and was its managing editor, 1879-83. He
was married, Jan. 12, 1881, to Mary, daughter of
Philip and Eloise (Gwathmey) Poindexter of
Kentucky. He traveled abroad, 1883-85, and
1885-88 ; was commissioner-general and secretary
of the American exhibition in London in 1887.
He edited the American Mazazine, 1888-89 ;
Leslie s Weekly, 1896-99. He also edited " Keats
Letters and Poems." He is the author of : A Life
of Keats, and of A Fall River Incident (1893) ;
The G timers in America (1898) ; A Deal in Denver
(1890) ; and hundreds of magazine articles.

SPEER, Emory, jurist, was born in Culloden,
Ga. , Sept. 3, 1848 ; son of the Rev. Eustace W.
and Anne E. Speer. He attended the district
schools ; served in the Confederate army as a
volunteer in the 5th Kentucky regiment, Lewis
brigade, 1864-65, and was graduated from the
University of Georgia, A.B., 1869. He subse
quently studied law ; was admitted to the bar in
November, 1869, commencing practice in Athens,
Ga.; was solicitor-general of Georgia, 1873-76;
was the unsuccessful Independent Democratic
candidate for the 45th congress, and elected
from the ninth Georgia district to the 46th and
47th congresses, 1879-83, serving in the latter con
gress as a member of the ways and means com
mittee. He was United States attorney for the
northern district of Georgia, 1883-85, and U.S.
judge for the southern district of Georgia from
February, 1885. He was trustee of the University
of Georgia, 1877-85, and president of the law de
partment of Mercer university. He delivered an
address at the opening of the Cotton States ex
position at Atlanta, Ga., 1895; before the Grant
Birthday association at Galena, 111., April 27,
1898 ; and at the Peace Jubilee in Chicago, 111.,
in October, 1898. He is the author of : Removal
of Causes from State to United States Courts
(1888) ; and Lectures on the Constitution of the
United States (1897).

SPEER, Robert Elliott, author, was born in
Huntingdon, Pa., Sept. 10, 1867 ; son of Robert
Milton and Martha Ellen (McMurtrie) Speer ;
grandson of Robert and Agnes (Cowen) Speer
and of William E. and Margaret (Whittaker)
McMurtrie, and a descendant of the Elliotts and
McMurtries, early settlers in Central Pennsyl
vania, and of Lieut. John Speer, a Revolutionary




officer. He prepared for college at Phillip s
academy, Andover, Mass., 1883-85; was grad
uated from the College of New Jersey in 1889,
and was a student at Princeton Theological sem
inary in 1890. He was traveling secretary of the
Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Mis
sions, 1889-90 ; and became secretary of the
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions in 1891.
He was married, April 20, 1893, to Emma Doll
Bailey, daughter of Charles Lukens and Emma
Harriet (Doll) Bailey, of Harrisburg, Pa. He
made a tour of visitation of Christian Missions in
Persia, India, China, Korea and Japan, 1896-97,
and received the honorary degree of A.M., from
Yale university in 1900. He is the author of:
Studies in the Book of Acts (1891) ; Studies in the
Gospel of Luke (1893) ; The Man Christ Jesus
(1896) ; Missions and Politics in Asia (1898);
A Memorial of a True Life (1898) ; Remember
Jesus Christ (1899) ; The Man Paul (1900) ; Christ
and Life (1901) ; The Principles of Jesus (1902) ;
Presbyterian Foreign Missions (1901); Missionary
Principles and Practise (1902).

SPEER, William, missionary, was born in
New Alexandria, Pa., April 24, 1822 ; son of Dr.
James Ramsey and Hattie (Morrow) Speer;
grandson of the Rev. William and Sarah (Ram
sey) Speer, and of Paul and Hettie (Guthrie)
Morrow, and a descendant of James Speer and
Mary Patterson, of Scotch Covenanter stock,
who emigrated from the north of Ireland about
1759 ; and of Thomas Morrow, lieutenant in the
French and Indian war. In 1845 William Speer s
father and family removed to Pittsburg, Pa. He
was educated at private schools, Western univer
sity and Jefferson and Kenyon colleges, being
graduated at the latter in 1840 ; studied medicine
under his father, 1840-43, and theology at the
Western Theological seminary, Allegheny city,
Pa., 1843-46 ; was licensed to preach by the pres
bytery of Ohio, April 21, 1846, and ordained, June
16, 1846. He was married, May 7, 1846, to
Cornelia, daughter of the Hon. Alexander and
Mary (Porter) Brackenridge, of Allegheny, Pa.
He was sent as a missionary to China by the
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions in July,
1846, to take part in establishing its first mission
in Canton. His wife and child died from the
effects of the climate in 1847, and he himself was
obliged to return to the United States on account
of failing health in 1850. He was employed by a
Board of Education in \vestern Pennsylvania in
1851 ; and was married secondly, April 20, 1852,
to Elizabeth Breading, daughter of Maj. John
Hoge and Ellen (Blaine) Ewing, of Washington,
Pa. In 1852 he went as the first preacher in their
own tongue to the Chinese in California, where
lie established a Chinese school, dispensary and
mission house ; organized the first Chinese church

in America, November, 1853 ; and edited the
Oriental, the first newspaper in Chinese and Eng
lish, 1853-55. His efforts secured a number of
important benefits to the Chinese, among them
the repeal of a legislative act of 1854-55, exclud
ing Chinese from the mines. He rendered at
the Hawaiian Islands in 1856 useful service to
missionary labor among the Chinese there ; per
formed evangelistic work in the south and in
Wisconsin and Minnesota, 1858-65 ; was elected
corresponding secretary of the Presbyterian
Board of Education, Philadelphia, 1865 ; aided in
reorganizing and managing it till 1876 ; traveled
in Europe, Japan and China, 1876-77 ; and subse
quently performed evangelistic labors in several
states. In 1903 he was residing in Washington,
Pa. He received the honorary degrees of A.M.,
and LL.D., from Washington and Jefferson
college, Pa., and that of D.D., from Center
college, Ky. He is the author of : China and the
United States (1870) ; TJie Great Revival of 1800
(1872 ; rev. ed. 1903) ; A Permanent Manual of the
Board of Education (1874) ; God s Rule for
Christian Giving (1875) ; and several pamphlets
on China and the Chinese, magazine and review

SPEIGHT, Jesse, U.S. senator, was born in
Green county, N.C., Sept. 22, 1795. He was a
representative in the legislature in 1822, and was
a member of the state senate, 1823-27 ; and a
Democratic representative from North Carolina
in the 21st-24th congresses, 1829-37. He removed
to Plymouth, Miss., and after serving in the state
house of representatives, was elected a Democratic
senator from Mississippi in 1845, as successor to
John Henderson and served until his death, when
he was succeeded by Jefferson Davis, who took
his seat Dec. 6, 1847, by appointment of the gov
ernor, and was subsequently elected to complete
the term. Senator Speight died in Plymouth,
Miss., May 1, 1847.

SPENCE, John Fletcher, educator, was born
in Greenfield, Ohio, Feb. 3, 1828 ; son of Stephen
and Matilda Spence ; grandson of William and
Martha Spence of Virginia, and a descendant of
the Hon. John Spence of Scotland. He was
educated in the Ohio Wesleyan university,
1851-54, receiving the degree A.M., pro honore,
1864, and that of A.B. , in cursu, 1894. He was
a minister in the Cincinnati conference, 1854-62 ;
served as chaplain in the Federal army, 1862-65 ;
was transferred to the Holston conference, in
Tennessee, and served as president of the Knox-
ville Female college, 1865-68. He organized the
first M. E. church in Knoxville after the war.
He was married, August, 1865, to Elizabeth Elliot,
daughter of William and Emily Carey, of Jacks-
boro, Tenn. In 1867 he founded the East Ten
nessee Wesleyan college at Athens, Tenn.. raising




the funds to pay for the buildings. In 1874, the
college became a university by amendment of
its charter, and he \vas appointed by the Holston
conference its president. In 1886 the name was
changed to that of Grant Memorial university,
and after the consoli
dation with the Chat
tanooga university,
to the U.S. Grant uni
versity. In 1889 he
was elected chancel
lor, a position which
he held until 1891.
In the nineteen years
of his administration
over 5000 students
were enrolled and
over 100 prepared
for the ministry. In
1893 he founded and
became chancellor of
the American Uni
versity of Harriman, Harriman, Tenn., serving
in that position until 1903, when he resigned.
During the ten years of his administration as
chancellor and president of the board of regents
the institution had phenomenal success. He was
a delegate to the general conference of the Meth
odist Episcopal church in 1880-84, and 1888-93.
He received the degree of D.D. from Mt. Union
college, 1878, and that of LL.D. from Scio college,

SPENCE, John Selby, U.S. senator, was born
near Snow Hill, Md., Feb. 29, 1788. He was a
representative in the Maryland legislature, and a
Democratic representative in the 18th and 22d
congresses, 1823-25, and 1831-33. In 1837 he was
chosen U.S. senator to succeed Robert H. Golds-
borough, deceased, for the term expiring, March
3, 1837, and he took his seat Jan. 11, 1837, and
was elected for a full term, to expire March 3,
1843. He died at Berlin, Md., Oct. 24, 1840.

SPENCE, Robert Traill, naval officer, was
born in Portsmouth, N.H., in 1785 ; BOH of Keith
Spence of Kirk wall, Orkney Islands, who settled
in Portsmouth as a merchant, and afterward be
came purser of the U.S. frigate PhiladelpJiia, and
married Mary, only daughter of Robert and Mary
(Whipple) Traill. Robert T. Spence was war
ranted a midshipman in 1800, and served under
Decatur in the Tripolitan war, being on gun-boat
Number <9 when she was destroyed Aug. 7, 1804.
He was commissioned lieutenant in 1807, and serv
ed under Commodore Rogers in the war of 1812,
being promoted master-commandant in 1813, and
past-captain, 1815. When stationed in the West
Indies in 1822, he vigorously defended the
jeopardized rights of Americans, and in 1826
was given command of the West India fleet, but

died before leaving port. He was married to
Mary Clare, daughter of Nicholas MacCubben and
Anne (Jennings) Carroll, of Annapolis, Md.. and
had several children, including : Carroll Spence
(q.v.) ; Charles Lowell Stuart Spence (q.v.) ;
Robert Traill Spence, M.D., and Stephen Decatur
Spence. His sister, Harriet Brackett Spence,
married the Rev. Charles Lowell, D.D., and be
came the mother of James Russell Lowell. Capt.
Robert T. Spence died near Baltimore, Md.,
Sept, 2f>. 1827.

SPENCER, Ambrose, jurist, was born in
Salisbury, Conn., Dec. 13, 1765; a descendant of
William Spencer, who came from England to Cam
bridge, Mass., 1631, becoming a landed proprietor
of Hartford, Conn., and a deputy of the general
court in 1639. Ambrose attended Yale College,
and was graduated from Harvard, in 1783 ; studied
law with John Can field, at Sharon, Conn., and
practised in Hudson, N.Y. He was married in
1784, to the daughter of John Canfield. He was
city clerk, 1786-93 ; a member of the state assem
bly, 1793-95, and state senator, 1795-1804. He
submitted and carried through a bill for the
abolishment of capital punishment, in all cases
except those of treason and murder, and was
instrumental in the erection of a state prison
near New York city. He was appointed assistant
attorney-general of Columbia and Rensselaer
counties in 1796 ; was attorney-general of New
York state, 1802-04 ; justice of the supreme court,
1804-19, and chief justice, 1819-23. He was
associated with Peter J. Munro, in the prepara
tion of reforms in the chancery system of the
state in 1808 ; was presidential elector in 1809 ;
opposed the granting of a charter to the Six
Million bank, and was a member of the state
constitutional convention of 1821. He practised
law in Albany, 1821-29 ; was mayor of the city,
1824-26, and was a representative in the 21st
congress, 1829-31. He removed to Lyons, N.Y.,
in 1839, and engaged in agricultural pursuits.
The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on
him by the University of Pennsylvania in 1820,
by Harvard in 1821, and by Columbia in 1823.
He died in Lyons, N.Y., March 13, 1848.

SPENCER, Cornelia Phillips, author, was
born in Harlem, N.Y., March 20, 1825; only
daughter of the Rev. Dr. James and Judith
(Vermeule) Phillips, and granddaughter of Cor
nelius Vermeule of New Jersey, a soldier in the
Revolutionary war, and Elizabeth (Middagh)
Vermeule. Her father came to America from
England in 1818, taught a classical school in
Harlem, N.Y., 1818-26, and was professor of
mathematics in the University of North Carolina,
1826-67. She was carefully educated at home by
her parents, and was married in 1855 to James
Spencer of Alabama, who died in 1861. Her only




child, Julia, was married in 1885 to James Lee
Love, associate professor of mathematics at the
University of North Carolina, subsequently in
structor in mathematics in Harvard university.
Mrs. Spencer made her home with her daughter
in Cambridge, Mass., after 1894. Her life was
spent mainly in literary work. In recognition of
her loyal service to the University of North
Carolina in the years succeeding the civil war,
she received from that institution the honorary
degree of LL.D. in 1895, the first woman in the
south to be so honored. She is the author of :
The Last Ninety Days of the Civil War (1866) ;
First Steps in North Carolina History ( 1888) ;
Centennial Catalogue of the University of North
Carolina (1889); and numerous contributions to
periodical literature.

SPENCER, George Eliphaz, senator, was born
in Jefferson county, N.Y., Nov. 1, 1836. He
was educated in Montreal college, Canada ; re
moved to Iowa where he was secretary of the
state senate in 1856, studied law and was admitted
to the bar in 1857. He served in the Federal army
as captain and assistant-adjutant-general, 1861-
63 ; recruited a regiment which was made the 1st
Alabama cavalry, U.S. volunteers, in 1863, of
which he was commissioned colonel ; commanded
a cavalry brigade, under Gen. Judson Kilpatrick,
Army of the Tennessee, on Sherman s grand
march ; was brevetted brigadier-genei al for " gal
lantry on the field," March 13, 1885 ; resigned
from the army, July 4, 1865. and settled in prac
tice in Decatur, Ala. He was U.S. register in
bankruptcy, fourth district of Alabama, in 1867 ;
was elected a Republican senator from Alabama
under the reconstruction act, taking his seat,
July 25, 1868, and was re-elected in 1873, his sec
ond term expiring March 3, 1879. He was chair
man of the committee on military affairs in the
45th congress ; was prominent in the exposure of
the star-route postal lines in 1881 and in the estab
lishment of two-cent letter postage in 1883. The
last years of his life he spent on a ranch in
Nevada, where he had large mining interests.
He was married in 1862 to Bella Zilfa, who was
born in London, Eng. , March 1, 1840, and came
to this country at an early age. She is the author
of: "Ura, The Lost Wife" (1864) ; "Tried and
True, a Story of the Rebellion (18G6), and " Sur
face and Depth " (1867). She died in Tuscaloosa,
Ala., Aug. 1, 18G7, and he was married secondly,
in 1877, to William Loring (q.v.), author. Gen.
Spencer died in Washington, B.C., Feb. 19, 1893.
SPENCER, Jesse Ames, educator, was born
in Hyde Park, N.Y., June 17, 1816. He was
graduated from Columbia, A.B., 1837, A.M., 1840,
and from the General Theological Seminary of
the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1840. He
was admitted to the diaconate, June 28, 1840, and

advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Benjamin
T. Onderdonk, July 28, 1841. He was rector of
St. James s church, Goshen, N.Y., 1840-42. He
spent the next winter abroad, because of ill-
health, and on his return devoted himself to liter
ary work, but went abroad again, 1848-49. He
was secretary and editor of the Protestant Epis
copal Sunday School Union and Church Book
society, 1851-57 ; rector of St. Paul s church at
Flatbush, N.Y., 1863-65; professor of Greek lan
guage and literature in the College of the City of
New York, 1809-79, and professor emeritus, 1879-
81. He was custodian of the Standard Bible of
the church. He received the degree of A.M.
from Trinity in 1854, that of D.D. from Columbia
in 1852 and from Trinity in 1872. He is the
author of : The Christian Instructed in Hie Ways
of the Gospel and the Church (1844); History of
the Reformation in England (1846); The East:
Sketches of Travel in Egypt and the Holy Land
(1850); History of the United States from the
Earliest Period to the Death of President Lincoln
(1856-69); Greek Plays ( 1870) ; The Young Ruler
who had Great Possessions, and other Discussions
(1871) ; Sketch of History of Hie Protestant
Episcopal Church in the United States (1878) ;
Five Last Things: Studies in Eschatology (1887).
He edited the New Testament in Greek, and other
books. He died in Passaic. N.J., Sept. 2, 1898.

SPENCER, John Canfield, cabinet officer, was
born in Hudson, N.Y., Jan. 8, 1788; son of
Ambrose Spencer (q.v.). He was graduated at
Union college in 1806, was admitted to the bar in
1809 and in 1811 was made master in chancery.
He was judge-advocate-general in 1813 and as
sistant attorney-general for western New York,
and also district attorney in 1815. He served as
a Democratic representative from New York in
the 15th congress, 1817-19, as a member of the
New York assembly in 1820-21, and as state
senator, 1824-28. He was a member of the board
that revised the state statutes in 1827, and until
1830 was attorney-general specially appointed to
prosecute the masons supposed to be connected
with the abduction of William Morgan. He was
again a member of the New York assembly in
1832 and was secretary of state, 1839-40. He was
secretary of war in President Tyler s cabinet,
1841-43, and secretary of the U.S. treasury,
1843-44, when he resigned because of his opposi
tion to the annexation of Texas. He was a re
gent of the University of the State of New York,
1840-95, and in 184!) received the degree of LL.D.
from Union college. He edited, with John Duer
and Benjamin F. Butler, a Revision of the Stat
utes of Neiv York (3 vols., 1846). L. B. Proctor
wrote a Review of John C. Spencers Legal and
Political Career (1886). Secretary Spencer died
in Albany, N.Y., May 11, 1895.




SPENCER, Platt Rogers, educator, was born
in East Fishkill, N.Y., Nov. 7, 1800; son of
Caleb (a Revolutionary soldier, who died in 1806)
and Jerusha (Covell) Spencer ; grandson of
Robert Spencer, and a descendant of John Spencer
of Rhode Island who sailed from England, March
26, 1633. He removed with his family to Jeffer
son, Ohio, in 1810 ; taught writing, and until 1832
was variously engaged as a student, teacher and
bookkeeper. He was an earnest advocate of
total abstinence, to which principle he had be
come convert in 1832 ; was county treasurer for
twelve years ; a zealous promoter of the anti-
slavery movement ; influential in organizing
several business colleges in the United States, and
was an instructor in business colleges throughout
the country. He was the originator of the Spen-
cerian system of penmanship, and in 1848 pub
lished Spencer and Rice s System of Business and
Ladies Penmanship, which appeared in a second
edition as Spencer ian or Semi-Angular Penman
ship. He was married, April, 1828, to Persis,
daughter of Duty Ebenezer and Sallie Warren
of Ashtabula, Ohio, and of his children. Ellen
(Spencer) Mussey (q.v.), became prominent in
Washington in the legal profession. He is the
author of several books on penmanship and the
Key to Spencerian Penmanship completed in 1864.
He died in Geneva, Ohio, May 16; 1864.

SPERRY, Nehemiah Day, representative, was
born in Woodbridge, Conn., July 10, 1827 ; son of
Enoch and Mary Atalanta (Sperry) Sperry ;
maternal grandson of Asa and Eunice (Johnson)
Sperry and paternal grandson of Simeon and
Rachel Sperry, and a descendant of Richard
Sperry, born in Wales, who arrived in New
Haven about 1643. He attended public and
private schools ; taught school, and worked on a
farm, in a mill and as a builder. He was select
man of the town of New Haven in 1853 ; common
councilman of the city, 1853; alderman in 1854;
secretary of state of Connecticut, 1855-57, and
postmaster of New Haven, 1861-85, 1889-93. He
was chairman of the Republican state committee,
1856-64, and was president of the state conven