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so near to each other as to preclude the possibility of any person's
climbing them. It bears a long pod, containing a sweet substance, not
unlike that of the honey of bees, and which is eaten by children, when
it becomes quite ripe. The spines are made use of by tobacconists for
the purpose of fastening together the different twists of their rolls.


ICTERUS SPURIUS, _Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the
United States, p. 51.

ORIOLUS SPURIUS, _Gmel._ Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 389.—_Lath._
Ind. Ornith. vol. i. p. 180.

BASTARD BALTIMORE, _Lath._ Synops. vol. ii. p. 433.

ORCHARD ORIOLE, ORIOLUS MUTATUS, _Wils._ Americ. Ornith. vol. i.
p. 64. Pl. iv. fig. 1, 2, 3, 4.


Male in complete plumage. Plate XLII. Fig. 1, 2.

Bill conical, slender, longish, compressed, a little curved, very acute,
with inflected acute margins; upper mandible obtuse above, lower broadly
obtuse beneath. Nostrils oval, covered by a membrane above, basal. Head
and neck of ordinary size. Body rather slender. Feet of ordinary length;
tarsus a little longer than the middle toe; inner toe little shorter
than the outer; claws arched, compressed, acute, that of the hind toe
twice the size of the others.

Plumage soft, blended, glossy. Wings of ordinary length, the second and
third primaries longest. Tail long, rounded, of twelve rounded feathers.

Bill black above with light blue margins, light blue beneath. Iris
reddish-brown. Feet light blue. Head, neck, and upper back black; the
rest of the body dusky orange-red, approaching to chestnut. Quills
and larger coverts black, margined with yellow, the latter tipped with
yellowish-white; tail black.

Length 6½ inches, extent of wings 9; bill along the ridge 7/12, along
the gap ¾; tarsus 1, middle toe ⅚.


Adult Female. Plate XLII. Fig. 5.

Bill, feet and iris, as in the male. Head and upper parts brownish-green.
Wings and tail greenish-brown; wing-coverts tipped with white; throat
white, sides of the neck and under parts generally greyish-yellow. The
young of both sexes resemble the female.


Male, first autumn and spring. Plate XLII. Fig. 3.

A patch of black on the throat, continued upwards over the lore and
forehead. Head and upper parts brownish-green; fore part of the back
orange; a yellow band over the eye. Under parts light yellow. Wings and
tail as in the female, but the coverts tipped with yellow.


Male in the second year. Plate XLII. Fig 4.

Irregularly spotted with black, yellow, and reddish orange, on the head,
neck, and back; the other parts nearly as in the adult male.


THE HONEY LOCUST.

GLEDITSCHIA TRICANTHOS, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. iv. p. 1097.
_Pursh_, Flor. Amer. vol. i. p. 221. _Mich._ Arbr. Forest.
vol. iii. p. 164. Pl. 10.—POLYGAMIA DIŒCIA, _Linn._ LEGUMINOSÆ,
_Juss._

This tree, when growing in situations most favourable to it, sometimes
attains a height of sixty or eighty feet, and a diameter of three or
four. The bark is detached in large plates, and the trunk is marked with
several broad furrows. The flowers, which are small and of a greenish
colour, are succeeded by long, flat, pendent, generally tortuous pods,
of a brown colour. The wood is very hard, but porous and brittle. This
species is distinguished by its numerous, generally tripartite spines,
its linear-oblong leaflets, and its many-seeded, compressed legumes.




THE CEDAR BIRD.

_BOMBYCILLA CAROLINENSIS_, BRISS.

PLATE XLIII. MALE AND FEMALE.


Louisiana affords abundance of food and pleasant weather to this species,
for nearly four months of the year, as the Cedar Birds reach that
State about the beginning of November, and retire towards the Middle
Districts in the beginning of March. The Holly, the Vines, the Persimon,
the Pride-of-China, and various other trees, supply them with plenty
of berries and fruits, on which they fatten, and become so tender and
juicy as to be sought by every epicure for the table. I have known an
instance of a basketful of these little birds having been forwarded to
New Orleans as a Christmas present. The donor, however, was disappointed
in his desire to please his friend in that city, for it was afterwards
discovered that the steward of the steamer, in which they were shipped,
made pies of them for the benefit of the passengers.

The appetite of the Cedar Bird is of so extraordinary a nature as to
prompt it to devour every fruit or berry that comes in its way. In this
manner they gorge themselves to such excess as sometimes to be unable
to fly, and suffer themselves to be taken by the hand. Indeed I have
seen some which, although wounded and confined in a cage, have eaten of
apples until suffocation deprived them of life in the course of a few
days. When opened afterwards, they were found to be gorged to the mouth.

It is a beautiful bird, but without any song, even during the breeding
season, having only a note which it uses for the purpose of calling or
rallying others of its species. This note is feeble, and as it were
lisping, yet perfectly effectual, for when uttered by one in a flock
within hearing of another party, the latter usually check their flight,
and alight pell-mell on the same tree.

Their flight is easy, continued, and often performed at a considerable
height. The birds move in close bodies, sometimes amounting to large
flocks, making various circumvolutions before they alight, and then
coming down in such numbers together as to seem to be touching each
other. At this particular moment, or while performing their evolutions,
some dozens may be killed at a single shot; but if this opportunity is
lost, the next moment after they alight, the whole group is in motion,
dispersing over every bough to pick the berries which attracted them from
the air. Their crest is now erected, their wings are seen constantly
moving, and so eagerly do they grasp at the berries that they suffer
many of them to fall. Every flock passing within hearing is invited
to join in the feast, and in a few hours the tree is entirely stripped
of its fruit. In this manner they search the whole of the forests, and
towards winter are even satisfied with the berries of the Dog-wood. As
the cherries and mulberries ripen in the Middle Districts, the Cedar
Bird pays them frequent visits, and when these are out of season, the
blackberries and huckleberries have their turn. After this, the Cedars
supply a new and favourite food. I think the name of _Fruit-devourers_
would be more applicable to these birds than that of _Chatterers_, which
they bear among naturalists.

They are excellent fly-catchers also, spending much of their time in
the pursuit of winged insects. This is by way of dessert, and is not
managed with the vivacity or suddenness of true Fly-catchers, but with
a kind of listlessness. They start from the branches, and give chase to
the insects, ascending after them for a few yards, or move horizontally
towards them, perhaps rather farther than when ascending, and as soon
as the prey is secured, return to the spot, where they continue watching
with slow motions of the head. Towards evening, this amusement is carried
on for half an hour, or an hour at a time, and is continued longer at
the approach of autumn, the berries then becoming scarcer.

These birds come from the north, but the furthest place from which they
have started I am unable to tell. They reach the Middle Districts about
the beginning of April, and begin to pair in the beginning of June,
when thousands of young birds of other species have already left the
nest. Their favourite place for their nest is generally the branch of an
Apple-tree in the Orchard, its horizontal direction being apparently best
adapted for their taste, although here they are frequently very insecure,
the nest being seldom higher than ten feet from the ground, and often
so low as to be seen into. It is composed of coarse grasses externally,
and is lined with a finer kind. The female usually lays four eggs, of
a purplish white, marked with black spots, which are larger towards the
great end. The young are at first fed on insects, but after a week the
parents procure different kinds of fruits for them. The Cedar Bird nestles
less frequently in the low lands than it does in the upper parts of
the country, preferring the immediate neighbourhood of mountains. These
birds are more careful of themselves during the intrusion of strangers
to their nest, than perhaps any other species, and sneak off, in a very
unparental manner, quite out of sight, without ever evincing the least
appearance of sorrow on the occasion. I have not been able to ascertain
whether they raise more than one brood in a season.

When wounded by a shot, they fall to the ground as if dead, and remain
there in a stiffened posture, as if absolutely stupid. When taken up
in the hand, they merely open their bill, without ever attempting to
bite, and will suffer a person to carry them in the open hand, without
endeavouring to make off. Their crest at such times is laid flat and
close to the head. It is lowered or raised at the will of the bird, but
more usually stands erect. Their plumage is silky. The females do not
exhibit the waxen appendages on the wings so soon as the males; but these
appendages form no criterion as to the sex. I have seen males and females
with them, both at the extremities of the scapulars and tail-feathers,
seldom more than two or three attached to the latter, whilst there were
five or six at the former. Very few of these birds remain the whole
winter in the Middle States.

Now, kind reader, can _you_ give a reason why these birds are so tardy
in laying their eggs and rearing their young? It cannot be through want
of fruit for the food of their progeny, as the young birds, being at
first fed on insects, might continue to be so, at a season when these
abound, and as the old birds themselves evince pleasure at seizing them
on the wing on all occasions.


BOMBYCILLA CAROLINENSIS, _Briss._ vol. ii. p. 337.—_Ch.
Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of the United States, p. 59.

AMPELIS GARRULUS, var. _Linn._ Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 297.
—_Lath._ Ind. Ornith. vol. i. p. 364.

CHATTERER OF CAROLINA, _Lath._ Synops. vol. iii. p. 93.

CEDAR BIRD, AMPELIS AMERICANA, _Wils._ Amer. Ornith. vol. i.
p. 107. Fig. 1.


Adult Male. Plate XLIII. Fig. 1.

Bill short, straightish, broader than deep at the base, compressed towards
the end; upper mandible convex in its dorsal outline, with the edges
sharp, overlapping, and marked with a notch close upon the declinate,
acute tip; lower mandible nearly straight, a little bulging toward the
end. Nostrils basal, oval, partially concealed by the recumbent feathers.
Head and neck of ordinary size. Body bulky. Legs rather short; tarsus
compressed, anteriorly scutellate; toes scutellate above, the outer toe
united at the base to the middle one, the inner shorter than the outer;
claws arched, compressed, acute.

Plumage blended, soft and silky; an erectile tuft on the head. Wings
rather long, the first quill longest. Tail slightly rounded, of twelve
straight, broad feathers.

Bill, eyes, and feet, brownish-black. A black band on the forehead,
passing backwards, tapering behind the eye, to the occiput, and
margined above and below by a narrow white band. Head, neck, and breast
yellowish-brown, or fawn colour, fading into yellow on the abdomen,
and yellowish-white under the tail. Chin black. Back and wing-coverts
greyish-brown, passing on the lower back into light bluish-grey, of
which colour are the tail-coverts. Quills brownish-black, some of the
secondaries tipped with a small flat, oblong appendage, of the colour
of red sealing-wax. Of these appendages there are also frequently some
on the tail, which is greyish at the base, passing into brownish-black,
and terminated by a band of pale yellow.

Length 6¾ inches, extent of wings 11; bill along the ridge 5/12, along
the gap ¾; tarsus ¾.


Adult Female. Plate XLIII. Fig. 2.

The female is slightly smaller, and in external appearance differs from
the male only in being a little lighter in the tints of the plumage,
and in having the crest shorter. The waxen appendages also occur in the
female.


THE RED CEDAR.

JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, _Willd._ Sp. Pl. vol. iv. p. 863. _Mich._
Arbr. Forest. de l'Amer. Septent. vol. iii. p. 42. Pl. 5.—DIŒCIA
MONADELPHIA, _Linn._ CONIFERÆ, _Juss._

This plant is very generally distributed in the United States, and
frequently attains a height of from forty to fifty feet, with a diameter
of a foot or fifteen inches at the base. It is distinguished by its
ternate leaves, which are adnate at the base, and imbricated. The berries
are oval, small, and of a bluish colour. The wood is red, close-grained,
very durable, and has a strong scent. Its growth is extremely slow, and
this circumstance, together with the great destruction of the tree for
various purposes, has rendered it difficult to procure cedar-wood of
tolerable size in the more accessible parts of the country.




THE SUMMER RED BIRD.

_TANAGRA ÆSTIVA_, GMEL.

PLATE XLIV. ADULT MALE, YOUNG MALE, AND FEMALE.


This beautiful species is destitute of song, and is of solitary habits,
preferring at all times the interior of the forests, but not the densest
parts of them. I have observed that woods interspersed with what are
called _scrubby_ hickories or stunted oaks, are favourite resorts of
the Summer Red Birds.

Their residence in the United States scarcely exceeds four months. None
remain in any of the more southern parts of our districts. Indeed, by
the middle of September, it would be difficult to see a single pair in
the forests of Louisiana. So very tender do they seem to be in regard
to cold, or even temperate weather, that they seldom go farther north
than Boston, or the shores of Lake Erie, but prefer the sandy woodlands
all along the eastern shores, as far as Massachusets.

Their flight is performed in a gliding manner when passing through the
woods, generally amidst the top branches of trees. Whilst migrating,
they rise high above the trees, and pursue their journeys only during
the day, diving towards dusk into the thickest parts of the foliage of
tall trees, from which their usual unmusical but well-known notes of
_chicky-chucky-chuck_ are heard, after the light of day has disappeared.
This species feeds principally on insects, and especially coleoptera,
some of which are often of larger size than a bird of the dimensions of
the Summer Red Bird might be supposed capable of swallowing. It seldom
alights on the ground, but prefers pursuing insects on the wing, which
it frequently does from the dried twigs at the extremity of the branches.

The construction of the nest of this richly clad species is nearly the
same in all parts of the Union in which it breeds. It is frequently
fixed on a branch crossing a road, or an opening of some description,
or, if in the woods, in some partially cleared space. It is usually
placed low on a horizontal branch. It is composed externally of dried
stalks of weeds, and is finished within with fine grass, arranged in
a slovenly manner. It is so insecurely fastened to the branch, that it
may be shaken off by striking the latter smartly. The female lays four
or five eggs of a light blue colour. The male and female sit upon them
alternately for twelve days, and are as anxious about their safety as
most species. The young are seen about the beginning of June, and follow
their parents until the time of the migration of the latter, which takes
place a fortnight earlier than that of the young birds. They raise only
one brood in a season.

The alterations of plumage which appear in the young birds between the
period at which they leave the nest, and the ensuing spring, are as great
as those of the Orchard Oriole. They are at first nearly of the colour of
the female. The males become a little mottled with dull reddish-orange,
towards the time of their departure for the south, the females only
deepening their tints. The following spring, the male appears either
spotted all over the body with bright red and yellowish-green, or only
partially so, having sometimes one wing of a greenish hue, whilst the
other is tinged all over with a dull vermilion tint. All these spots
and shades of colour gradually disappear, giving place to vermilion,
which, however, is yet dull; nor is it until the third spring that the
full brilliancy of the plumage is attained.

I have several times attempted to raise the young from the nest, but
in vain. Insects, fruits, and eggs, mixed with boiled meat of various
kinds, always failed, and the birds generally died in a very few days,
uttering a dull note, as if elicited by great suffering. The same note
is emitted by the young in their state of freedom, when, perched on a
branch, they await the appearance of their parents with their proper food.

I have represented an adult male, his mate, and a young bird in its
singularly patched state, to enable you to judge how different a family
of these birds must appear to the eye of a person unacquainted with the
peculiarity of these differences and changes of plumage.

The Vine on which you see them is usually called the _Muscadine_. It grows
everywhere in Louisiana, and the State of Mississippi, and that most
luxuriantly. In those States you may see vines of this species fifteen
inches in diameter near the roots, either entwined round the trunk of a
large tree, and by this means reaching the top branches and extending
over them and those of another tree, or, as if by magic, swinging in
the air, from roots attached at once to some of the uppermost branches.
In favourable seasons, they are laden with grapes, which hang in small
clusters from every branch, from which, when they are fully ripe, a good
shake will make them fall in astonishing quantity. The skin is thick
and very tough, the pulp glutinous, but so peculiarly flavoured as to
be very agreeable to the taste. These grapes are eaten by most people,
although an idea prevails, in Lower Louisiana particularly, that the
eating of them gives rise to bilious fevers. For my part, I can well
say, that the more I have eaten of them the better I have found myself;
and for this reason seldom lost an opportunity of refreshing my palate
with some of them in all my rambles. I am equally confident, that their
juice would make an excellent wine. Another absurd opinion prevails
in Louisiana, which is, that the Common Blackberries, however ripe and
pleasant, produce boils; although the country people make use of a strong
decoction of the root as a cure for dysentery.


TANAGRA ÆSTIVA, _Gmel._ Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 889.—_Lath._
Ind. Orn. vol i. p. 422.—_Ch. Bonaparte_, Synops. of Birds of
the United States, p. 105.

SUMMER TANAGER, _Lath._ Synops. vol. iii. p. 220.

SUMMER RED BIRD, TANAGRA ÆSTIVA, _Wils._ Amer. Ornith. vol i.
p. 95. Pl. vi. fig. 3. Male, fig. 4. Female.


Adult Male. Plate XLIV. Fig. 1.

Bill rather short, robust, tapering, compressed, acute; upper mandible
a little convex in its dorsal outline, convex on the sides, the acute
edge slightly notched near the tip, which is a little declinate; lower
mandible also a little convex in its dorsal outline, with the edges
inflected. Nostrils basal, lateral, round. Head large. Body rather long.
Feet shortish; tarsus compressed, anteriorly scutellate, about the length
of the middle toe; outer toe united at the base to the middle one; claws
arched, compressed, acute.

Plumage soft, blended, glossy. Wings of ordinary length, the second
quill longest. Tail slightly emarginate, of twelve acute feathers.

Bill yellowish-brown above, bluish below. Iris hazel. Feet and claws
light greyish-blue. The whole plumage is vermilion, brighter on the
lower parts, excepting the tips and inner webs of the quills, which are
tinged with brown.

Length 7¼ inches, extent of wings 11; bill along the ridge 7/12, along
the gap 1; tarsus ⅚.


Adult Female. Plate XLIV. Fig. 3.

The general colour above is light brownish-green, the sides of the
head and the under parts generally brownish-yellow; larger wing-coverts
dusky, edged with yellow; quills deep brown, externally margined with
yellowish-red; tail-feathers of the same colour. The bill, eyes and legs
are of the same tints as in the male.

Dimensions nearly the same.


Young Male. Plate XLIV. Fig. 2.

Dull vermilion, spotted with dull green.


THE WILD MUSCADINE.

VITIS ROTUNDIFOLIA, _Mich._ Flor. Amer. vol. ii. p. 231.
_Pursh_, Flor. Amer. vol. i. p. 169.—PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA,
_Linn._ VITES, _Juss._

Leaves between heart-shaped and kidney-shaped, nearly equally toothed,
shining on both sides.




TRAILL'S FLY-CATCHER.

_MUSCICAPA TRAILLII._

PLATE XLV. MALE.


This is a species which, in its external appearance, is so closely allied
to the _Wood Pewee_, and the small Green-crested Fly-catcher, that the
most careful inspection is necessary to establish the real differences
existing between these three species. Its notes, however, are perfectly
different, as are, in some measure, its habits, as well as the districts
in which it resides.

The notes of Traill's Fly-catcher consist of the sounds _wheet, wheet_,
which it articulates clearly while on wing. It resides in the skirts of
the woods along the prairie lands of the Arkansas river, where alone I
have been able to procure it. When leaving the top branches of a low tree,
this bird takes long flights, skimming in zigzag lines, passing close
over the tops of the tall grasses, snapping at and seizing different
species of winged insects, and returning to the same trees to alight.
Its notes, I observed, were uttered when on the point of leaving the
branch. The pair chased the insects as if acting in concert, and doubtless
had a nest in the immediate neighbourhood, although I was unable to
discover it. It being in the month of April, I suspected the female had
not begun to lay. Five of the eggs in the ovary were about the size of
green pease. I could not perceive any difference in the colouring of
the plumage between the sexes, and I have represented the male in that
inclined and rather crouching attitude which I observed the bird always
to assume when alighted.

I have named this species after my learned friend Dr THOMAS STEWART TRAILL
of Liverpool, in evidence of the gratitude which I cherish towards that
benevolent gentleman for all his kind attentions to me.

The Sweet Gum, on a branch of which I have placed Traill's Fly-catcher,
grows in almost every portion of the western and southern districts of the
United States. It sometimes attains a great size, but is more commonly
of moderate stature. Its wood is of little use. This tree is frequently
found with a cork-like bark protruding in shreds from its branches.


MUSCICAPA TRAILLII.


Plate XLV. Adult Male.

Bill of ordinary length, depressed, tapering to a point, the lateral
outlines a little convex, very broad at the base; the gap reaching to
nearly under the eye; upper mandible with the edges acute, slightly
notched close upon the tip, which is a little deflected and acute; lower
mandible straight, acute. Nostrils basal, lateral, elliptical. Head and
neck of moderate size. Body rather slender. Feet of moderate length,
slender; tarsus compressed, covered anteriorly with short scutella, and
longer than the middle toe; toes free, scutellate above; claws compressed,
arched, acute.

Plumage soft and tufty; feathers of the head narrow and erectile. Wings
of moderate length, third quill longest. Tail longish, slightly forked
when closed, of twelve rather narrow, obtuse feathers.

Bill dark brown above, yellow beneath. Iris hazel. Feet brownish-black.
The general colour of the plumage above is dull brownish-olive, the two
rows of larger wing-coverts tipped with dull white. Throat greyish-white,
as is a very narrow space around the eye; sides of the head and neck,
and fore part of the breast, coloured like the back, but lighter; the
rest of the under parts dull yellowish-white.

Length 5¾ inches, extent of wings 8½; bill along the ridge ½, along gap ¾;
tarsus 7/12.

As already mentioned, this species bears a very close resemblance to
_Muscicapa acadica_, and _M. virens_, more especially the former.

_Muscicapa virens_ has the tail deeply emarginate, whereas in the present
species that part is nearly even. The colouring is nearly the same in
both, but _M. virens_ is considerably larger.



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